An Overview of Health Promotion Programs
What are the most valuable preventative health services that most medical practices offer today. How do they differ from 10 years ago, 20 years ago and 30 years ago?
Before I begin discussing health services, I would like to describe what exactly health services entail. Preventive health services are generally administered in a healthcare facility such as a clinic, doctor’s office or even a hospital that will examine the health of the patient and check for any abnormalities. These services are usually completed on an annual bases when patients go in for check-ups and blood tests (Medline Plus, 2014).
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There are quite a few general adult, preventative health services that are generally administered at most medical practices. Preventive health services include – but not limited to alcohol misuse screening and counseling, aspirin use to prevent heart attacks, blood pressure screening, diabetes screening, diet counseling, immunization vaccines, sexually transmitted infection prevention counseling, and tobacco use screening (HealthCare.gov, 2014).
Alcohol misuse screenings and counseling is a preventive health service administered when a patient appears to drink in excess on a consistent basis. While it is acceptable to drink in moderation, not drinking at all lowers blood pressure, his or her risk of injury, chance of stroke, heart disease, and certain forms of cancer and liver ailments. Furthermore, moderate or non-drinking assists with healthy weight loss, saves money, and generates friendlier relations with family and friends. Patients who should not drink at all are women who are pregnant, trying to get pregnant, or are under 21. Furthermore, patients should postpone alcohol consumption if they are planning to drive, taking certain forms of prescription – as well as over the counter medication, or suffering from a medical condition that is worsened by alcohol (Health Finder.gov, 2014).
An aspirin regimen is quite effective in lowering the risk of a patient suffering a stroke, heart attack or even prevent the formation of blood clots. Blood clots can block the movement of blood to the heart and trigger a heart attack. Furthermore, blood clots can inhibit blood from reaching the brain and trigger a stroke. It’s very important that health care professionals talk to their patients about whether or not an aspirin regimen is the right method of preventive health care for them (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Blood pressure screenings should be checked at least every two years for patients 19 years and older. Patients that are 40 years old and over should have their blood pressure checked frequently. Many patients have high blood pressure – otherwise known as hypertension. Hypertension is known as the “silent killer” because there are no symptoms or warning signs. However, one out of three Americans have hypertension (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Diabetes screenings are used to discover if a patient is suffering from one of the United States’ leading causes of death. In addition to death, diabetes can result in nerve damage, blindness, kidney disease, and other various medical issues if diabetes is detected by not controlled (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Diet counseling involves learning about making meal choices to promote a healthy lifestyle. Making health food choices involves choosing foods that are high in fiber and protein such as fresh fruit and vegetables, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat dairy products, lean meat, seafood, and poultry, eggs, beans, seeds, and unsalted nuts (HealthCareFinder.gov, 2014).
Even though we’ve all graduated from high school, adults still require immunization vaccines. However, the vaccines needed differ from what children receive. Adult vaccines administered include a flu shot, shingle shot Tdap vaccine, Td booster, and a pneumonia shot that is administered to patients 65 and older (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Sexually transmitted disease prevention counseling is provided to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea. These diseases are passed on through sexual intercourse – either oral, vaginal or even anal intercourse (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Screening for tobacco use is used to determine whether or not the uses tobacco. These patients must realize that smoking is the greatest cause of death and disease in the United States that is preventable. The sooner the patient quits using tobacco, the sooner they will feel better and regain their energy (HealthFinder.gov, Quit Smoking, 2014).
The preventative health services for women include, but are not limited to the following events: anemia screening, breast cancer mammography screening, breastfeeding comprehensive support and counseling, contraception, domestic and interpersonal violence screening and counseling, gestational diabetes screening, hepatitis B screening, human papillomavirus DNA test, Rh incompatibility screening, syphilis screening, and interventions, urinary tract or other infection screening (HealthCare.gov, 2014).
Anemia screenings are administered to detect if a woman has too few red blood cells. This screening is usually performed when the female patient is pregnant (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Breast cancer mammography screenings are administered either annually or every two years for women who are 40 years old and older (HealthFInder.gov, 2014).
Comprehensive support, as well as for breastfeeding is given by trained providers. This training grants access to supplies needed for pregnant as well as nursing women (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Contraception are family planning methods approved by the FDA to prevent pregnancies. These methods include contraception methods, sterilization procedures, and patient education and counseling (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Screening for gestational diabetes is administered to women who are 24 to 48 weeks pregnant as well as those who are at a higher risk than average for developing gestational diabetes (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Screening for hepatitis B is administered to pregnant women at their first prenatal visit (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
The human papillomavirus DNA test is performed every three years for women who have a normal cytology result or who are 30 years old or older (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Screenings that detect Rh incompatibility are given to pregnant women and follow-up these screenings for women who are at a higher risk (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Syphilis screenings are for given to pregnant women as well as other women who are at increased risk (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Finally, though certainly not exhaustively, urinary tract, as well as other infection screenings are for pregnant women (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
The preventative health services for children include autism screening, blood pressure screening, depression screening; dyslipidemia screening; gonorrhea prevention medication; height, weight, and body mass index measurements; sickle cell screening hypothyroidism screening; iron supplements; and oral health risk assessment, (HealthCare.gov, 2014).
Autism screenings are administered to children as young as 18 to 24 months (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
I was surprised to learn that blood pressure screenings are administered to children. However, children receive blood pressure screenings at several different age groups. These include 0 to 11 months, 1 to 4 years, 5 to 10 years, 11 to 14 years, and 15 to 17 years. Cervical dysplasia screenings are given to adolescents who are sexually active (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Developmental screenings are for children under the age of 3. (HealthFinder.gov, 2014)
Fluoride chemo prevention supplements are given to children who do not have fluoride in their home water source (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Height, weight, and body mass index measurements are for children at the following ages: 0 to 11 months, 1 to 4 years, 5 to 10 years, 11 to 14 years, and 15 to 17 years.
Sickle cell screenings are for newborns. HIV screenings are for adolescents at higher risk (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Hypothyroidism screenings are for newborns (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Iron supplements are for children age 6 to 12 months at risk for anemia (HealthFinder.gov, 2014). Lead screenings are for children at risk of exposure. Medical history is for all children throughout their development.
Oral health risk assessment is for young children up to the age of 10 (HealthFinder.gov, 2014).
Based on all I’ve read, the aspects of the preventative health services that have changed in the past 10, 20, and even 30 years is a sober awareness of the dangers of using tobacco products and a drive to artificially prevent sexually transmitted diseases. I remember being four-years old and watching every relative over the age of 18 smoke a cigarette, a cigar, or even a pipe. In fact, my elementary school had us making ash trays as father’s day gifts. My mom was considered “odd” because she chose not to smoke or drink. Now, parents are almost considered approving child abuse if they smoke in the home. I don’t think elementary age children are still making ashtrays in class. Furthermore, ten – thirty years ago, ago with sexually transmitted diseases were few and far between because society embraced the belief to save sexual intercourse for marriage and women who were pregnant outside of marriage were shunned. . Now, we have a society that embraces sexual active lifestyles with – without the benefit of marriage and as a result, we now have to guard against diseases such as HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, and syphilis. These diseases are harming as well as taking the lives of a lot of people that simply weren’t an issue when my mom was a girl. I wish this wasn’t the case but this is the world we live in today.
Health Finder.gov. (2014). Drink Alcohol Only in Moderation. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Health Finder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/health-conditions-and-diseases/heart-health/drink-alcohol-only-in-moderation
HealthCare.gov. (2014). Preventive health services for adults. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthCare.gov: https://www.healthcare.gov/what-are-my-preventive-care-benefits/
HealthCare.gov. (2014). Preventive health services for children. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthCare.gov: https://www.healthcare.gov/what-are-my-preventive-care-benefits/#part=3
HealthCare.gov. (2014). Preventive health services for women. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthCare.gov: https://www.healthcare.gov/what-are-my-preventive-care-benefits/#part=2
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Breastfeed Your Baby. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/pregnancy/getting-ready-for-your-baby/breastfeed-your-baby
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Choose the Right Birth Control. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/health-conditions-and-diseases/hiv-and-other-stds/choose-the-right-birth-control
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Eat Healthy. Retrieved Marach 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/health-conditions-and-diseases/diabetes/eat-healthy
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Gestational Diabetes Screening: Questions for the doctor. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/doctor-visits/talking-with-the-doctor/gestational-diabetes-screening-questions-for-the-doctor
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Get Important Shots. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/doctor-visits/shotsvaccines/get-important-shots
HealthFInder.gov. (2014). Get Tested for Breast Cancer. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/doctor-visits/screening-tests/get-tested-for-breast-cancer
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Get Tested for Cervical Cancer. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/doctor-visits/screening-tests/get-tested-for-cervical-cancer
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Get Tested for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis. Retrieved Marach 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/health-conditions-and-diseases/hiv-and-other-stds/get-tested-for-chlamydia-gonorrhea-and-syphilis
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Get Your Blood Pressure Checked. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/doctor-visits/screening-tests/get-your-blood-pressure-checked
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Have a Healthy Pregnancy. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/pregnancy/doctor-and-midwife-visits/have-a-healthy-pregnancy
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Make the Most of Your Baby’s Visit to the Doctor (Ages 0 to 11 months). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/parenting/doctor-visits/make-the-most-of-your-babys-visit-to-the-doctor-ages-0-to-11-months
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Make the Most of Your Child’s Visit to the Doctor (Ages 1 to 4). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: Make the Most of Your Child’s Visit to the Doctor (Ages 1 to 4)
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Quit Smoking. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/health-conditions-and-diseases/diabetes/quit-smoking
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Take Care of Your Child’s Teeth. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFInder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/parenting/doctor-visits/take-care-of-your-childs-teeth
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/health-conditions-and-diseases/diabetes/take-steps-to-prevent-type-2-diabetes
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Talk with Your Doctor about Newborn Screening. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/pregnancy/doctor-and-midwife-visits/talk-with-your-doctor-about-newborn-screening
HealthFinder.gov. (2014). Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from HealthFinder.gov: http://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/health-conditions-and-diseases/heart-health/talk-with-your-doctor-about-taking-aspirin-every-day
Medline Plus. (2014). Preventive Health Care. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Medline Plus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001921.htm
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