Oxford Strengthening Technique Analysis

2635 words (11 pages) Essay

3rd Jul 2017 Health And Social Care Reference this

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Strengthening exercise was used comprehensively in sport training and rehabilitation setting which recognize as an important exercise mode for sport performance as well as health purposes. The term strengthening exercise and resistive training was used interchangeably which targets to improve the maximum amount of force that can be generated by a particular muscle group. It can be define as any form of active exercise in which dynamic or static muscle contraction is resisted by an outside force applied manually or mechanically (Smith, Weiss, & Lehmkuhl, 1996).

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The strength training exercise can be classified into three categories which are isometric or static, dynamic or isotonic and isokinetic (Power & Howley, 2009). Following a strength training program, physiological changes will occurs which increased the muscle mass (Ikai & Fukunaga, 1968), muscle size or hypertrophy (Always, 1990) and hyperplasia (Mikesky, Giddings, Matthews, & Gonyea, 1991).

Other than that, in is also believed strength training may result in fast-fiber type conversion in humans (Staron et al., 1990). Staron et al., 1990, demonstrated that, twenty weeks of high intensity strength training result in conversion of type IIx fibers to type IIa in collage age females.

Besides, strength training will induce central nervous system changes, which can increase the number of motor units recruited, alter motor neuron firing rates, enhance motor unit synchronization during particular movement pattern and result in the removal of neural inhibition. This will result an improvement in the amount of muscular force generated and appears after few weeks of training session (Rube & Secher, 2008). Even though strength training reported to be beneficial, however it may increase cellular damage. Mechanical loads impose stress, strain and sometimes damage on working muscles and connective tissues (Razmjou, Rajabi, Jannati, Azizi, & Jahandideh, 2010).

Despite the established effectiveness of resistance training, uncertainty still exist as to the most efficient way to train. Designing a resistance training program is complex processes which are incorporating several acute program variables and key training principles. The effectiveness of a resistance training program to achieve a specific training outcome are depending on several acute program variables, all of which affect the degree of the resistance training stimuli (Bird, Tarpenning, & Marino, 2005).

Throughout the century, various types of exercises regime are arise. Most fame of strengthening exercises is the DeLorme Regime, Oxford Regime, McQueen Regime, Daily Adjustable Progressive Resistance Exercise Technique (DAPRE) and Circuit Training. Several programs have been developed to assist with the design of resistance training program and many of these programs have been advocated for use in the rehabilitation setting (Baechle & Earle, 2008). Several key training principles govern safe and effective resistance training program design, including overload, specificity, adaptation, progression, individualization and maintenance (Power & Howley, 2009).

From the pioneering work of DeLorme and Watkins, the concept of progressive overload exercise (PRE) has become the foundation of resistance training program design. Their works describe the classic program variables of load, frequency, duration and intensity, which to achieve such overload. It shows that, with training strength return more quickly to atrophied muscles if relatively few repetitions are performed at high levels of resistance. This is the basis for the most weight training program (DeLorme & Watkins, 1948).

The DeLorme exercise technique was based on the progression from light to heavy weight and also known as pyramid resistance training (Razmjou, et al., 2010). DeLorme hypothesized that, the muscle need to be warm up by the 10 repetition maximum (RM) reach before progress to the heavy resistance. In the other hand, he suggested the training overloaded a muscle by increasing the magnitude of the weight against which the muscle developed tension. Therefore, they established training by starting it from 50% of 10 RM for the first set, 75% of 10 RM for second set and 100% of 10 RM for third set (da Silva et al., 2009; Fish, Krabak, & Johnson-Greene, 2003; Razmjou, et al., 2010)

Another method to strengthen muscle is the Oxford technique or the reverse pyramid technique. The Oxford technique is emphasizing training from the high load to the lighter load based on the 10 RM. It starts from the 100 % of 10 RM, 75 % of 10 RM and 50 % of 10 RM for the first, second and third set respectively. This exercise technique was thought the decrement of resistance would mimic the progressive increased in muscle fatigue. Each set of repetition would continue to exercise the muscle to its maximum capacity, thus preserving the overload principles (da Silva, et al., 2009; Fish, et al., 2003; Razmjou, et al., 2010).

Many authors have tried to establish normative data for muscular evaluation in various populations that might serve to orientate a rehabilitation program and aid in the detection of the causes of musculoskeletal system injuries, thereby facilitating preventive action. Therefore, isokinetic dynamometry is widely used for muscular function studies because it facilitates a dynamic, objective, accurate and reproducible evaluation. This measurement is feasible for the resistance applied to the movement and can be adapted to permit a constant angular velocity during the whole range of motion, thus, it optimizes the load, which is always the maximum. This evaluation allows characterizing the muscular alterations resulting from the practice of sports, leading to the improvement of performance, training specificity and injury prevention (Siqueira, Pelegrini, Fontana, & Greve, 2002).

In order to evaluate the muscular performance, an isokinetic dynamometer was used and the tests involved maximum voluntary contractions of the selected muscles (Fonseca et al., 2007). The isokinetic evaluation becomes increasingly necessary in the high performance sports scenario, since it allows identifying and quantifying muscular performance and balance of athletes. Such evaluation makes it possible to plan specific and functional training of the lower limbs, besides elucidating specific deficiencies of the muscular function so that they can be eliminated or minimized, allowing the designing of prevention programs to decrease incidence of muscle lesions.

According to Deschenes & Kraemer, 2002 state that depending on program design, it capable in enhancing each of the functional constituents of the neuromuscular system, which are strength, power and local muscular endurance (Deschenes & Kraemer, 2002). Despite the proven effectiveness of resistance training, it is still unclear which exercise regimen is more suitable and there are many efficient way to train to develop muscle strength (Razmjou, et al., 2010). However, there are less research had been done to measure the effectiveness of DeLorme and Oxford techniques in rehabilitation or muscle strength training.

1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

In this study, several objectives were identified. The main objective in this study is to measure the effectiveness of DeLorme and Oxford strengthening exercise techniques on hamstring muscle by using isokinetic system evaluation. This are includes the evaluation of the peak torque, average peak torque, average power, total work, acceleration time and deceleration time within 6 weeks of exercise training interventions. This finding will help the clinician or exercise physician to have evidence based guidelines to rule out their exercise prescription.

Other than that, this study also investigates the immediate effect of Delorme and oxford strengthening exercise technique within 3 weeks. Therefore, this finding may help us to determine which exercise techniques have greater immediate effects and adaption on resistive or strengthening exercise.

1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION

Several research questions were developed upon this study. First research question for this study was upon the effectiveness of DeLorme and Oxford strengthening exercise regime technique within 6 weeks of training. Other research question that may develop upon this study is upon the immediate effects of DeLorme and Oxford strengthening exercise regime within 3 weeks of training.

1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Ho – There is no mean difference of peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of average peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of average peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of average power of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of average power of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of total work of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of total work of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of acceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of acceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of deceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of deceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of average peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of average peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of average power of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of average power of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of total work of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of total work of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of acceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of acceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of deceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of deceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

 

1.5 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.5.1 Disease and health

Health condition of the subjects should be concern especially the illness that cause by environmental condition such as fever, cough, influenza or hypothermia. As this research requires the subjects to be immersed in the cold water, some illness might be infected to the subjects. Therefore, any subject whose suffering or had high tendency to be infected to those illnesses was advisable not to join the research because it might cause their health become worse.

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1.5.2 Quitting or withdrawal

Besides that, other delimitation that might occur is the withdrawal or quitting from the study. As the temperature of the water is cold, it might cause some of the subjects could not withstand to be immersed according to the time stated. Therefore, they might quit from the study and would cause the number of the subjects is decreasing.

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS

In this study, specific terms were use as it would give a clearer explanation upon this research. Some of the terms used in this study were stated below:

  • 1.6.1 Isokinetic system

Commercial computer-assistive devices used to assess dynamic muscular force and strength measurement which provides variable resistance.

  • 1.6.2 DeLorme strengthening exercise regime

The Delorme system incorporates progression from light to heavy resistance, adding resistance with each set. There are many variations in the progression. However, the Delorme was 50% of 10 RM for the first set, 75% of 10 RM for second set and 100% of 10 RM for third set.

  • 1.6.3 Oxford strengthening exercise regime

The Oxford system is the opposite of Delorme with progression from heavy to light, and it reverses the resistance levels.

  • 1.6.4 Peak torque

Highest muscular force output at any moment during a repetition. It indicates of a muscle’s strength capabilities.

 

  • 1.6.6 Maximum repetition of total work

Total muscular force output for the repetitions with greatest amount of work. Work is indicative of muscle’s capabilities to produce force throughout the range of motion.

  • 1.6.7 Average power

Total work divided by time. Power represents how quickly muscle can produce force.

  • 1.6.8 Acceleration time

Total time used to reach Isokinetic Speed. It indicates a muscle’s neuromuscular capabilities to move a limb from at the beginning of the range of motion.

  • 1.6.9 Hamstring muscle

Hamstring muscle is refers to a group of posterior thigh muscle which consist of semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris. They are acts as extensors of the thigh and flexors of the leg.

  • 1.6.10 Isometric exercise

The tension develops in the muscle but no mechanical work is performed.

  • 1.6.11 Isotonic exercise

Exercise in which opposing muscles contract and there is controlled movement (tension is constant while the lengths of the muscles change)angu. It used to strengthen muscles and improve joint mobilization

  • 1.6.13 10 repetition maximum (RM)

The maximum amount of weight that could be lifted 10 times through a full range of motion.

Strengthening exercise was used comprehensively in sport training and rehabilitation setting which recognize as an important exercise mode for sport performance as well as health purposes. The term strengthening exercise and resistive training was used interchangeably which targets to improve the maximum amount of force that can be generated by a particular muscle group. It can be define as any form of active exercise in which dynamic or static muscle contraction is resisted by an outside force applied manually or mechanically (Smith, Weiss, & Lehmkuhl, 1996).

The strength training exercise can be classified into three categories which are isometric or static, dynamic or isotonic and isokinetic (Power & Howley, 2009). Following a strength training program, physiological changes will occurs which increased the muscle mass (Ikai & Fukunaga, 1968), muscle size or hypertrophy (Always, 1990) and hyperplasia (Mikesky, Giddings, Matthews, & Gonyea, 1991).

Other than that, in is also believed strength training may result in fast-fiber type conversion in humans (Staron et al., 1990). Staron et al., 1990, demonstrated that, twenty weeks of high intensity strength training result in conversion of type IIx fibers to type IIa in collage age females.

Besides, strength training will induce central nervous system changes, which can increase the number of motor units recruited, alter motor neuron firing rates, enhance motor unit synchronization during particular movement pattern and result in the removal of neural inhibition. This will result an improvement in the amount of muscular force generated and appears after few weeks of training session (Rube & Secher, 2008). Even though strength training reported to be beneficial, however it may increase cellular damage. Mechanical loads impose stress, strain and sometimes damage on working muscles and connective tissues (Razmjou, Rajabi, Jannati, Azizi, & Jahandideh, 2010).

Despite the established effectiveness of resistance training, uncertainty still exist as to the most efficient way to train. Designing a resistance training program is complex processes which are incorporating several acute program variables and key training principles. The effectiveness of a resistance training program to achieve a specific training outcome are depending on several acute program variables, all of which affect the degree of the resistance training stimuli (Bird, Tarpenning, & Marino, 2005).

Throughout the century, various types of exercises regime are arise. Most fame of strengthening exercises is the DeLorme Regime, Oxford Regime, McQueen Regime, Daily Adjustable Progressive Resistance Exercise Technique (DAPRE) and Circuit Training. Several programs have been developed to assist with the design of resistance training program and many of these programs have been advocated for use in the rehabilitation setting (Baechle & Earle, 2008). Several key training principles govern safe and effective resistance training program design, including overload, specificity, adaptation, progression, individualization and maintenance (Power & Howley, 2009).

From the pioneering work of DeLorme and Watkins, the concept of progressive overload exercise (PRE) has become the foundation of resistance training program design. Their works describe the classic program variables of load, frequency, duration and intensity, which to achieve such overload. It shows that, with training strength return more quickly to atrophied muscles if relatively few repetitions are performed at high levels of resistance. This is the basis for the most weight training program (DeLorme & Watkins, 1948).

The DeLorme exercise technique was based on the progression from light to heavy weight and also known as pyramid resistance training (Razmjou, et al., 2010). DeLorme hypothesized that, the muscle need to be warm up by the 10 repetition maximum (RM) reach before progress to the heavy resistance. In the other hand, he suggested the training overloaded a muscle by increasing the magnitude of the weight against which the muscle developed tension. Therefore, they established training by starting it from 50% of 10 RM for the first set, 75% of 10 RM for second set and 100% of 10 RM for third set (da Silva et al., 2009; Fish, Krabak, & Johnson-Greene, 2003; Razmjou, et al., 2010)

Another method to strengthen muscle is the Oxford technique or the reverse pyramid technique. The Oxford technique is emphasizing training from the high load to the lighter load based on the 10 RM. It starts from the 100 % of 10 RM, 75 % of 10 RM and 50 % of 10 RM for the first, second and third set respectively. This exercise technique was thought the decrement of resistance would mimic the progressive increased in muscle fatigue. Each set of repetition would continue to exercise the muscle to its maximum capacity, thus preserving the overload principles (da Silva, et al., 2009; Fish, et al., 2003; Razmjou, et al., 2010).

Many authors have tried to establish normative data for muscular evaluation in various populations that might serve to orientate a rehabilitation program and aid in the detection of the causes of musculoskeletal system injuries, thereby facilitating preventive action. Therefore, isokinetic dynamometry is widely used for muscular function studies because it facilitates a dynamic, objective, accurate and reproducible evaluation. This measurement is feasible for the resistance applied to the movement and can be adapted to permit a constant angular velocity during the whole range of motion, thus, it optimizes the load, which is always the maximum. This evaluation allows characterizing the muscular alterations resulting from the practice of sports, leading to the improvement of performance, training specificity and injury prevention (Siqueira, Pelegrini, Fontana, & Greve, 2002).

In order to evaluate the muscular performance, an isokinetic dynamometer was used and the tests involved maximum voluntary contractions of the selected muscles (Fonseca et al., 2007). The isokinetic evaluation becomes increasingly necessary in the high performance sports scenario, since it allows identifying and quantifying muscular performance and balance of athletes. Such evaluation makes it possible to plan specific and functional training of the lower limbs, besides elucidating specific deficiencies of the muscular function so that they can be eliminated or minimized, allowing the designing of prevention programs to decrease incidence of muscle lesions.

According to Deschenes & Kraemer, 2002 state that depending on program design, it capable in enhancing each of the functional constituents of the neuromuscular system, which are strength, power and local muscular endurance (Deschenes & Kraemer, 2002). Despite the proven effectiveness of resistance training, it is still unclear which exercise regimen is more suitable and there are many efficient way to train to develop muscle strength (Razmjou, et al., 2010). However, there are less research had been done to measure the effectiveness of DeLorme and Oxford techniques in rehabilitation or muscle strength training.

1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

In this study, several objectives were identified. The main objective in this study is to measure the effectiveness of DeLorme and Oxford strengthening exercise techniques on hamstring muscle by using isokinetic system evaluation. This are includes the evaluation of the peak torque, average peak torque, average power, total work, acceleration time and deceleration time within 6 weeks of exercise training interventions. This finding will help the clinician or exercise physician to have evidence based guidelines to rule out their exercise prescription.

Other than that, this study also investigates the immediate effect of Delorme and oxford strengthening exercise technique within 3 weeks. Therefore, this finding may help us to determine which exercise techniques have greater immediate effects and adaption on resistive or strengthening exercise.

1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION

Several research questions were developed upon this study. First research question for this study was upon the effectiveness of DeLorme and Oxford strengthening exercise regime technique within 6 weeks of training. Other research question that may develop upon this study is upon the immediate effects of DeLorme and Oxford strengthening exercise regime within 3 weeks of training.

1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Ho – There is no mean difference of peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of average peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of average peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of average power of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of average power of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of total work of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of total work of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of acceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of acceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of deceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of deceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 6 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of average peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of average peak torque of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of average power of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of average power of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of total work of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of total work of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of acceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of acceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ho – There is no mean difference of deceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

Ha – There is at least one pair of mean difference of deceleration time of hamstring muscle among DeLorme, Oxford and control group within 3 weeks.

 

1.5 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.5.1 Disease and health

Health condition of the subjects should be concern especially the illness that cause by environmental condition such as fever, cough, influenza or hypothermia. As this research requires the subjects to be immersed in the cold water, some illness might be infected to the subjects. Therefore, any subject whose suffering or had high tendency to be infected to those illnesses was advisable not to join the research because it might cause their health become worse.

1.5.2 Quitting or withdrawal

Besides that, other delimitation that might occur is the withdrawal or quitting from the study. As the temperature of the water is cold, it might cause some of the subjects could not withstand to be immersed according to the time stated. Therefore, they might quit from the study and would cause the number of the subjects is decreasing.

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS

In this study, specific terms were use as it would give a clearer explanation upon this research. Some of the terms used in this study were stated below:

  • 1.6.1 Isokinetic system

Commercial computer-assistive devices used to assess dynamic muscular force and strength measurement which provides variable resistance.

  • 1.6.2 DeLorme strengthening exercise regime

The Delorme system incorporates progression from light to heavy resistance, adding resistance with each set. There are many variations in the progression. However, the Delorme was 50% of 10 RM for the first set, 75% of 10 RM for second set and 100% of 10 RM for third set.

  • 1.6.3 Oxford strengthening exercise regime

The Oxford system is the opposite of Delorme with progression from heavy to light, and it reverses the resistance levels.

  • 1.6.4 Peak torque

Highest muscular force output at any moment during a repetition. It indicates of a muscle’s strength capabilities.

 

  • 1.6.6 Maximum repetition of total work

Total muscular force output for the repetitions with greatest amount of work. Work is indicative of muscle’s capabilities to produce force throughout the range of motion.

  • 1.6.7 Average power

Total work divided by time. Power represents how quickly muscle can produce force.

  • 1.6.8 Acceleration time

Total time used to reach Isokinetic Speed. It indicates a muscle’s neuromuscular capabilities to move a limb from at the beginning of the range of motion.

  • 1.6.9 Hamstring muscle

Hamstring muscle is refers to a group of posterior thigh muscle which consist of semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris. They are acts as extensors of the thigh and flexors of the leg.

  • 1.6.10 Isometric exercise

The tension develops in the muscle but no mechanical work is performed.

  • 1.6.11 Isotonic exercise

Exercise in which opposing muscles contract and there is controlled movement (tension is constant while the lengths of the muscles change)angu. It used to strengthen muscles and improve joint mobilization

  • 1.6.13 10 repetition maximum (RM)

The maximum amount of weight that could be lifted 10 times through a full range of motion.

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