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Researchers almost nerve conduct a study in an intellectual vaccum. Literature reviews can serve a number of important functions in the research process. Researchers undertake a literature review to familiarize themselves with the knowledge base. A thorough literature review helps to lay the foundation for a study, and can inspires new research ideas. Review of literature is defined as a broad, comprehensive in depth, systemic and crucial review of scholarly publication, unpublished scholarly print materials, audio visual material and personal communication.
Review of literature is arranged under the following headings.
- Review related to reproductive health.
- Review related to menstrual hygiene.
- Review related to sexual behavior and sex education.
- Review related to sexually transmitted disease and AIDS.
- Review related to usage of contraceptives.
Review related to reproductive health
Neelam mann., (2010) conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of a structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding puberty among pre adolescent girls in Vijaya English school at Hassan, In that study shows percentage of knowledge in each aspect puberty such as anatomy and physiology, characteristics of puberty, menstrual hygiene and sexually transmitted dieases, before planned teaching programme. Preadolescent girls are having below average knowledge on all aspects except menstrual hygiene. Over all knowledge score shows girls are having only 33.52% of knowledge before the administration of planned teaching programme. Post test knowledge on different aspects of puberty after the planned teaching program, on an average adolescent girls increased 80.71% regarding puberty.
Jyoti vinod., (2008) conducted a study to assess the effect of planned teaching programme on knowledge, attitude and practice of adolescents in relation to the reproductive health in selected shelter homes in Mumbai, among a population of 60 adolescents in that 30 boys and 30 girls who were selected by convenient sampling technique and data were collected by self reporting technique. Findings shows that pretest knowledge score is 63% and post test score is 91% with regard to knowledge changed in the adolescence was markedly increase in boys and girls from 23% and 19% to 70% and 83% respectively. So it shows the effectiveness of the teaching programme on reproductive health.
Jeyashri.G.Itti., (2007) conducted a study that to evaluate the effect of planned teaching programme on selected aspects of reproductive health among the rural adolescents girls. In the pre test 69.77% of the subjects had poor knowledge, where as post test scores showed that 96.5% of subjects had good knowledge. This result related to the post test knowledge (mean 34.35) scores showed that the adolescent girls had a significantly higher score on reproductive health than the pre test (mean 21.81). The “t” value of 31.30 was significant at 0.001 level of significance and the investigator concluded overall pre test knowledge about reproductive health was poor, there was need planned teaching programme, post test result showed significant improvement in knowledge of reproductive health.
Zulkitli., (2000) conducted a study to assess the determinants of sexual intercourse among unmarried adolescents on sexual practices in Malaysia. Overall results shows that the propotion of unmarried adolescents who have sexual intercourse is about 13% boys, (18.8%) are more likely to be sexuality experienced than girls (7.11%) by religion, Buddhist reported last experienced (6%) followed by Muslims (12%) and others (21%) for the more, 72% of adolescent engages in sex without considering the use of contraceptives. So through this study the researcher concluded that adolescents need sex education during school period as early as possible.
Corresponding Author InformationAddress reprint requests to Heather Becker, PhD, School of Nursing, The University of Texas at Austin, 1700 Red River Street, Austin, TX 78701.
Review related to menstrual hygiene.
Punitha., (2010) conducted study to assess the practice and problem in using pad or cloth during menstruation among the blind children. Research design used for the study was comparative-correlation survey. Sample size for the study was 50 blind children who used pad during menstruation and 50 blind children who used cloth during menstruation. Structure interview questionnaire used for validate the responses. In that there was a significant negative correlation between practice and problem of using cloth during menstruation r = -0.139 (p<0.05) among blind school children. There was a high significant correlation between the practice and problem while using pad during menstruation in relation to prolonged menstrual flow r = 0.874 (p = 0.043) among blind school children. When the menstrual hygienic practice is less the problem will be more. Therefore blind children need adequate education and suitable assistance to use sanitary materials to prevent problems among blind school children.
Suja., (2008) conducted a study to assess the practice and problem in using pad or cloth during menstruation among the blind school children at salem. The sample were collected in simple random method interview schedule consist of 31 items were developed. The findings shows that the problem was more among the samples using cloth (-3.600) (p<0.05) during menstruation. The study concluded by stating the implication, limitations, recommendation and the need for education among blind adolescents.
Chaste,s., (2007) conducted a study assess the effect of planned teaching programme on menstrual hygiene of female inmates of a selected jail in Mumbai. A study design is one group pre test post test design and data were collected using self reporting technique. The study finding shows that 30%, 25%, and 31% of them had knowledge about anatomy and physiology, menstrual cycle and menstrual hygiene in pre test and 86%, 84% and 88% in post test respectively.
Jayakathambari., (2001), conducted an experimental study among 80, 10th standard female students in C.S.I. girls higher secondary school, Erode regarding the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on menstrual hygiene. Random sampling method was used. Data collection was done by questionnaire. This findings of the study shows that the level of knowledge were significantly improved in students exposed to planned teaching programme than the control group, value of paired’t’ = 6.12 p<0.01 level.
Review related to sexual behavior and sex education
Shani Jhon., (2009) conducted a descriptive study to explore the knowledge and source of reproductive health information especially sex education among the adolescent girls in selected urban slum area. 150 adolescent girls taken through judgemental sampling method. In that study the adolescent girls had inadequate knowledge in all areas of reproductive health as observed in their total mean score of 24.40. the main sources of information were from TV, mother, health personnel, friends and teachers. There was a significant relationship between knowledge and age, educational status of the adolescents.
Cohen,P., (1994) conducted a study to assess the role of the school nurse in involving reproductive health education. School health nurse are well placed to promote high quality reproductive health education to adolescents. Parents and teachers are often perceived as primary care givers where as the nurse is an independent health personnal. Government programmes encourage collabaration with teachers and school health nurses to improve the sexual health of the adolescents. So the health personnels maintain collaboration with parents and teachers interms to improve reproductive health, because it’s innovative methods to put their message across.
Katoda,H., (1993) conducted a study to assess the Parents and teachers knowledge and attitudes to the health and sex education of young people with mental handicaps, in tokyo and stockholm. In that 41 parents and 20 teachers in stockholm and 106 parents and 111 teachers in tokyo were given a questionnaire about their knowledge and attitude towards health and sex education. Results from the study indicated that compared to parents and teachers in tokyo, parents and teachers in stockholm gave more information about health and sex to their 15-16 yrs old young people with mental handicaps. This was especially so regarding information about sex education. More parents and teachers in stockholm also had positive attitudes towards sex and interpersonal relationaships not only for young people and young people with mental handicaps compared to parents and teachers in tokyo.
Arztl Jugenkd., (1981) conducted a study to assess the problems and results of an investigation about sexual development and sexual education of blind people. The necessity of preparing young blind people for partnership relations, married life and family life. If reports on an investigation in to the problems of psycho-sexual development and education of blind people. Unlike the psycho-sexual development, which proceeds similarly to that of people who can see, the sexual development is somewhat always delayed. The results of the investigation and analyses the questioning of blind people, their parents and teachers. It offers advice on the sexual education of young blind people.
Review related to sexually transmitted disease and AIDS
Dayalal patidar., (2010) conducted, a research is clearly needed to determine how HIV progresses in women and how HIV drugs affect womens body. However, it does seem that the HIV drugs can benefits women as much as men if women access care and treatment in a timely fashion. It is important to get tested for HIV on a regular basis. If the results are positive, it is even more important to seek ongoing medical and gynaecological care. By taking advantage of good health care and treatment, one increases chance of living a longer and healthier life.
Sathya,P., (2010) conducted a study to creating awareness in adolescents on sexual health focusing on sexually transmitted diseases in selected schools of Coimbatore. A pre experimental approach with one group pre test and post test design was adopted for the study. 60 samples were selected by random sampling method.findings of the study shows the effectiveness of structure teaching programme, in that paired’t’ value for knowledge t=24.35 and for attitude t = 18.94, r=0.8 shows the positive correlation between knowledge and attitude. So the study concluded that reproductive health and resourcefulness will be a major factor in determining the health of the coming generations.
Baby.S.Nayak (2010) conducted a study to assess knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS regarding the effectiveness of structure teaching programme among adolescents through cross sectional survey 120 samples were selected. Over all knowledge scores shows that the students had average knowledge with mean of 12.22 and standard deviation of 3.5. Majority 24 (60%) of the students had positive attitude towards victims of HIV/AIDS with the mean score of 7.4 and standard deviation of 3.1. All of them disagreed that AIDS is Gods punishment. The study concluded that adolescents had average knowledge and desired attitude towards HIV/AIDS.
Vijaya.M.udumala., (2008) conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of AIDS education programme to adolescent girls in Guntur district of Andra Pradesh, 360 samples were selected by random samling method in two junior colleges, in that 180 students fromeach colleges were selected by lottery method. AIDS education programme were given, atlast the statistical analysis were maximum number of students in both experimental and control group were 16yrs and 30% of samples were 15yrs, 22% of them belongs to 17yrs. In the experimental group the post test knowledge score 94.5% higher than the pre test 29.21%, for ost test attitude 93.51% higher than the pretest 31.14%, for post test practice 93.10% higher than the pre test 33.48%. So it concluded that AIDS education programme help to improved the knowledge, attitude and practice of students.
Enab., and Enad., (2002) conducted a cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices of persons with sensory disabilities. A total of 96 non-randomly selected respondents were interviewed through questionnaire. The overall result demonstrates lack of comprehensive prevention knowledge (46.6 %) as well as comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission without misconception (11.5%). Sex, age, being married or unmarried did not result similar patterns of differences in comprehensive knowledge. However, similar result patterns were found with level of education and what type of disability. Poor attitudes and practices towards protection from HIV/AIDS were recorded. Despite a high level of belief in the severity of the AIDS disease (88.5%), those who perceived themselves of being at risk of HIV/AIDS were very low (22.9%). Consistent condom use was not common and only 58.3% of the respondents knew how to use a condom correctly. Only 43.8% respondents believed in the effectiveness of consistent and correct use of condoms to prevent HIV. In general, the survey result indicates the need for intervention programs to save the lives of the visually and hearing impaired from this deadly disease (HIV/AIDS).
Review related to usage of contraceptives
Kibert,M., (2009) conducted a study to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding selected aspects of reproductive health such as sex education and usage of contraceptive among high school students in Bihar Dar, Ethopia. Data gathered by using self-administered questionnaire and group discussions. The finding shows that the students had high level of knowledge in contraceptives, but the practice was low. The study revealed that young people engage in sexual relationships at an early age without protection or with unsafe non-conventional methods. There was no significant difference between the demographic variables and contraceptive use at first intercourse. Level of educational of the students and the sexual experience had significant association (p < 0.05). We recommend improved access to family planning services and health education programme based on the needs and experience of these young people as a potential solution to lighten their reproductive health problems.
Sharddha,A., and Bharti,B.M., (2006) conducted a study about reproductive health in urban slums at Mumbai. In that 200 couples interviewed, 53% males were in the 26-30yrs age group and 34% females in the 21-25 yrs age group. At the time of marriage 41% of males were below 21yrs of age and 56% of females below 18yrs. 48% males and 40% females were educated, and 26% couples had 4 children. 94% females delivered at home with the help of traditional Dai. 93% had received tetanus toxoid injection during ANC period, 32% of couples didn’t have any knowledge about contraceptives and though 21% had the knowledge they did not use any contraceptive. In the study concluded that was poor utilization of the reproductive health services and lack of awareness regarding birth spacing and very low use of contraceptives.
Helena andrae, et.al. (2002) conducted a study to evaluate the possible changes in sexual behaviour and awareness of contraceptive methods in adolescents who participated in a school-based sex education program in selected public schools in four areas in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A quasi-experimental design with pre and post-tests and a non-equivalent control group was used to evaluate the intervention. The programme is inserted within the background of reproductive rights, deals with risks involved in unsafe sexual practices, poor usage of contraceptives and view on the positive aspects of sexuality. The program succeeded in increasing the use of modern contraceptives during last intercourse by 68% and representing a response rate of approximately 38%. The intervention had no effect adolescents engaged with sexual activities. The sex education program was effective in promoting positive changes in the sexual behaviour and usage of contraceptives among adolescents.
Fam,s., (1998) conducted a study to assess knowledge regarding the sexual behavior and contraceptive usage among adolescents in developing countries. The results shows that almost generally in Sub-Saharan Africa and in the most of the countries in other regions, the no association between age at first sexual intercourse have increased, but the increase in age at marriage is greater, resulting in a no association. In most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, current contraceptive usage is increased among sexually active unmarried adolescents than married adults, where as in Latin, America and the Caribbean, current usage of contraceptive are increased among married teens. The results show that adolescents are interest to engage sex before marriage and not interest to use contracetives during sexual intercourse.
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