Review of literature is a systemic search of a published work to gain information about a research topic (Polit and Hungler, 2011). Conducting a review of literature is challenging and an enlightening experience.
The review of literature was based on extensive survey of books, journals, and international nursing indicates. A review of literature relevant to the study was under taken which helped the investigator to develop deep into the problem and gain information on what has been in the past.
An extensive review of literature was done by the investigator to lay a broad foundation for the study.
For the purpose of logical sequence the chapter was divided in two parts.
2.1 PART I: Reviews related to reproductive health among adolescent girls.
2.2 PART II: Reviews related to effectiveness of adolescent to adolescent approach on reproductive health.
2.1 PART I : Reviews related to reproductive health among adolescent girls.
Mc Call-hosenfeld JS et al., (2012) conducted an experimental study in Pennsylvania; they investigated the impact of individual on women’s are receipt of a comprehensive panel of preventive services in a region that includes both urban and rural communities. Outcome variables were a screening and vaccination index blood pressure , lipid panel, sexually transmitted infections or individual level variables includes predisposing factors, enabling and need – based measures. The investigator found that overall use of preventive services, were low individual variability in women’s receipt of counseling services is largely explained by psychological factors and seeing an gynecologist.
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Fengy et al., (2012) conducted a cross sectional survey of 17,016 adolescent girls and young aged 15-24 yrs old in both rural and urban Asian cites, China, through interview and computer assisted self interview for sensitive questions. To identify the predictors perception of homosexuality. The 40% of adolescent and young adults who hold a positive view of homosexuality for both males and females. Preferred origin of movies, videos, self identified sexual orientation, sexual and reproductive health knowledge, family values, gender role and attitude towards premarital sex. The most common and important predictors for a respondent’s perception of homosexuality were his/her knowledge of sexual and reproductive health.
Shelia G et al., (2012) conducted a experimental study regarding features of physical and sexual development of reproductive behavior among adolescent girls at Russia. In this assessment the adolescent reproductive behavior identification and the factors affecting was made in female adolescents age 14-19yr [randomly formed via continuous selection] information of the state of their health their attitudes towards child bearing and their risky habits have been evaluated. High frequency of menstrual irregularities, 24.7% delayed formation of the bone pelvis, 25.2% the prevalence of chronic external genital diseases were found.
Iliyasuz et al., (2012) conducted a qualitative study regarding sexual and reproductive health communication between mothers and their adolescent daughters in North India Assam. The investigator employed structured interviews and groups to investigate reproductive health communication practices among 108 mothers and daughters transcript were analyzed using the grounded theory approach .A total of 136 mother reported discussing reproductive issues with their daughters. The majority of daughters acquire reproductive health education from their mothers; parents were more likely to discuss marriage, menstruation, premarital sex, STI infections and sex education need to be empowered with knowledge and skills to improve the scope and quality of home -based reproductive health education.
Palke VD et al., (2011) conducted a study regarding impact of sex education on knowledge and attitude of adolescent school children in Bihar. Reproductive capability is now in earlier age, but the subject of adolescent sexuality in most societies, there is a wide spread ignorance about risks are unprotected sex problems among adolescent girls. Unfortunately need of sex education is not perceived and fulfilled in India especially in rural areas. The present study was conducted to assess the need and demonstrate the impact of sex education among adolescent school children, by analyzing pre and post intervention questionnaire and there was a significant increase in knowledge about sexuality , menstrual hygiene. Sexually transmitted disease, it has significant impact on knowledge of adolescent school children.
Ezekwere et al., (2011) conducted a study regarding sex education, sex information, sex practices, among adolescent girls in Nigeria. A total 304 girls selected by multi-stage sampling technique studied primary and subsequent sources of sexuality information, mainly the by the media, peers, families and schools, found that mostly they were not involved in provision of early sexual initiation and un protected sex was common among them. The study highlights the need to create a awareness at earlier stage of adolescent period sexual education of adolescent girls through parents and teachers had to be initiated.
Wong LP et al., (2011) conducted a large cross sectional study regarding attitude towards dysmenorrheal impact and treatment seeking, among 1,295 adolescent girls (13-19 yrs) from 16 public secondary schools in rural districts of Malaysia. Dysmenorrhea was reported in 76.0% of the participants multivariate analysis shows that being in upper secondary levels was the strongest predictor for poor concentration, absenteeism and poor school grade due to dysmenorrheal is a normal cycle and only 14.8% sought medical treatment , education should be extended to parents and school peer leaders to address the reproductive health needs of adolescents.
Lazarus JV et al., (2011) conducted a quasi experimental study regarding reproductive health awareness programme to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior. Reproductive health data was collected from the students aged (11 – 16 yrs) by using a picture and group discussion. In total 313 questionnaire has distributed, and the mean score in the pretest knowledge was 5.9 and 6.8 in post test score was p (0.003), which increased significantly t=4.5, p=0.000. The attitude mean score in pre test was 4.3 in post test was 6.8 which shows the increased significant. The mean behavior pretest score which showed a significant p =0.019. Hence the intervention significantly improved the adolescent reproductive health knowledge & attitude.
BiscoFreudenthal J et al., (2011) conducted a study regarding creating community awareness of reproductive tract infections including STD infections. The aim of this study was thus to explore people perception treatment seeking behavior and understanding of information about RTI/STD. Qualitative contact analysis was employed for the data analysis. The major findings was that the most common treatment seeking behavior was taking self medication. Shyness of genital examination, negative attitudes towards dirty diseases. The main media sources of RTI/STI information were radio, TV and other access to health information was more difficult. Health education messages should be more accessible in rural areas.
Van Rossem et al., (2011) conducted the survey to evaluate the reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns (selected radio and television programs) regarding family planning and HIV/AIDS in Zambia. The results evidenced that the reproductive health and social marketing Campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact. The results suggested that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming and future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women.
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Portillo et al., (2011) conducted a cross sectional study regarding sexual and reproductive health among adolescent girls at High school in Spanish. The study focused to determine the extent of information about preventing sexually transmitted diseases, knowledge and use of contraceptive methods. It includes 641 students who agreed to complete the questionnaire by school. 84.5% students know at least one contraceptive method 84%, It is necessary to establish or strengthen information programme on sexual health for adolescent.
Fehr KR et al., (2011) conducted a study to assess the knowledge and use of Folic acid in women of reproductive age Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects 50%, women of reproductive age group should be aware of the importance of the folic acid and neural tube defects. They used terms such as Folic acid knowledge and Folic acid awareness to search articles published, women were although knowledge levels were associated with education and health care professional’s magazines and news papers, radio, TV, as common sources of information, and this knowledge will allow them to make informed decisions about Folic acid among women.
Mc Call JS et al., (2011) conducted a study regarding preventive counseling among reproductive aged women. Preventive health intervention often occur less frequently among rural women compared to urban is an important feature of comprehensive preventive health care provisions .Data were collected by telephone survey during 2004-2005 participants aged 18-45 yrs in the central Pennsylvanias. The study assessed the independent contribution of counseling for smoking ,alcohol, drug use, birth control ,nutrition, physical activity. Most women do not receive recommended preventive counseling, while rural women are less likely than urban women to receive counseling educating rural health care providers about the need for preventive counseling.
Jousha et al., (2011) narrated on condom negotiation and experience among sexually active young women in New south wales, Austraila by using feminist narrative approach. Ten women’s stories were collected via online interviews. The findings revealed that none of the women initiated or negotiated use of the male condom promotion relies on the r4coginition of the gender factors that impede young women’s condom negotiation and use. Strategies that overcome gender dynamics and empower women to negotiate condom use have the ability to promote condom use among this group.
Lawan et al., (2010) conducted a study regarding menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in Gujarat .This study examined the knowledge and practices of adolescent school in around menstruation and menstrual hygiene .Data was collected quantitatively and analyzed using pre experimental study, the study findings showed that majority had fair knowledge of menstruation, although deficient in specific knowledge areas, most of them used sanitary pads as absorbent during their last menses, changed menstrual dressings about 1-5 times per day and improving access of the adolescent to reproductive health needs.
Sivagami, et al., (2010) conducted a qualitative study on community perception and treatment seeking behaviour regarding reproductive tract infections including sexually transmitted infections in Lao by using fourteen focus group discussion and 20 in depth interviews. It held among 76 women and 56 men. The major finding was that both male and female participants had a variety of misconceptions about the causes and symptoms of RTI/STIs and their cure and a reluctance to seek health care. The main reasons for not going to health facilities were fear of social discrimination or shyness. They suggested strengthening health education and promotion through interventions at the community level to improve the quality of RTI/STI management.
Minto et al., (2010) reviewed the efficacy of HIV/STI behavioral intervention and identified factors associated with intervention efficacy for American African females in the United states by using meta- analysis from 37 relevant studies. The results showed that behavioral intervention had a significant impact on reduction in HIV/STI risk sex behavioral. They concluded as behavioral interventions were efficacious in preventing HIV and STIs among African American females. They suggested that conducting more research to examine the potential contribution of prevention strategies that attend to community level and to improve communication between RTI/STI patients and clinicians.
Thakor HG et al., (2010) conducted a STIs prevalence study on knowledge and practices related to STIs and HIV among 125 sex workers in an urban area of Gujarat, India. 85-90% were aware about various symptoms / diseases transmitted by unsafe sexual practice in male and female. 23.4% took treatment from health worker for such problems; 87.9% were aware that consistent use of condom could protect them from HIV infections and 2.6% reported for non treatment of STD.58% were not aware about behavoural changes needed to reduce the risk.
2.2 PART II: Review related to effectiveness of adolescent to adolescent approach on reproductive health.
Denison JA et al.,(2012) conducted a quasi experimental study on peer education make a difference an evaluation of HIV prevention in youth-led model trained volunteer peer educators age (18-25 yrs) in school, to teach HIV prevention and Reproductive health. This evaluation programme effects on students HIV knowledge, attitude and behaviors of adolescent girls by using a non randomized quasi experimental design among 2133 students had significantly higher levels of knowledge regarding HIV p<0.001 and Reproductive health p<.001 more positive attitude towards the Reproductive health and HIV .The youth led or peer educator model is associated with increased HIV and Reproductive health knowledge and self
0kanlawon FA et al., (2011) conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of peer education in a secondary school regarding reproductive health among adolescent girls in Karnataka. The study employed pre and post test intervention quasi experimental design, The experimental group was the adolescence girls to give peer education programme for 6 months pre and post test data in the experimental and control groups were compared and analyzed. The knowledge of reproductive health issues was p<0.5. Hence the intervention significantly improved the adolescent reproductive health knowledge efficacy and sexual risk taking behaviors.
Drummond P et al., (2011) conducted a study by using peer education to increase the sexual health knowledge among West African refugees in Western Australia. Ten bilingual west African peer educators conducted a 3 hours workshop on sexual health for small groups of western African refugees (n = 58) who recently settled in Perth , western Australia .There were significant increases in the participants knowledge on sexually transmitted infections and HIV , their spread and the measures to protect against infection. They Concluded that the peer education approach was successful in assisting new and emerging community to work effectively on sexual health topics generally considered as ‘taboos’ or too sensitive to discuss.
Stephenson. J et al., (2010) assessed the effectiveness of school-based peer-led sex education among 9,000 pupils aged 13-14 years at England. Schools were randomized to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). Peer educators, aged 16-17 years, were trained to deliver three 1-hour classroom sessions of sex education to 13- to 14 years old pupils from the same schools. The study findings concluded that compared with conventional school sex education at age 13-14 years, this form of peer-led sex education was very effective associated with change in teenage STDs, it merits consideration within broader teenage STDs prevention strategies.
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