The Attitudes Of Diabetes Patients Health And Social Care Essay

1952 words (8 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Health And Social Care Reference this

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

The latest estimate from the International Diabetes Federation showed that by 2025, 380 million will be affected with one person dying every 10 seconds. In Africa, diabetes mellitus was rare at the start of the 20th century but as rapid industrialisation brought about lifestyle changes, the condition and its complications became ubiquitous. In Nigeria, diabetes prevalence is 2.2% which means that roughly 2.6 million Nigerians are diabetic (Oyegbade et al. 2007).

Get Help With Your Essay

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Find out more

Diabetes, though not a communicable disease, could pose potential health risks for heart diseases, blindness, nerve disorders, kidney diseases, gangrene etc (Adetuyibi 1976; Alberti et al 1975; Hamstem & Steiner 1994; Amos et al 1997; Edward & Raffaele 1996 as cited in Nwafor and Owhoji 2001). Diabetes mellitus has two clinical forms- Type 1 or Insulin-dependent and Type 2 or Insulin-independent. The former is caused by autoimmune damage of the pancreatic beta cells resulting in absence of insulin production and secretion leading to absolute insulin deficiency in contrast to the latter which is the result of insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency. In both classes, hyperglycaemia is the hallmark clinical manifestation and involves a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioural enablers (LaMonte, Blair, & Church 1999).

Because of the poor health among Nigerians in recent years, the Federal Ministry of Health recommended the improvement of consumer’s awareness and community participation through designing communication programmes and capacity building, development of strategies to increase consumer’s knowledge and awareness of personal obligation to better health, their rights to quality care and information on health. However, before any awareness creation takes place in a given locality, it is important to conduct a preliminary assessment and this study will serve as baseline information for this purpose. Public education and awareness diabetes mellitus is essential especially among diabetic patients. Spirito et al (1993) found that knowledge among patients improved dietary compliance, insulin administration, and fasting blood glucose levels. Therefore, awareness leads to positive attitude and behavior which play a significant role in disease occurrence and control.

The proposed study will tackle knowledge, attitudes, and practices on diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It is important to provide the operational definitions of these variables. In the context of this study, knowledge will be defined as the level of awareness and understanding on diabetes mellitus in terms of causes and attitudes, the residents’ feelings towards diabetes, as well as preconceived ideas or notions about diabetes mellitus. In the context of diabetes prevention, patients should be adequate knowledge and positive attitudes towards the condition.

The research will be conducted in Port Harcourt, Nigeria because of its comparability with Western countries because of urbanisation, industrialisation, and “Westernisation” of lifestyle in the populace.

Aims

Primarily the aim of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes of diabetes patients in Port Hancourt, Nigeria.

Objectives

Specifically the study will address the following:

1. Describe respondents’ profile in terms of:

1.1. age

1.2. employment status

1.3. educational attainment

1.4 marital status

2. Determine the knowledge on diabetes mellitus in terms of causes

3. Establish the attitudes of the patients toward diabetes

4. Determine if there is a significant difference in the knowledge and attitudes when grouped according to:

4.1. age

4.2. employment status

4.3. educational attainment

4.4. marital status

Literature Review

From country to country, diabetes knowledge was below optimal. In Pakistan, Shah, Kandar, and Shah (2009) found less than half of diabetic patients knew about the condition’s pathophysiology and believed diabetes is curable. Among the complications, renal complication was noted to be least known among the patients. There was also preference of dietary modifications over exercises among the evaluated group. Mumtaz et al. (2009) showed little awareness of diabetes mellitus and its complications since only 13%, 21.7%, and 13.7%, 51.4% were aware that diabetes leads to cardiac, ophthalmological, and neurological complications, respectively. Nigerian studies by Okolie et al. (2009) showed that majority of diabetic patients have knowledge of signs, symptoms, and complications at 80.2%. Ironically, more than 75% had no knowledge of its causes while 88.5% and 74.5% reported no knowledge on how to avoid complications and prevent/control diabetes respectively. Furthermore, most of the respondents did not know about self-care practices in terms of testing urine and types of food to eat. They also stated to have not received any diabetes-related education/counseling. Among Thai respondents, diabetes is poorly understood because of erroneous background knowledge, expectations and misconceptions (Pongmesa, Li, & Wee 2009). A Nepalese study by Shreshtra and Nagra (2005) to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding diabetes mellitus among the diabetic patients attending a diabetic education programme. The programme proved to be successful because majority had correct knowledge regarding diabetic diet, check their blood sugar regularly, and consult physicians frequently. Later, Upadhyay et al. (2008) noted low knowledge scores, poor attitudes and practices among diabetes patients in western Nepal which led the investigators to recommend educational interventions.

Find out how UKEssays.com can help you!

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

View our services

Results in terms of attitudes varied from author to author. Diabetic patients felt there is a need to train health professionals (Anderson et al.1993). Cord and Brandenburg (1995) showed that most patients regarded diabetes as a serious disease and expressed anger and frustration. Despite these strong emotions, they believed diabetes made them healthier and happier. Gagliardino, Gonzales, and Caporale (2007) proved that patients value strict glycaemic control and the disease’s psychosocial impact. Johnson and Whetstone (2005) revealed that patients were influenced by need for special training and autonomy suggesting that educational and supportive interventions should promote patient autonomy. In Etsuko et al (2001) patients were concerned about diabetes complications and hoped to change their lifestyles to prevent complications. In the multivariate analysis of Khattaba et al. (2010), the patients had negative attitudes toward diabetes. On the average, Olgun (2006) noted a negative attitude towards diabetes among all patients in Turkey. Similarly, Wongwiwatthananukit and Lohavisavapanich (2003) indicated that majority of patients had negative attitudes towards diabetes.

Literature did not seem to agree on the results on the factors affecting diabetes knowledge. Aljoudi and Taha (2009) revealed that age is important predictors of knowledge. In the multiple linear regression analysis by Pongmesa, Li, and Wee (2009) on demographic profiles, older age was significantly associated with knowledge of diabetes. However, in Yung et al. (1998), diabetes mellitus knowledge declined with old age. Among the Costa Rican patients, Firestone et al. (2004) found younger patients were more knowledgeable about their condition. In Hassan, Zia, and Maracy (2004), males showed better understanding of diabetes compared to their female counterpart. On the other hand, Ford et al. (2000) gender did not influence knowledge of patients about diabetes. Alnaif and Alghanim (2009) showed no significant difference in the amount of knowledge possessed about diabetes mellitus by employment status. This is due to the same frequency of obtaining knowledge from public health centers. Educational status was found to be positively associated with knowledge of diabetes in a study conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi (Jabar et al. 2001). Nisar et al. (2008) reported that educated people were more aware about the disease but as regards risk assessment scale, being male, living in urban communities and even educated were prone towards diabetes, possibly due to dietary habits and life style. Education is particularly a challenge for health professionals especially those with low education. Health authorities should therefore develop an easy diabetes mellitus education campaign, suitable for elementary level. Understanding insulin most especially does not only help understand disease pathogenesis, but also help deliver the treatment (Ratanasuwan et al. 2005). Marital status was found to be inversely associated with knowledge since married persons are the ones who consult specialists and visit the community health centers than the unmarried (Tegegn, Yazachew, and Gelaw, 2008). He and Wharrad (2007) found that housewives got the lowest scores in knowledge.

According to Fitzgerald, Anderson, and Davis (1995), attitudes towards diabetes differed between male and female patients. Wongwiwatthananukit et al. (2004) observed that the attitudes of diabetes patients were influenced by higher educational attainment, gender and marital status.

Methodology

This section will present the research design, inclusion/exclusion criteria, ethical considerations, and expected outcomes of the study.

Research Design

The study will follow a non-experimental and correlational approach using structured questionnaires measuring knowledge and attitudes of diabetes. All diabetic patients will be initially identified from hospitals in Port Harcourt both in the in-patient and out-patient departments. In both departments, the researcher will identify potential respondents with the assistance of the ward nurses. Before data collection will commence, permission will be sought from the university and hospital administrators through correspondence. Once permission to conduct the study is granted, the researcher will closely coordinate with both wards in the hospitals considered. Questions will be entertained should the respondent have difficulty understanding the items in the questionnaire.

Inclusion/exclusion criteria

In choosing the prospective respondents who are patients with Type II diabetes, they must satisfy the following criteria: 1. at least 18 years old; 2. non-pregnant; 3. diagnosed with Type II diabetes for at least year; and 4. speaks and understands either English or Pidgin. Patients who could not answer the questionnaire independently, have poor vision, diagnosed with mental illness, and pregnant will not be considered in the proposed study.

Ethical Consideration

So that respondents better understand the study rationale, both information sheet and consent form will either be in English or Pidgrin. Respondents will be asked to sign the written consent forms which included information that their responses will be treated with utmost confidentiality. The investigator will be the only person to examine the subjects’ medical records from either the in-patient or outpatient clinics.

Expected Outcomes

It is hoped that by identifying the factors affecting knowledge and attitudes on diabetes among patients, existing health education programmes would be further enhanced taking into consideration the demographic factors that would be proven to significantly correlate with knowledge and attitudes.

The latest estimate from the International Diabetes Federation showed that by 2025, 380 million will be affected with one person dying every 10 seconds. In Africa, diabetes mellitus was rare at the start of the 20th century but as rapid industrialisation brought about lifestyle changes, the condition and its complications became ubiquitous. In Nigeria, diabetes prevalence is 2.2% which means that roughly 2.6 million Nigerians are diabetic (Oyegbade et al. 2007).

Diabetes, though not a communicable disease, could pose potential health risks for heart diseases, blindness, nerve disorders, kidney diseases, gangrene etc (Adetuyibi 1976; Alberti et al 1975; Hamstem & Steiner 1994; Amos et al 1997; Edward & Raffaele 1996 as cited in Nwafor and Owhoji 2001). Diabetes mellitus has two clinical forms- Type 1 or Insulin-dependent and Type 2 or Insulin-independent. The former is caused by autoimmune damage of the pancreatic beta cells resulting in absence of insulin production and secretion leading to absolute insulin deficiency in contrast to the latter which is the result of insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency. In both classes, hyperglycaemia is the hallmark clinical manifestation and involves a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioural enablers (LaMonte, Blair, & Church 1999).

Because of the poor health among Nigerians in recent years, the Federal Ministry of Health recommended the improvement of consumer’s awareness and community participation through designing communication programmes and capacity building, development of strategies to increase consumer’s knowledge and awareness of personal obligation to better health, their rights to quality care and information on health. However, before any awareness creation takes place in a given locality, it is important to conduct a preliminary assessment and this study will serve as baseline information for this purpose. Public education and awareness diabetes mellitus is essential especially among diabetic patients. Spirito et al (1993) found that knowledge among patients improved dietary compliance, insulin administration, and fasting blood glucose levels. Therefore, awareness leads to positive attitude and behavior which play a significant role in disease occurrence and control.

The proposed study will tackle knowledge, attitudes, and practices on diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It is important to provide the operational definitions of these variables. In the context of this study, knowledge will be defined as the level of awareness and understanding on diabetes mellitus in terms of causes and attitudes, the residents’ feelings towards diabetes, as well as preconceived ideas or notions about diabetes mellitus. In the context of diabetes prevention, patients should be adequate knowledge and positive attitudes towards the condition.

The research will be conducted in Port Harcourt, Nigeria because of its comparability with Western countries because of urbanisation, industrialisation, and “Westernisation” of lifestyle in the populace.

Aims

Primarily the aim of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes of diabetes patients in Port Hancourt, Nigeria.

Objectives

Specifically the study will address the following:

1. Describe respondents’ profile in terms of:

1.1. age

1.2. employment status

1.3. educational attainment

1.4 marital status

2. Determine the knowledge on diabetes mellitus in terms of causes

3. Establish the attitudes of the patients toward diabetes

4. Determine if there is a significant difference in the knowledge and attitudes when grouped according to:

4.1. age

4.2. employment status

4.3. educational attainment

4.4. marital status

Literature Review

From country to country, diabetes knowledge was below optimal. In Pakistan, Shah, Kandar, and Shah (2009) found less than half of diabetic patients knew about the condition’s pathophysiology and believed diabetes is curable. Among the complications, renal complication was noted to be least known among the patients. There was also preference of dietary modifications over exercises among the evaluated group. Mumtaz et al. (2009) showed little awareness of diabetes mellitus and its complications since only 13%, 21.7%, and 13.7%, 51.4% were aware that diabetes leads to cardiac, ophthalmological, and neurological complications, respectively. Nigerian studies by Okolie et al. (2009) showed that majority of diabetic patients have knowledge of signs, symptoms, and complications at 80.2%. Ironically, more than 75% had no knowledge of its causes while 88.5% and 74.5% reported no knowledge on how to avoid complications and prevent/control diabetes respectively. Furthermore, most of the respondents did not know about self-care practices in terms of testing urine and types of food to eat. They also stated to have not received any diabetes-related education/counseling. Among Thai respondents, diabetes is poorly understood because of erroneous background knowledge, expectations and misconceptions (Pongmesa, Li, & Wee 2009). A Nepalese study by Shreshtra and Nagra (2005) to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding diabetes mellitus among the diabetic patients attending a diabetic education programme. The programme proved to be successful because majority had correct knowledge regarding diabetic diet, check their blood sugar regularly, and consult physicians frequently. Later, Upadhyay et al. (2008) noted low knowledge scores, poor attitudes and practices among diabetes patients in western Nepal which led the investigators to recommend educational interventions.

Results in terms of attitudes varied from author to author. Diabetic patients felt there is a need to train health professionals (Anderson et al.1993). Cord and Brandenburg (1995) showed that most patients regarded diabetes as a serious disease and expressed anger and frustration. Despite these strong emotions, they believed diabetes made them healthier and happier. Gagliardino, Gonzales, and Caporale (2007) proved that patients value strict glycaemic control and the disease’s psychosocial impact. Johnson and Whetstone (2005) revealed that patients were influenced by need for special training and autonomy suggesting that educational and supportive interventions should promote patient autonomy. In Etsuko et al (2001) patients were concerned about diabetes complications and hoped to change their lifestyles to prevent complications. In the multivariate analysis of Khattaba et al. (2010), the patients had negative attitudes toward diabetes. On the average, Olgun (2006) noted a negative attitude towards diabetes among all patients in Turkey. Similarly, Wongwiwatthananukit and Lohavisavapanich (2003) indicated that majority of patients had negative attitudes towards diabetes.

Literature did not seem to agree on the results on the factors affecting diabetes knowledge. Aljoudi and Taha (2009) revealed that age is important predictors of knowledge. In the multiple linear regression analysis by Pongmesa, Li, and Wee (2009) on demographic profiles, older age was significantly associated with knowledge of diabetes. However, in Yung et al. (1998), diabetes mellitus knowledge declined with old age. Among the Costa Rican patients, Firestone et al. (2004) found younger patients were more knowledgeable about their condition. In Hassan, Zia, and Maracy (2004), males showed better understanding of diabetes compared to their female counterpart. On the other hand, Ford et al. (2000) gender did not influence knowledge of patients about diabetes. Alnaif and Alghanim (2009) showed no significant difference in the amount of knowledge possessed about diabetes mellitus by employment status. This is due to the same frequency of obtaining knowledge from public health centers. Educational status was found to be positively associated with knowledge of diabetes in a study conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi (Jabar et al. 2001). Nisar et al. (2008) reported that educated people were more aware about the disease but as regards risk assessment scale, being male, living in urban communities and even educated were prone towards diabetes, possibly due to dietary habits and life style. Education is particularly a challenge for health professionals especially those with low education. Health authorities should therefore develop an easy diabetes mellitus education campaign, suitable for elementary level. Understanding insulin most especially does not only help understand disease pathogenesis, but also help deliver the treatment (Ratanasuwan et al. 2005). Marital status was found to be inversely associated with knowledge since married persons are the ones who consult specialists and visit the community health centers than the unmarried (Tegegn, Yazachew, and Gelaw, 2008). He and Wharrad (2007) found that housewives got the lowest scores in knowledge.

According to Fitzgerald, Anderson, and Davis (1995), attitudes towards diabetes differed between male and female patients. Wongwiwatthananukit et al. (2004) observed that the attitudes of diabetes patients were influenced by higher educational attainment, gender and marital status.

Methodology

This section will present the research design, inclusion/exclusion criteria, ethical considerations, and expected outcomes of the study.

Research Design

The study will follow a non-experimental and correlational approach using structured questionnaires measuring knowledge and attitudes of diabetes. All diabetic patients will be initially identified from hospitals in Port Harcourt both in the in-patient and out-patient departments. In both departments, the researcher will identify potential respondents with the assistance of the ward nurses. Before data collection will commence, permission will be sought from the university and hospital administrators through correspondence. Once permission to conduct the study is granted, the researcher will closely coordinate with both wards in the hospitals considered. Questions will be entertained should the respondent have difficulty understanding the items in the questionnaire.

Inclusion/exclusion criteria

In choosing the prospective respondents who are patients with Type II diabetes, they must satisfy the following criteria: 1. at least 18 years old; 2. non-pregnant; 3. diagnosed with Type II diabetes for at least year; and 4. speaks and understands either English or Pidgin. Patients who could not answer the questionnaire independently, have poor vision, diagnosed with mental illness, and pregnant will not be considered in the proposed study.

Ethical Consideration

So that respondents better understand the study rationale, both information sheet and consent form will either be in English or Pidgrin. Respondents will be asked to sign the written consent forms which included information that their responses will be treated with utmost confidentiality. The investigator will be the only person to examine the subjects’ medical records from either the in-patient or outpatient clinics.

Expected Outcomes

It is hoped that by identifying the factors affecting knowledge and attitudes on diabetes among patients, existing health education programmes would be further enhanced taking into consideration the demographic factors that would be proven to significantly correlate with knowledge and attitudes.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: