Hygiene is an old concept related to medicine as well as to personal and professional care practices related to most aspects of living, although it is most often wrongly associated with cleanliness. In medicine, hygiene practices are employed as preventive measures to reduce the incidence and spreading of disease. Other uses of the term appear in phrases including body hygiene, dental hygiene, mental hygiene used in connection with public health.
The term hygiene is derived from hygienic, the Greek goddess of health, cleanliness and sanitation. Hygiene is also the name of the branch of science that deals with the promotion and prevention of health, also called hygienic.
Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to practice dental problems and bad breath. Teeth's cleaning is the removal of dental plaque and tartar from teeth to prevent cavities, gingivitis and gum disease causes at least one-third of adult tooth loss. Good oral hygiene essential for preventing tartar build up which causes the problems mentioned above. This was done by carefully and frequently brush and the use of dental floss to prevent accumulation of plaque on the teeth.
Hand washing for hand hygiene is the act o cleaning the hands with or without the use of water or another liquid or soap, for the purpose of removing soil, dirt and micro-organisms. The hygiene behavior has been shown to cut the number of child deaths from diarrhea and from pneumonia.
Kinder garden which is otherwise called as the term "children's garden" is a type of education which is given for small children. Through this method children attained some basic skills. The children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are usually attending the kinder garden.
Good personal hygiene is essential in reducing the risk of infection from pathogenic microorganisms mainly by limiting person-to-person contamination.
NEED FOR THE STUDY
Personal hygiene is very important because no one likes to a person who stinks and is dirty. So, whoever you are and whatever you go to remember, wash your hands before you eat and your feet before you sleep.
Threadworms are a fairly common occurrence especially in children and can cause more distress for the parent of the child than the actual person whom has the complaints. It can be prevented by making sure that everyone in the household abilities by some basic hygienic rules like wash the hands after using the toilet every time, wash hands before eating, educate the children on the importance of hygiene.
Teaching correct and acceptable hygiene principles is vital to achieve lifelong habits of prevention and spread of illness and infections, but also to maintain a suitable appearance an avoid offending others. Allow youngsters to attempt to clean their own teeth even if they need cleaning afterwards, they will enjoy the responsibility. Give encouragement to maintain their own hygiene and will carry this knowledge with them through life. (W.Pope, et.al., 1996).
Diarrhea is a serious global public health problem, particularly in low- income & middle income countries. The WHO estimate that over 3 million episodes occur each year, with many people dying, especially children aged, 5 years in low & middle income countries. Persistent diarrhea also contribute to malnutrition, reduce resistance to infections & sometimes impaired growth & development. The organisms causing diarrhea can be transmitted from infected faeces to people through food & water, person to person conduct, or direct conduct. Hand washing after defecation handling faeces & before preparing & eating food can reduce the risk of diarrhea. ( Ehiri JE, Meremikwumm critchley JA Hand washing for preventing diarrhea Cochrane Database of systemic reviews 2008).
Good oral hygiene is very much useful and essential for young children. Hence the children must be taught regarding practicing oral hygienic measures. Hand washing is very much important is prevention of infection in young children as well as for the adult.
The researcher personally felt from the experience on seeing the children that an effort may be reverse the life style habits of improper personal hygiene to manage infection and reduce the incidence of dental carries, diarrhea. So the researcher is interested to conduct this study which may mutually benefit the children and also the society.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A study to assess the effectiveness of kinder garden method of teaching on selected personal hygienic measures in terms of practice among students in a selected school at Salem.
To develop and validate the kinder garden method of teaching regarding selected personal hygienic measures.
To assess and compare the mean pre-test and mean post test practice score on selected personal hygienic measures among samples.
To find the association between the pre-test practice of selected personal hygienic measures among samples and their selected demographic variables (gender, area, siblings).
HYPOTHESES: (Level of significance at p< 0.05)
H1: The mean post-test practice score on hand washing technique will be higher than the mean pre-test practice score among samples.
H2: The mean post-test practice score on brushing technique will be higher than the mean pre-test practice score among samples.
H3: There will be significant association between the pre-test practice score on hand washing technique among samples and their selected demographic variables (gender, area, siblings).
H4: There will be significant association between the pre-test practice score on brushing technique among samples and their selected demographic variables (gender, area, siblings).
It refers to the change in the level of practice of Upper kinder garden school children regarding selected personal hygienic measures.
a) Practice on selected personal hygienic Measures:
It includes oral hygiene & Hand hygiene. The oral hygiene includes the following aspects like brushing, Gargling &general aspects and the hand hygiene means Nail cutting, Hand washing. The practice score is classified as, if the practice level is <50%- graded as inadequate, 51%-75% graded as moderately adequate, >75%- graded as adequate.
2. Kinder garden method of teaching on selected personal hygienic measures:
It means teaching the children by adapting different methods like Rhymes, Pictures, and Demonstration with models. Through this method the importance's and various aspects of hand washing technique and brushing technique taught to the kinder garden children.
It refers to the child of both genders between the age group of 4-6 years studying upper kinder garden in selected schools at Salem.
4. Demographic Variables:
Gender: Boy and Girl children.
Area: Urban and Rural.
Siblings: One, Two.
Brushing teeth per day: Once, Twice
The child may have inadequate practice regarding selected personal hygienic measures.
Kinder garden method of teaching may be an effective tool for creating awareness on practice of personal hygienic measures.
Permission obtained from the administrative authority of all the selected private school Salem.
All information was kept confidential and used only for the present study.
The study was delimited to only selected private school at Salem.
Data collection period was delimited to 6 weeks.
Evaluation of effectiveness of selected hygiene measures is in term of practice.
This chapter dealt with the introduction, need for the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, operational definitions, assumptions, delimitations, and ethical considerations.