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Asian American College Student – Depression
Asian American Male – Alcoholism
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Asian Americans, according to the 2010 Census brief by the U.S. Census Bureau, were reported to be the fastest growing population in the nation over the 2000 – 2010 decade. As of 2010, the asian american population had grown by 45.6 percent from 2000(“Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS)”, 2010). In 2017, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that there were 22,00,408,464 Asian Americans in the United States, which represented about 6.9% of the total U.S. population(“Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS)”, 2010). Due to the growing population of Asian Americans, it is important to conduct more research to have further understanding about the relationship between their health and identity. The purpose of writing this paper is to recognize the association between Asian American college student and depression along with Asian American male and alcoholism. The goal is to understand how each identity provides its own risk, and to determine efficient ways to counter the problem related to it.
Overview of Identities
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health, Asian Americans were prone to the following health conditions: “cancer, heart disease, stroke, unintentional injuries (accidents), and diabetes. Asian Americans also have a high prevalence of the following conditions and risk factors: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, smoking, tuberculosis, and liver disease.”(“Office of Minority Health”, n.d.)
Overview of Risk Factors
In general, Asian American college students were more susceptible to depression compared to other ethnic minority groups regardless of their academic performance and family status. Research by Bankston, and Zhou (2006) suggested that Asian Americans were more likely to feel depressed even though they had a better socioeconomic condition and had better grades compared to Latino and Blacks. Details of their research were explained in the following:
Asians, through their reports, consistently show the highest levels of angst and the lowest levels of self-esteem. They are the most likely to have felt depressed, fearful, sad, like failures, that it was hard to start doing things, and that life was not worth living during the week preceding the interview. Asians are the least likely to report that they are doing everything just about right, that they have good qualities, that they like themselves, that they have a lot to be proud of, that they are socially accepted, and that they are liked and wanted (p. 391).
The research implied that one the reason major reason for the depression experienced by Asian Americans were their low self-esteem. Sue and Okazaki (1990)argued on their research that one of the reason that caused Asian Americans to have low self-esteem are “high levels of parental authoritarianism and low levels of expectation and encouragement of mature and independent behavior among children”. (as cited in Bankston & Zhou, 2006, p. 391).
On the other hand, alcoholism among Asian Americans had experienced a major increase in the past decade in comparison to other ethnic minority groups.(Grant et al., 2017; Sudhinaraset, Wigglesworth, & Takeuchi, 2016). The result of this study is alarming since in the previous decade, Asian Americans were found to have the lowest alcohol use compared to other ethnic group and that they were considered to be a model minority (Grant, Dawson, Stinson, Chou, & Pickering, 2004; Fong & Tsuang, 2007). One of the reason that may have caused an increase in alcoholism is acculturation. Research by Lui and Zamboanga has suggested that the process of adjusting to the American culture would yield a stark increase in alcohol abuse(2018).
Long-term Health Consequences
Heavy alcohol use had long been associated with adverse health effects.Research have suggested that there were a lot of health consequences related to alcohol abuse, which includes problems such as substance use, depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts.”(as cited in Cheng, Lee, & Iwamoto, 2011) Therefore, there further prevention and treatment were required to help fight problems related to alcohol.
Long term depression would provide adverse effect on the brain. According to DiSalvo, (2018)“untreated depression may lead to neurodegenerative levels of brain inflammation”, and that it “leads to chronic illness, including heart disease and potentially neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.” (p. 1) For this reason, it is important to tackle issues related depression as early as possible in order to mitigate the its long term consequences.
Problems related to alcoholism that had been affecting Asian American could be prevented using the correct measures. The most effective method to is to have a preventive action at an early stage. Two methods that stood out our are “preventive programs for youth”, and “school -based interventions. (“Alcohol Alert”, n.d.) The expected outcome of using these two methods were to correct the perception of teenagers and young adults regarding drinking alcohol, and to educate the risk and potential adverse effects of alcoholism.
In order to effectively combat depression , a preventive measure at an early stage of the symptoms would be an effective method. A study by Kindt, Zundert, and Engels suggested that “Selective prevention implies focusing on a population whose risk is deemed to be above average to develop symptoms of a given disorder. This type of prevention has been found to be more effective than universal prevention” (.2012) Details of the program is in the following:
. . . program will be taught by intensively trained school teachers and covers cognitive-behavioral and social problem-solving skills. Within 16 lessons of 50 minutes that are delivered during school hours, adolescents learn to detect inaccurate thoughts, to evaluate the accuracy of those thoughts, and to challenge them by considering alternative interpretations. They also learn techniques for assertiveness, negotiation, decision-making, social problem-solving and relaxation. The skills in the program can be applied to many contexts of life, including relationships with peers and family members as well as achievement in academics or other activities. (Kindt, Zundert, and Engels, 2012).
Performing preventive action concentrating on population with higher risk for depression would be a more efficient method in combating the illness compared to general preventive measure. By implementing the program on school students at an early stage, the decrease of depression symptoms along with an improvement in life in general were to be expected.
Interventions and Treatments
Identity 1: https://therenegadepharmacist.com/5-alternative-remedies-for-alcoholism/
Discussion (1/2 pp.)
Research by Iwamoto, Liu & McCoy stated that “the possible comorbid relationship between poor mental health and heavy drinking is a concern particularly for Asian Americans who report higher rates of depression than other racial/ethnic groups” (as cited in as cited in Cheng, Lee, & Iwamoto, 2011)
- Alcohol Alert. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa83/aa83.htm
- Bankston, C. L., & Zhou, M. (2006). Being Well vs. Doing Well: Self-Esteem and School
- Performance among Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Racial and Ethnic Groups. International Migration Review, 36(2), 389-415. doi:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2002.tb00086.x
- Cheng, A. W., Lee, C. S., & Iwamoto, D. K. (2011). Heavy Drinking, Poor Mental Health, and Substance Use Among Asian Americans in the NLAAS: A Gender-Based Comparison. PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e716142011-001
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). (2010, October 05). Your Geography Selections. Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_17_1YR_B02018&prodType=table
- DiSalvo, D. (n.d.). How Untreated Depression Changes the Brain Over Time. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/neuronarrative/201804/how-untreated-depression-changes-the-brain-over-time
- Fong, T. W., & Tsuang, J. (2007). Asian-Americans, addictions, and barriers to treatment. Asian-Americans, Addictions, and Barriers to Treatment., 51-58. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
- Lui, P. P., & Zamboanga, B. L. (2018). Supplemental Material for Acculturation and Alcohol Use Among Asian Americans: A Meta-Analytic Review. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. doi:10.1037/adb0000340.supp
- Grant, B. F., Dawson, D. A., Stinson, F. S., Chou, S., Dufour, M. C., & Pickering, R. P. (2004). The 12-month prevalence and trends in DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: United States, 1991–1992 and 2001–2002. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 74(3), 223-234. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.02.004
- Grant, B. F., Chou, S. P., Saha, T. D., Pickering, R. P., Kerridge, B. T., Ruan, W. J., . . . Hasin, D. S. (2017). Prevalence of 12-Month Alcohol Use, High-Risk Drinking, and DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 to 2012-2013. JAMA Psychiatry, 74(9), 911-923. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.2161
- Kindt, K. C., Zundert, R. V., & Engels, R. C. (n.d.). Evaluation of a Dutch school-based depression prevention … Retrieved January 11, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3342130/
- Office of Minority Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=3&lvlid=63
- Sudhinaraset, M., Wigglesworth, C., & Takeuchi, D. T. (2016). Social and cultural contexts of alcohol use. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 38, 35-45.
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