Analysis of Tobacco Use and Smoking Threat Confronting America

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8th Feb 2020 Health Reference this

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Abstract

This summary provides a research of tobacco use and smoking being one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world and responsible for over 5 million deaths annually. Highlights and describes the tobacco use and smoking health risks. Discuss the implications of social attitudes concerning smoking in public places. Describe some of the steps taken within public health and other health care systems components to control tobacco use and smoking. And, outline the health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation.

Analysis of Tobacco Use and Smoking Threat Confronting America

Currently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that above 42.1 million people are regular smokers. Each day more than 3,200 young smokers light up for the first time. Luckily, developments in public alertness in the U.S. have led to an extensive prohibition on smoking in public areas, places, and a wealth of alternatives and support for smokers who want to quit (Public Health).

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If tobacco use and cigarette smoking remains at the present rate between youth in this country, about 5.6 million of today’s Americans younger than 18 will pass away early from a smoking-related diseases. That is around 1 of each 13 Americans aged 17 years or younger who are alive at present (Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)).

Tobacco Use and Smoking Health Risks

According to the United States Surgeon General, over ten times as several Americans have deceased prematurely from cigarette smoking than have deceased in all the wars fought in U.S. history. Smoking can damage each organ in the human body, and it can directly effect in death from strokes, heart disease, and cancers. Cancer is extreme and away the maximum common of these diagnoses; 90% of lung cancer deaths in the U.S. can be recognized to smoking Chronic disease in the form of obstructive cardiac disease, pulmonary disease, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders has also been finally tied to smoking. Females are at specific risk and may experience problems with conception or pregnancy (Public Health).

Cancer

Tobacco use can source cancer anywhere in the human body.  A high percentage of all cancer deaths in the U.S. are associated to smoking. However the habit is most regularly related with lung cancer. Indication recommends a causal link between breast and prostate cancers, but that has yet to be finally confirmed. Though, it is recognized that smokers stand an increased risk of dying from any source of cancer compared to non-smoking individuals. Quitting smoking instantly improves the survival probabilities of any cancer patient (Public Health).

Pulmonary Disease

Since cigarette smoke is breathe in directly into the lungs, tobacco has an instant negative consequence on the respiratory system. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which establishes in shortness of breath, limited airflow and sputum production, affects twenty percentages of all smokers and fifty percentages of lifelong smokers. Diagnosed individuals with COPD practically always are distressed with emphysema and bronchitis. Emphysema causes small air sacs tasked with oxygen exchange to decline. When these sacs drop their elasticity, the enlargement and reduction needed for best lung function is compromised. Chronic bronchitis happens once the narrow tubes in the lining of the lungs, called bronchia, swell from irritation and injury. Over time, breathing converts limited as the bronchia lose their capability to carriage oxygen (Public Health).

Reproductive Effects

Tobacco use has a particular danger for pregnant women and fetuses. The whole reproductive cycle, from conception over delivery, is at risk when a woman smokes. Cigarette smokers are recognized to have more difficulty conceiving a child, and are more expected to experience life-threatening ectopic pregnancy or uterine rupture. Pregnant women who smoke must likewise consider the effects on their babies, because any kind circulates in the bloodstream of a pregnant mother is also carried to a fetus, as well as nicotine. Fetuses exposed to the toxins in cigarettes suffer compromised oxygen supply and are at risk of difficulties as: birth defects, respiratory illness, prematurity, sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), etc. (Public Health).

Autoimmune Disorders and Other Chronic Illness

Further recently, smoking has been related to disorders of the autoimmune system. When this system failures, the body incorrectly attacks healthy tissue as if it were a foreign attacker. Severe and chronic illness can effect, for example Crohn’s disease, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Smoking raises the possibility of these diagnoses and also decreases treatment effectiveness. Numerous other severe health illnesses have been related to smoking, either as a contributing source or an issue that creates treatment more problematic. Further smoking related health issues consist of diabetes, cataracts and other vision problems, dental problems, and osteoporosis (Public Health).

Link among Smoking and Mental Health Conditions

Smoking is far more common among adults with mental health conditions, for instance depression and anxiety, than in the general population. Around 3 out of every 10 cigarettes smoked by adults in the United States are smoked by individuals with mental health disorders.The causes of smokers are more prospective than nonsmokers to experience depression, anxiety, and other mental health conditions are undefined. Additional research is required to conclude this. Whatever the cause‚ smoking is not a treatment for depression or anxiety. Receiving help for the depression and anxiety and quitting smoking is the greatest method to feel better (Centers for Disease Control and Precention (CDC)).

  Implications of societal attitudes concerning smoking in public places

Numerous societies have developed from a history of rewarding smokers with social regard to using public health policy to battle smoking through elevating social isolation, in that way rejecting the individual the development effects of relationships with others. This development has been determined by the formation of new science presenting harm, containing lung cancer in healthy exposed nonsmokers, and emphasizing the necessity for protection by public health policies. In some states, these results have been integrated into wider opinions that rights and justice side further with the nonsmokers who are harmed and incapable to protect themselves, than with the smokers or bar proprietors who consider that eliminating smoking of toxin-rich tobacco is a disrespect to people independence from obsessive health promoters (Connolly, 2012).

According to investigation in California and Massachusetts, the social management of smoking is far further current than customized patient involvements. Certainly, the highest effects can be attained when social and individual involvements are tightening together; while societies both change the social norms and deliver straight support to individuals looking for quitting smoking. However, devoid of the social interventions, not much can be anticipated from medications or individualized counseling when a non-compliant bar adopts decline. Use of medications or awareness to battle a greater group behavior cannot be effective in passing about significant changes (Connolly, 2012).

Steps taken within Public Health and other Health Care Systems Components to control Tobacco Use and Smoking

The first component focuses on reinforcement of existing tobacco control measures to preserve and improve some of the advantages already made in the United States, the committee’s recommendations include: (Medical Press, 2007)

  • Increasing the federal excise tax on cigarettes significantly, and increasing taxes in states with lower rates to achieve greater parity in prices nationwide.
  • Committing $15 to $20 per capita yearly of the incomes from higher taxes or other funds to supply tobacco control efforts in each state.
  • Imposing smoking sanctions in all nonresidential indoor settings countrywide, containing health care facilities, malls, restaurants, bars, and prisons.
  • Demanding all public and private health insurance plans to create coverage of smoking cessation packages a lifetime benefit.

The above measures emphasize on dropping demand for cigarettes, but do not address the addictive phases of tobacco or limit manufacturers’ incentives to draw more smokers. The committee stated distress that general smoking rates may not drop meaningfully below 15 percent and that youth smoking rates may not drop permanently under 20 percent except the basic legal outline of the tobacco market is changed. Hence, it planned a second set of further-reaching recommendations. Specially, the committee called for (Medical Press, 2007)

  • Altering federal law to give FDA power to control tobacco products, including controls to restrict how they can be advertised.
  • Eliminating federal limitations on state laws so that states are allowed to supplement federal guidelines with more severe measures to suppress smoking.
  • Controlling tobacco promotion and advertising displays to text-only, black-and-white formats.
  • Prohibiting tobacco companies from using confusing terms such as “mild” and “light.”
  • Demanding new, large pictorial warnings on the harmful effects of smoking.
  •  Demanding manufacturers to correct untrue or distorted information on products and at the point of sale.
  • Eliminating tobacco companies from directing youth for any purpose and advise them to redirect money they now spend on avoidance to independent public health organizations.
  • Developing a strategy for slowly decreasing the permissible nicotine content of cigarettes.

Health Promotion Methods for Smoking Prevention and Cessation

Many countries have been able to reduce the smoking and tobacco associated illness and mortality over the institution of health promotion creativities and effective policies in order to fight tobacco usage. Numerous health promotion methods are actually being used for smoking prevention and cessation. Evaluation of some of the health promotion intervention revisions has revealed an affirmative impact on the reduction in smoking prevalence. Some of these methods include: (Golechha, 2016).

Peer education

Peer education:  contains sharing of information in minor groups or one on one by a peer in line either demographically or over risky behavior to the goal population. The conjectural foundation of peer education method can mainly be resultant from behavioral theories involving to health, theory of involved education, material, inspiration, behavioral skills, and resources method, and progressive model. A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial program evaluated the success of a peer-led involvement that intended to prevent smoking agreement in secondary schools. The research has presented that the ASSIST teaching program was effective in the accomplishment of a continuous reduction in acceptance of regular smoking in adolescents for 2 years after its delivery. Additionally, it was well expected by both students and school staff (Golechha, 2016).

Theatres in health promotion

On behalf of health promotion, the theater is an actual stand to create alertness and distribute messages associated to good health. The theater delivers an interesting approach as the audience is entire heartedly engaged and boosting the actor. The actor, who is essential to the dramatic story, discovers the selected topic as a relationship among facts and fiction. The theater technique premised upon the drama concepts and social cognitive concept, which distinguishes the human behavior as collaboration among the individual characteristics, behavior, and the setting.  A study separated 24 primary schools into 3 groups, a theater in education interference group, a school smoking policy interference group and a control group. The outcomes indicated that there was a weak positive outcome on the boys but nothing of the girls in the interference group. The theater production 2 Smart 2 Smoke and associated actions revealed an important impact on psychosocial risk aspects for smoking between students in grades 1–3 and grades 4–6. The percentage of students who expressed that they would “never smoke a cigarette” increased by 10% following play interference. Effectiveness related to media encouragement was used in numerous health campaign interventions and it is mainly concerned with important environmental and policy change (Golechha, 2016).

Community mobilization

Community mobilization is intended at encouraging a change of regular social standards from the utility of numerous complicated interventions to help raise alertness of community participants. It is taken about by cooperation, educational entertaining and the contribution of other members, and groups and relations to assistance inspire revolutionize a change. Community mobilization is created on 3 key concepts: empowerment, social capital, and social change. Effectiveness of community involvements to reduce the occurrence of smoking shows the efficiency of community-based health promotion advantages. A positive outcome was recommended as a major change in smoking behavior, being either lower occurrence, reduced cigarette consumption per capita or intensification in smoking cessation amount.  (Golechha, 2016).

Social marketing

The social marketing is the regular application of values and techniques of marketing to create, converse, and transport value in order to encourage a goal audience to attain precise behavioral goals, for social good. It is best described as a behavioral method that aids to generate a long-term supportable impact upon the selections of people. Regardless of many challenges, the indication for the efficiency of social marketing interferences does happen and is growing. The plan 16 includes social marketing technique for reducing both illegal sales of tobacco and youth tobacco use presented a major result on lowering the smoking occurrence (Golechha, 2016).

Mass media campaigns

Mass media campaigns are generally used to represent to the population messages through television, radio, and newspapers. Such campaigns can create positive or negative modifications in health-related behavior in people and is a valuable method for raising an issue and promising debate. Effectiveness, it has been recommended that the mass media is mainly appropriate for delivering antismoking messages to young people because they are more exposed to the media (Golechha, 2016).

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It would be more effective to implement the interventions concentrating on social attitude and environmental changes before trying to focus on individual behavioral change, which is challenging to convey about. Foundation for numerous interventions can only be established with innovative methods to work with the people at different levels and can be more costly.  Engaging residents and several stakeholders for developing effective and supportable partnership for health promotion can be a great advantage. People capacity to cover change and willingness are an important factors influences effective health promotion efforts for smoking prevention and cessation (Golechha, 2016).

Conclusion

The tobacco use attributed to more than 5 million preventable deaths every year globally. Further, at the present rate, the number of such deaths is expected to double by 2020. The tobacco use not only damage personal health, but also is the consequences in severe societal costs, for example condensed productivity and health care liability, environmental damage, and poverty of the families. Tobacco use and cigarette smoking causes chronic diseases that seem at older ages, such as lung cancer, as well as adverse health effects that can developed in the short run.  However, they are vital public health indicators because they lead to minimal health status during the life course in smokers and because several of the short-term physiologic special effects automatically contribute to the etiology of smoking-caused diseases that typically do not develop clinically apparent until later adulthood stopping the tobacco industry from using bars as studios for tobacco habit in the young population and given that signals for relapse amongst quitters should be an important element of any nation’s tobacco control efforts (Public Health).

 

References

Abstract

This summary provides a research of tobacco use and smoking being one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world and responsible for over 5 million deaths annually. Highlights and describes the tobacco use and smoking health risks. Discuss the implications of social attitudes concerning smoking in public places. Describe some of the steps taken within public health and other health care systems components to control tobacco use and smoking. And, outline the health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation.

Analysis of Tobacco Use and Smoking Threat Confronting America

Currently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that above 42.1 million people are regular smokers. Each day more than 3,200 young smokers light up for the first time. Luckily, developments in public alertness in the U.S. have led to an extensive prohibition on smoking in public areas, places, and a wealth of alternatives and support for smokers who want to quit (Public Health).

If tobacco use and cigarette smoking remains at the present rate between youth in this country, about 5.6 million of today’s Americans younger than 18 will pass away early from a smoking-related diseases. That is around 1 of each 13 Americans aged 17 years or younger who are alive at present (Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)).

Tobacco Use and Smoking Health Risks

According to the United States Surgeon General, over ten times as several Americans have deceased prematurely from cigarette smoking than have deceased in all the wars fought in U.S. history. Smoking can damage each organ in the human body, and it can directly effect in death from strokes, heart disease, and cancers. Cancer is extreme and away the maximum common of these diagnoses; 90% of lung cancer deaths in the U.S. can be recognized to smoking Chronic disease in the form of obstructive cardiac disease, pulmonary disease, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders has also been finally tied to smoking. Females are at specific risk and may experience problems with conception or pregnancy (Public Health).

Cancer

Tobacco use can source cancer anywhere in the human body.  A high percentage of all cancer deaths in the U.S. are associated to smoking. However the habit is most regularly related with lung cancer. Indication recommends a causal link between breast and prostate cancers, but that has yet to be finally confirmed. Though, it is recognized that smokers stand an increased risk of dying from any source of cancer compared to non-smoking individuals. Quitting smoking instantly improves the survival probabilities of any cancer patient (Public Health).

Pulmonary Disease

Since cigarette smoke is breathe in directly into the lungs, tobacco has an instant negative consequence on the respiratory system. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which establishes in shortness of breath, limited airflow and sputum production, affects twenty percentages of all smokers and fifty percentages of lifelong smokers. Diagnosed individuals with COPD practically always are distressed with emphysema and bronchitis. Emphysema causes small air sacs tasked with oxygen exchange to decline. When these sacs drop their elasticity, the enlargement and reduction needed for best lung function is compromised. Chronic bronchitis happens once the narrow tubes in the lining of the lungs, called bronchia, swell from irritation and injury. Over time, breathing converts limited as the bronchia lose their capability to carriage oxygen (Public Health).

Reproductive Effects

Tobacco use has a particular danger for pregnant women and fetuses. The whole reproductive cycle, from conception over delivery, is at risk when a woman smokes. Cigarette smokers are recognized to have more difficulty conceiving a child, and are more expected to experience life-threatening ectopic pregnancy or uterine rupture. Pregnant women who smoke must likewise consider the effects on their babies, because any kind circulates in the bloodstream of a pregnant mother is also carried to a fetus, as well as nicotine. Fetuses exposed to the toxins in cigarettes suffer compromised oxygen supply and are at risk of difficulties as: birth defects, respiratory illness, prematurity, sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), etc. (Public Health).

Autoimmune Disorders and Other Chronic Illness

Further recently, smoking has been related to disorders of the autoimmune system. When this system failures, the body incorrectly attacks healthy tissue as if it were a foreign attacker. Severe and chronic illness can effect, for example Crohn’s disease, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Smoking raises the possibility of these diagnoses and also decreases treatment effectiveness. Numerous other severe health illnesses have been related to smoking, either as a contributing source or an issue that creates treatment more problematic. Further smoking related health issues consist of diabetes, cataracts and other vision problems, dental problems, and osteoporosis (Public Health).

Link among Smoking and Mental Health Conditions

Smoking is far more common among adults with mental health conditions, for instance depression and anxiety, than in the general population. Around 3 out of every 10 cigarettes smoked by adults in the United States are smoked by individuals with mental health disorders.The causes of smokers are more prospective than nonsmokers to experience depression, anxiety, and other mental health conditions are undefined. Additional research is required to conclude this. Whatever the cause‚ smoking is not a treatment for depression or anxiety. Receiving help for the depression and anxiety and quitting smoking is the greatest method to feel better (Centers for Disease Control and Precention (CDC)).

  Implications of societal attitudes concerning smoking in public places

Numerous societies have developed from a history of rewarding smokers with social regard to using public health policy to battle smoking through elevating social isolation, in that way rejecting the individual the development effects of relationships with others. This development has been determined by the formation of new science presenting harm, containing lung cancer in healthy exposed nonsmokers, and emphasizing the necessity for protection by public health policies. In some states, these results have been integrated into wider opinions that rights and justice side further with the nonsmokers who are harmed and incapable to protect themselves, than with the smokers or bar proprietors who consider that eliminating smoking of toxin-rich tobacco is a disrespect to people independence from obsessive health promoters (Connolly, 2012).

According to investigation in California and Massachusetts, the social management of smoking is far further current than customized patient involvements. Certainly, the highest effects can be attained when social and individual involvements are tightening together; while societies both change the social norms and deliver straight support to individuals looking for quitting smoking. However, devoid of the social interventions, not much can be anticipated from medications or individualized counseling when a non-compliant bar adopts decline. Use of medications or awareness to battle a greater group behavior cannot be effective in passing about significant changes (Connolly, 2012).

Steps taken within Public Health and other Health Care Systems Components to control Tobacco Use and Smoking

The first component focuses on reinforcement of existing tobacco control measures to preserve and improve some of the advantages already made in the United States, the committee’s recommendations include: (Medical Press, 2007)

  • Increasing the federal excise tax on cigarettes significantly, and increasing taxes in states with lower rates to achieve greater parity in prices nationwide.
  • Committing $15 to $20 per capita yearly of the incomes from higher taxes or other funds to supply tobacco control efforts in each state.
  • Imposing smoking sanctions in all nonresidential indoor settings countrywide, containing health care facilities, malls, restaurants, bars, and prisons.
  • Demanding all public and private health insurance plans to create coverage of smoking cessation packages a lifetime benefit.

The above measures emphasize on dropping demand for cigarettes, but do not address the addictive phases of tobacco or limit manufacturers’ incentives to draw more smokers. The committee stated distress that general smoking rates may not drop meaningfully below 15 percent and that youth smoking rates may not drop permanently under 20 percent except the basic legal outline of the tobacco market is changed. Hence, it planned a second set of further-reaching recommendations. Specially, the committee called for (Medical Press, 2007)

  • Altering federal law to give FDA power to control tobacco products, including controls to restrict how they can be advertised.
  • Eliminating federal limitations on state laws so that states are allowed to supplement federal guidelines with more severe measures to suppress smoking.
  • Controlling tobacco promotion and advertising displays to text-only, black-and-white formats.
  • Prohibiting tobacco companies from using confusing terms such as “mild” and “light.”
  • Demanding new, large pictorial warnings on the harmful effects of smoking.
  •  Demanding manufacturers to correct untrue or distorted information on products and at the point of sale.
  • Eliminating tobacco companies from directing youth for any purpose and advise them to redirect money they now spend on avoidance to independent public health organizations.
  • Developing a strategy for slowly decreasing the permissible nicotine content of cigarettes.

Health Promotion Methods for Smoking Prevention and Cessation

Many countries have been able to reduce the smoking and tobacco associated illness and mortality over the institution of health promotion creativities and effective policies in order to fight tobacco usage. Numerous health promotion methods are actually being used for smoking prevention and cessation. Evaluation of some of the health promotion intervention revisions has revealed an affirmative impact on the reduction in smoking prevalence. Some of these methods include: (Golechha, 2016).

Peer education

Peer education:  contains sharing of information in minor groups or one on one by a peer in line either demographically or over risky behavior to the goal population. The conjectural foundation of peer education method can mainly be resultant from behavioral theories involving to health, theory of involved education, material, inspiration, behavioral skills, and resources method, and progressive model. A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial program evaluated the success of a peer-led involvement that intended to prevent smoking agreement in secondary schools. The research has presented that the ASSIST teaching program was effective in the accomplishment of a continuous reduction in acceptance of regular smoking in adolescents for 2 years after its delivery. Additionally, it was well expected by both students and school staff (Golechha, 2016).

Theatres in health promotion

On behalf of health promotion, the theater is an actual stand to create alertness and distribute messages associated to good health. The theater delivers an interesting approach as the audience is entire heartedly engaged and boosting the actor. The actor, who is essential to the dramatic story, discovers the selected topic as a relationship among facts and fiction. The theater technique premised upon the drama concepts and social cognitive concept, which distinguishes the human behavior as collaboration among the individual characteristics, behavior, and the setting.  A study separated 24 primary schools into 3 groups, a theater in education interference group, a school smoking policy interference group and a control group. The outcomes indicated that there was a weak positive outcome on the boys but nothing of the girls in the interference group. The theater production 2 Smart 2 Smoke and associated actions revealed an important impact on psychosocial risk aspects for smoking between students in grades 1–3 and grades 4–6. The percentage of students who expressed that they would “never smoke a cigarette” increased by 10% following play interference. Effectiveness related to media encouragement was used in numerous health campaign interventions and it is mainly concerned with important environmental and policy change (Golechha, 2016).

Community mobilization

Community mobilization is intended at encouraging a change of regular social standards from the utility of numerous complicated interventions to help raise alertness of community participants. It is taken about by cooperation, educational entertaining and the contribution of other members, and groups and relations to assistance inspire revolutionize a change. Community mobilization is created on 3 key concepts: empowerment, social capital, and social change. Effectiveness of community involvements to reduce the occurrence of smoking shows the efficiency of community-based health promotion advantages. A positive outcome was recommended as a major change in smoking behavior, being either lower occurrence, reduced cigarette consumption per capita or intensification in smoking cessation amount.  (Golechha, 2016).

Social marketing

The social marketing is the regular application of values and techniques of marketing to create, converse, and transport value in order to encourage a goal audience to attain precise behavioral goals, for social good. It is best described as a behavioral method that aids to generate a long-term supportable impact upon the selections of people. Regardless of many challenges, the indication for the efficiency of social marketing interferences does happen and is growing. The plan 16 includes social marketing technique for reducing both illegal sales of tobacco and youth tobacco use presented a major result on lowering the smoking occurrence (Golechha, 2016).

Mass media campaigns

Mass media campaigns are generally used to represent to the population messages through television, radio, and newspapers. Such campaigns can create positive or negative modifications in health-related behavior in people and is a valuable method for raising an issue and promising debate. Effectiveness, it has been recommended that the mass media is mainly appropriate for delivering antismoking messages to young people because they are more exposed to the media (Golechha, 2016).

It would be more effective to implement the interventions concentrating on social attitude and environmental changes before trying to focus on individual behavioral change, which is challenging to convey about. Foundation for numerous interventions can only be established with innovative methods to work with the people at different levels and can be more costly.  Engaging residents and several stakeholders for developing effective and supportable partnership for health promotion can be a great advantage. People capacity to cover change and willingness are an important factors influences effective health promotion efforts for smoking prevention and cessation (Golechha, 2016).

Conclusion

The tobacco use attributed to more than 5 million preventable deaths every year globally. Further, at the present rate, the number of such deaths is expected to double by 2020. The tobacco use not only damage personal health, but also is the consequences in severe societal costs, for example condensed productivity and health care liability, environmental damage, and poverty of the families. Tobacco use and cigarette smoking causes chronic diseases that seem at older ages, such as lung cancer, as well as adverse health effects that can developed in the short run.  However, they are vital public health indicators because they lead to minimal health status during the life course in smokers and because several of the short-term physiologic special effects automatically contribute to the etiology of smoking-caused diseases that typically do not develop clinically apparent until later adulthood stopping the tobacco industry from using bars as studios for tobacco habit in the young population and given that signals for relapse amongst quitters should be an important element of any nation’s tobacco control efforts (Public Health).

 

References

  • Public Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from Smoking in America: https://www.publichealth.org/public-awareness/smoking-in-america/
  • Centers for Disease Control and Precention (CDC). (n.d.). Retrieved from Mental Health Conditions: Depression and Anxiety: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/diseases/depression-anxiety.html
  • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2011, May). Retrieved from Keeping America Healthy: https://www.medicaid.gov/medicaid/access-to-care/index.html
  • Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (n.d.). Retrieved from Smoking and Tobacco Use: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/youth_data/tobacco_use/index.htm
  • Connolly, G. N. (2012, July 24). Israel Journal of Health Policy Research. Retrieved from How society treats smoking: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3484076/
  • Golechha, M. (2016, January 11). International Journal of Preventive Medicine . Retrieved from Health Promotion Methods for Smoking Prevention and Cessation: A Comprehensive Review of Effectiveness and the Way Forward: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755211/
  • Medical Press. (2007, May 24). Retrieved from Steps needed to reduce smoking in the US: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755211/

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