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2.2 Example of causes of intellectual disability that occur during or immediately following birth and describe 2 main characteristics of the effects.
Example 1: Prematurity and low birth weight predict serious problems more often than any other conditions. Difficulties in the birth process such as temporary oxygen deprivation cause intellectual disability.
Source: The Arc for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities . (n.d.). Retrieved from www.thearc.org/page.aspx?pid=2453.
- The main characteristic of low birth baby is that they may have breathing problems. If the baby is born to soon there is a great chance that the baby’s lungs will be underdeveloped because of that they may have problems in receiving oxygen.
- The baby may also have trouble in maintaining a normal body temperature and they may become hypothermic( too cold)
Example 2: Trauma: It occurs because of serious injury. We can say a serious shock to the body due to violence or accident.
Source: AAIDD American Association on Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://aaidd.org/docs/default-source/events/harvey-trauma-8-15.pdf.
- They may have difficulties in concentration due to painful memories or thoughts.
- They may face difficulty in sleep. Because of that they feel tired.
2.3 Give two examples of causes of intellectual disability that occur during childhood years and describe the impact on the day to day support needs of the person.
Example 2: Meningitis: meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges, the covering of the brain and spinal cord. It is most of caused by infection but can also be produced by chemical irritation, subarachnoid, cancer and other conditions. Bacterial meningitis may result in brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, behaviour changes, high fever, sensitivity to light and confusion.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/meningitis/en/.
Task 3: Describe condition frequently associated with the intellectual disability.
Condition 1: Foetal Alcohol Syndrome
Cause: Foetal Alcohol Syndrome is growth, physical and mental problems. It mainly affects the baby when a mother consumes alcohol during her pregnancy.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Bulletin of the World Health Organization. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/89/6/11-020611/en/.
Physical support: provide them loving, nurturing and stable home life. However children with foetal alcohol syndrome have harmful relationship, therefore early diagnoses have more positive outcome.it also help the family members to understand the reaction and behaviour of the child. Assist them with daily living activities like showering, toileting, dressing and feeding. Provide them physiotherapy so they can make their muscle strong. Regular medical check-up is also helpful to maintain their health.
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Social support: As the children with foetal alcohol syndrome are very hyperactive. Behaviour management training is very useful for them. This will help them to learn about manners and how they can release their stress. they may have difficulty to interact with different people so provide them opportunities for friendship. Take them out and involve them into social activities.
Cognitive support: Provide them education about good behaviour. Provide them planned and reasonable methods to education.so that they can improve their ability to think more effectively. Provide them educational opportunity like they can join some educational programme where they can learn new skills.
Condition 2: Autism
Causes: no study has found the exact cause of autism but the researchers has pointed out few possible factors which includes genetic (heredity), metabolic or neurological factors, infections and problems during birth.
Source: World Health Organization. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/features/qa/85/en/.
Physical support: The person with autism may find difficulties in activities of daily living. They may find difficulties in showering, toileting, dressing, undressing and feeding. We can help them to do their personal care and in feeding. We can provide occupational therapy for them.it will help them to manage their stress and they can feel relax. We can also help them to set their routine.
Social support: they may have difficulty to interact with different people so provide them opportunities for friendship. Take them out and involve them in different activities like social club or offer specific advice about interaction. Help them to learn social rules using logic like how they have to talk and behave with others, manners and body language.
Cognitive support: we can provide them speech and language therapy it will help them to learn speech and language skills.so that they can speak clearly. Parent and family member can learn how to play and interact with their child in way that permote cognitive skill. We can provide them some mind games like bingo or quiz so that they can use their mind.it will help them to think logically.
Condition 3: Prader – Willi Syndrome
CAUSE: Prader – Willi Syndrome is caused by a gene missing on part of chromosome 15. Basically, parents release a copy of this chromosome. In most cases patients with prader – willi syndrome have missing the genetic material on part of the father chromosome. Other patients with this problem have two pairs of the mother’s chromosome 15.
- Children with Prader- willi syndrome may have poor muscle tone. They may feel floppy or rag dolls when they are held.Elbows and knees loosely extended due to poor muscles tone instead of stable.
- People with Prader willi syndrome may have different facial feature. They may have almond shaped eyes, a narrowing of the head at the temple and turned down mouth etc. Motor development often delays with this syndrome. They may have delay in sitting up and walking. they also have speech delay problem.
Physical support: Children with prader willi syndrome are at higher risk of developing fatness or size due to excessive eating. The proper weight management can be helpful for them to maintain their weight. If they want to eat more and more distract their mind by giving them other activities like music, games. Set an exercise plan so that they can become strong.
Social support: we can provide social support to the children/person with prader willi syndrome. We can take them out or take them in interesting places. Where they can engage with other people and can connect with them socially. We have to give them some activities that are not related to food so that they cannot concentrate only on food. Encourage them to join some support clubs. there are many clubs who support to the children with this syndrome. They help them to interact socially with people and help them to manage their diet.
Cognitive support: provide them education. They might have speech problem and learning problems. Provide them a speech therapist so that they can learn some speech skills. Educate them about managing their own diet and how they can make a routine about their regular diet.
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