The study of unemployment and health are inter related, if people are unemployed then it would have an adverse effect on their health and similarly if a person unhealthy then he might loose on the best opportunities of life because he would not be able to work because of the ill-health. Thus, unemployment and health have been correlated from past studies.
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There is a association between the unemployment level and level of increasing bad health among those people. The objective of this research paper is to explore any co-existence between unemployment and health in the country, to highlight those areas in Fife where problems lie and to add to the evidence and knowledge on this subject for those working within the unemployment and health sectors.
The following sections of the research paper uses information held within the Public Health Dataset to examine the relationship between unemployment and health by looking at those areas which have the highest levels of unemployment and the highest incidence of premature mortality. The dataset contains a large amount of data from administrative sources, as well as information taken from surveys.
I have been assigned as a public health official working in a local authority and I strongly feel that is a causal relationship between the level of unemployment and the level of ill health. I have started my research by finding out the national data wherein I have studied the relationship between the level of unemployment and ill-health of the people and then conducted the local survey to find out the trends of the correlation.
UNEMPLOYMENT AND HEALTH – A LITERATURE REVIEW
The presence of abundance literature in context of the relation between unemployment and ill health signifies the fact that unemployment and ill health co-exist. The impact of unemployment is larger in case of on the health of the people and there has been records in the past as well.
From the study the results were that there is a definite relation between mental health and unemployment, and this is what will be explained in the following literature review.
Similarly there is also an established link between unemployment and mortality, but this link is stronger when the research focuses on population based data, suggesting that the prevalence of unemployment can safely be used as an indicator for increased risk of mortality at a population level.
A literature search was undertaken on by our team members using the search terms:
The search terms were used both as keywords and subject headings as well and condensed as appropriate to ensure that the search was as sensitive as possible. The results were restricted to English language only and to reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
For the literature review only those articles were given preferences which present a significant correlation between the unemployment and bad health of person or an individual. These are incorporated as proof in articles which are included in this research paper, so they were not specifically included here. Also those articles that gave importance to population based studies and individual records were also incorporated.
Critical Appraisal/Quality of Evidence
The articles that were selected for the purpose of study were to review the summary of the topic, and these did not follow a systematic review structure. There was only a single study that took into account a large group of people, but this study was also nostalgic and it again became challenging for this section’s study. Only one breakdown was recovered from the search, and while this was a fine quality article, it recognizes the limitation of only being able to include articles which considered statistical information, which are not prevalent in the current literature, leading to a possible bias in the reported results.
The objective of the literature review was to study unemployment in terms of a varying age group that is 16 to 65 who were unwillingly out of work. The definition of unemployment varies from an individual to individual but usually the studies based on the survey data or retrospective record linkage studies define unemployment as a state wherein a person or an individual is willing to work but unreasonably is out of work because he is not getting a job and is not able get himself employed even though he possesses the required qualification for the job.
In this kind of situations we relate unemployment to the mental ill health of the people. As they possess the qualifications and still they are not able to be employed therefore, this would adversely affect the health of an individual. The following section explains that how a person suffers mental illness when he is unemployed:
Suicide and parasuicide
There is a clear relation between unemployment and suicides and this have been proven by several studies and the causal link is that when people are unemployed they cannot earn and they have no source of income, thus they do not have purchasing power even for the food and shelter. This frustration kills them and internally they keep becoming weak and thus the end results into death. According to a study approximately 50% of this increase in risk of suicide could be attributable to unemployment; however some other readings suggests that there are more evidences for psychiatric illness preceding unemployment.
The comparative risk of parasuicide that is an unsuccessful suicide attempts or deliberate self harm behaviour, are clearly linked to unemployment, relative risk of parasuicidal behaviour among those who had been unemployed for more than a year compared to employed persons. The same report also identified a vertical incline in virtual risk with duration of unemployment, although poor mental health in addition decreases the opportunity for re-employment, which might explain this trend.
The same relation between unemployment and suicide or parasuicide, can also be studied and proved the various levels of social support, geography, gender, age and type of employment and these seem to be confounders. Also the influence of unemployment on suicide and parasuicide is arbitrated by poverty and financial anxiety and that dishonour and social segregation also have a key role in the contribution to poor psychological health.
Other mental health conditions
While studying for the literature review we came across several evidences which shows a strong alliance between unemployment and increased psychological and psychiatric morbidity that is depressed because of unemployment.
If the people who are unemployed live in the area where the rate of unemployment is high or comparatively larger than other place, then the unemployed individuals find themselves in a state of emotional imbalance. This report also emphasizes on the levels of depression, anxiety and somatisation regressed with re-employment or formal retirement.
The unemployed people start disrupting their community and social relationships, because of their inferiority of not being employed thus there are greater risk behaviours, stress and bereavement reactions were mechanisms through which unemployment may exert a detrimental effect on health.
GENDER, AGE AND OTHER ISSUES
This section presents a deficiency of literature on black and minority ethnic groups and that gender is under-reported, there are several studies which emphasizes on male unemployment. While studying about the male unemployment we came across the impact of unemployed spouses, and wives were seen to feel the health effects of the unemployment of their partners through an increased risk of cancer, suicide and ischemic heart disease, suggesting that this link could be related socio-economic status rather than directly to unemployment. In case of the study done separately for the two genders the results stated that unemployment level affects more of the male section than the female gender.
Age issues are also considered one of the reasons for bad health specifically at the effect of unemployment in young people, where suicide (particularly amongst young men) is a crucial issue.
INFERENCE TO THE LITERATURE REVIEW:
There is an established relation between unemployment and ill health. The falling level of health in context of mental wellness, are significantly related to the unemployment.
Also as explained above there is a related link between unemployment and mortality rate, since the people are not mentally fit when they are unemployed, the frustration ultimately leads to death. Although the data and research proved that the affects of unemployment is higher on males and not females. Females only feel depressed when their spouse are not in a condition of facing the situation.
DATA FROM THE STUDY OF RELATION BETWEEN UNEMPLOYMENT AND ILL-HEALTH (NATIONAL LEVEL)
In June 2009, approximately 45 million (8.3%) people in the country were unemployed, and the figures were rapidly increasing due to the severe economic recession. In the underdeveloped countries, the rate of unemployment estimated to be very high as much as 80 to 90%.
Ill health is widespread amid the unemployed, and the underlying relationship may be bidirectional. Bad health may be a cause of unemployment and thus losing employment opportunities, while, vice versa, being unemployed may have an adverse effect on one’s health.
Several health problems such as
coronary heart disease
Are associated with unemployment. Many socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, edification, alcohol intake, stoutness, and other adverse life-styles modify the relationship between unemployment and health, and even unemployment and mortality.
As the studies suggest from the past years, continues stress of unemployment on an individual’s mind can persuade prominent changes in human invulnerable responses and that these changes are primarily arbitrated. Also, high levels of inflammation seem to socialize with several diseases, and depression. These relations suggest that high levels of inflammation might be a mediator between unemployment and ill health. On the other hand, we found only two previous studies suggesting that some aspects of immune function may be altered following the loss of work.
A report suggested that separate incidents of unemployment may have long-term implications for future CRP level in young males.
High levels of pro inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are indicators of inflammation. In the current study using a sample of the Finnish general population we applied this suggestion to test our hypothesis – formulated on the basis of current evidence.
STUDY OF RELATION BETWEEN UNEMPLOYMENT AND ILL-HEALTH (LOCAL LEVEL)
When we studied the pattern of relation between the unemployment level and health level, we came across that at local levels the things are similar. This means that people because of unemployed are under hypertension and depression. They could not face the situations in the increasing inflation in prices of even the local commodities. In 2009 due to the global recession in the world the countries were adversely
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We determined the inciting status in 225 individuals below the general retirement age of 65, when study was done on a sample of the Finnish general population as a part of an ongoing follow-up. In the sample there were 93 men and 132 women. The average age was 52.6 (SD 8.2, range: 32 – 64) years in men and 52.0 (SD 7.6, range 32-64) years in women and the study period starts from October 2004 up to April 2006. To conduct the study approval was obtained from the local Authority of the city so that there are no issues in context of the health survey. All the procedures of the study were carried out with the proper understanding of all the participants, who gave written informed permission before entering into the study.
The participants completed a standardized questionnaire that screened socio demographic variables like sex, age, marital status, length of education. In the study they were also asked how often they consumed alcohol over the past twelve months. Which was classified as less OR more than twice a week, whether they were current daily smokers or not? And whether if they had physical diseases, got diagnosed by a doctor. The participants were also asked whether if they had any economic hardship during the previous twelve months? “How is there current financial situation?” (Good, fairly good = good financial situation, fairly poor, poor = economic hardship). To indicate the level of depressive symptoms the questionnaire also included the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory.
In addition, the employment status was inquired by the participants and those who reported being unemployed (8.4% of the study sample) were compared with the others in final analyses. The frequency of unemployment was at the same level as the total unemployment rate in Finland in the sample during the study period of two years (7.7% in December 2004 and 7.6% in December 2005).
131 (63.6%) were at work, 14 (6.8%) on sick leave, 52 (25.2%) had retired, 3 (1.5%) were students and 6 (2.9%) were voluntarily not at work of the other studied participants. From all of studied participants, 25 (11.1%) had been unemployed in 1998, 31 (13.8%) in 1999 and 28 (12.4%) in 2001.
The height and the body weight were also measured in light clothing without shoes, and the body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) was estimated. The laboratory measurements were carried out in the medical laboratory of Kuopio University Hospital. After having been instructed to fast for the previous 12 hours, the participants came for venous blood sampling at 8 am.
The measurement of serum, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was carried out according to a routine practice using a Kinetic Immunoturbidmetric Method and analyzed using an IMMAGE Immunochemistry System.
The venous blood samples were stored at -80°C until run, for the cytokine analyses. With Bio-Plex Human Cytokine Panel 1, the levels of IL-6 (pg/mL) were analyzed by multiplexing utilizing a Bio-Plex instrument based on Luminex xMAP technology. The samples were centrifuged for 15 min at 3000 rpm, before analyses and diluted 1:2 in an appropriate sample matrix. The intricacy and inters variations for the IL-6 analysis were 3.7-17.2% and 4.6-13.8% respectively.
We used a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as indicators of low-grade inflammation as originally suggested by Yaffe et al. and later by Capuron et al. In this study, levels above the median for both IL-6 (â‰¥ 0.97 pg/mL) and hs-CRP (â‰¥ 1.49 mg/L) indicated an elevated inflammatory status (n = 72).
In univariate analyses we used the Ï‡2 test for categorical variables, Student’s t-test for normally distributed continuous variables and Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables with a skewed distribution. For IL-6 and hs-CRP linear regression models were tested separately. Inflammatory markers were also log-transformed for these analyses. Finally, several other forced multivariate logistic regression models were calculated just to test whether there were any independent associations between being and having been unemployed, and having a high inflammatory status. These models were socio demographically adjusted for sex, age, marital status, smoking, education, alcohol consumption, economic hardship, some common somatic diseases, the Beck Depression Inventory score, and the body mass index (BMI).
PILOT OF METHOD
The pilot of method means using various local methodologies to conduct the survey of the undergoing project. Using algorithm such as a greedy construction heuristic as a building block or application process, the pilot method is a meta-heuristic with the primary idea of performing repetition using the application process as a look ahead mechanism. It computes for every possible choice (or move) a so-called “pilot” solution, recording the best results in order to extend at the end of the iteration a so-called “master” solution with the corresponding move. One may apply this strategy by successively performing, e.g., a cheapest insertion heuristic for all possible local choices. The following is the questionnaire designed for the local people in order to make a survey to know what the condition is:
THE LOCAL HEALTH AUTHORITY: SURVEY FOR FINDING THE IMPACT OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON THE HEALTH OF PEOPLE
Are the facilities provided to unemployed people?
Can’t say anything
Are you aware of the fact that unemployment is correlated to ill health of people?
Do you read news regarding the suicides of people who are not employed?
Very much aware
Updated with the current knowledge
No idea about the issue
Have government took any steps regarding the matter?
Can’t say anything
Are the unemployed covered under any act for providing them living?
Yes there are acts
Can’t say anything in this matter
Suicide cases and ill health is more in which age group?
All of the above
Mental and ill health are more common in which gender?
Both of the above
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