Mental Health Differences for Men and Women in Full-time Jobs

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23rd Sep 2019 Health And Social Care Reference this

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MEN AND WOMEN WHO ARE IN FULL-TIME JOBS DIFFER IN THEIR LEVELS OF MENTAL HEALTH.

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The purpose of this report is to test the hypothesis that there is a difference in levels of mental health in both, men and women, who are in full-time employment.

For this research we used population sample of 58 people, 2 male and 56 females. The chi-test was applied to test the theory. Due to limited number of male in this study the findings are not conclusive and the result for this research report is invalid.

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A background research on the issues of mental health have provided some findings that could have been tested against  the hypothesis. On the basis of the available research some recommendations for future actions have been identified.

 

INTRODUCTION

Mental health problems will affect both women and men, but not in the same way. It has been reported that at any given time, 10% of mothers and 6% of fathers in the UK have mental health issues (‘Mental health statistics’, 2015).

It is difficult to measure the significance that work has on a person’s self-esteem, social recognition or their identity, although many health professionals make the link between the workplace environment and the impact it has on individual’s mental state.  The place of work is one of the key contributing factors that affect our health and mental wellbeing.

Social pressures put women’s mental health problems at a greater risk than men.

The sample population will test the hypothesis, that men and women in full-time employment differ in their level of mental health.

Part-time workers are beyond the scope of this project.

 

LITERATURE SURVEY

The research paper which I consulted my finding on was published in November 2018, by The Work Foundation “Men’s mental health and work. The case for a gendered approach to policy”. The review filled out gaps in my own research.

The Work Foundation takes the lead when it comes to provide policy advice and analysis in the UK. Through its comprehensive research programmes aiming at organisations, present and future trends, countries, cities and economies they are able to provide an evidence-based recommendations.

 

METHODS

Context

The data is part of a larger dataset collected by researchers at Birkbeck College to investigate the effects of having a young family on the working lives of parents.  

Procedure

Parents and parents-to-be were contacted via workplaces and nurseries and invited to complete a paper questionnaire.

Ethics

The participants were informed of the purpose of the study and assured that their responses would be confidential and they could choose to withdraw from the project at any time.  Opportunities were provided for the participants to ask questions about the study and receive feedback on the findings.

Measures used in the study

We used 12 general health questions and scoring method from 1 to 4, in which high score indicated worse mental health ( Appendix 1). Sample size of full-time works in this research was in total 58. In that sample we had 2 men and 56 women. 10 of the 56 women reported missing data, which put the number of women tested in this report to 46.

We used Chi-test to conduct this research.

 

RESULTS

The results from the population sample where organised into a table of raw data shown in Appendix 2. Summery has been given in Table 1.

 

Table 1. Means and standard deviation of mental health levels for male and female in full-time employment

 

Male

Female

Mean GHO

2.500

2.5023

SD GHO

0.23570

0.38144

*GHO- mental health data score (General Health Questionnaire-Appendix 1)

Due to limited sample size of men in this study (2 out of 48) the results are inconclusive.

 

DISCUSSION

Men in comparisons to women, are less likely to ask for professional help or discuss they concerns when it comes to mental health issues. They are also more likely to partake in unhealthy behaviours from alcohol and drug abuse, to more tragic affects ending in suicide.  Women, on the other hand, are still expected to be full-time mother and primary caregivers even if they work outside of the house.

The roles, responsibilities, and expectations that both genders carry in professional life, are one of the major mental health factor that can contribute to common conditions such as anxiety, mild depression or stress, to more severe and long-term mental illnesses.  

The difference how mental-health is experienced and managed, by male and female, will required modification in approach when providing the needed support. One of the big challenges when addressing men’s mental illness comes down to being criminalised due to substance abuse, alcohol and/or drug, and often accompanied by violence.

The recommendations below draw some examples as to how we can promote and improve on mental health approach and promote de-stigmatisation of the mental ill issue.

CONCLUSION

New research is needed to fully understand the reason for disproportional effects of suicide on men and women in the UK. Such evidence-based research would be beneficial and it can help high-risk groups to be identified and supported as needed.

There is also lack of differentiation in support provided by gender. As both sexes need a different approach to the issue of mental health this should be priorities to fully understand the best possible outcome by gender.

 

REFERENCES

  1. bitcmental_health_at_work_report-2017.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://wellbeing.bitc.org.uk/system/files/research/bitcmental_health_at_work_report-2017.pdf
  2. mens_mental_health_work.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.theworkfoundation.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/mens_mental_health_work.pdf
  3. Mental health statistics: men and women. (2015, October 26). Retrieved 20 February 2019, from https://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/statistics/mental-health-statistics-men-and-women

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1

General Health Questionnaire 12 Items and Scoring*

Have you recently…..

1

2

3

4

1 –

been able to concentrate on whatever you’re doing?

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

2 –

lost much sleep over worry?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

3 –

felt that you are playing a useful part in things?

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

4 –

felt capable of making decisions about things?

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

5 –

felt constantly under strain?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

6 –

felt you couldn’t overcome your difficulties?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

7

been able to enjoy your normal day

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

8 –

been able to face up to your problems?

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

9 –

been feeling unhappy or depressed?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

10 –

been losing confidence in yourself?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

11 –

been thinking of yourself as a worthless person?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

12 –

been feeling reasonably happy all things considered?

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

*This is not a typical way of scoring the GHQ12, but it is a method that is useful for this exercise

** In this data set, high scores indicate worse mental health

APPENDIX 2

Case Processing Summary

Gender

Cases

Valid

Missing

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

GHO

male

2

100.0%

0

0.0%

2

100.0%

female

46

82.1%

10

17.9%

56

100.0%

PTvsFT = 1 (FILTER)

male

2

100.0%

0

0.0%

2

100.0%

female

46

82.1%

10

17.9%

56

100.0%

Descriptives

Gender

Statistic

Std. Error

GHO

male

Mean

2.5000

.16667

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

.3823

Upper Bound

4.6177

5% Trimmed Mean

.

Median

2.5000

Variance

.056

Std. Deviation

.23570

Minimum

2.33

Maximum

2.67

Range

.33

Interquartile Range

.

Skewness

.

.

Kurtosis

.

.

female

Mean

2.5023

.05624

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

2.3890

Upper Bound

2.6156

5% Trimmed Mean

2.5120

Median

2.4773

Variance

.146

Std. Deviation

.38144

Minimum

1.25

Maximum

3.42

Range

2.17

Interquartile Range

.52

Skewness

-.359

.350

Kurtosis

1.673

.688

PTvsFT = 1 (FILTER)

male

Mean

1.00

.000

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

1.00

Upper Bound

1.00

5% Trimmed Mean

1.00

Median

1.00

Variance

.000

Std. Deviation

.000

Minimum

1

Maximum

1

Range

0

Interquartile Range

0

Skewness

.

.

Kurtosis

.

.

female

Mean

1.00

.000

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

1.00

Upper Bound

1.00

5% Trimmed Mean

1.00

Median

1.00

Variance

.000

Std. Deviation

.000

Minimum

1

Maximum

1

Range

0

Interquartile Range

0

Skewness

.

.

Kurtosis

.

.

APPENDIX 3

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid

Missing

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

GHO * Gender

48

82.8%

10

17.2%

58

100.0%

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymptotic Significance (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

7.930a

18

.980

Likelihood Ratio

6.620

18

.993

Linear-by-Linear Association

.000

1

.993

N of Valid Cases

48

a. 38 cells (100.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .04.

Symmetric Measures

Value

Asymptotic Standard Errora

Approximate Tb

Approximate Significance

Nominal by Nominal

Contingency Coefficient

.377

.980

Interval by Interval

Pearson’s R

.001

.070

.008

.993c

Ordinal by Ordinal

Spearman Correlation

-.008

.099

-.051

.959c

N of Valid Cases

48

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

c. Based on normal approximation.

MEN AND WOMEN WHO ARE IN FULL-TIME JOBS DIFFER IN THEIR LEVELS OF MENTAL HEALTH.

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The purpose of this report is to test the hypothesis that there is a difference in levels of mental health in both, men and women, who are in full-time employment.

For this research we used population sample of 58 people, 2 male and 56 females. The chi-test was applied to test the theory. Due to limited number of male in this study the findings are not conclusive and the result for this research report is invalid.

A background research on the issues of mental health have provided some findings that could have been tested against  the hypothesis. On the basis of the available research some recommendations for future actions have been identified.

 

INTRODUCTION

Mental health problems will affect both women and men, but not in the same way. It has been reported that at any given time, 10% of mothers and 6% of fathers in the UK have mental health issues (‘Mental health statistics’, 2015).

It is difficult to measure the significance that work has on a person’s self-esteem, social recognition or their identity, although many health professionals make the link between the workplace environment and the impact it has on individual’s mental state.  The place of work is one of the key contributing factors that affect our health and mental wellbeing.

Social pressures put women’s mental health problems at a greater risk than men.

The sample population will test the hypothesis, that men and women in full-time employment differ in their level of mental health.

Part-time workers are beyond the scope of this project.

 

LITERATURE SURVEY

The research paper which I consulted my finding on was published in November 2018, by The Work Foundation “Men’s mental health and work. The case for a gendered approach to policy”. The review filled out gaps in my own research.

The Work Foundation takes the lead when it comes to provide policy advice and analysis in the UK. Through its comprehensive research programmes aiming at organisations, present and future trends, countries, cities and economies they are able to provide an evidence-based recommendations.

 

METHODS

Context

The data is part of a larger dataset collected by researchers at Birkbeck College to investigate the effects of having a young family on the working lives of parents.  

Procedure

Parents and parents-to-be were contacted via workplaces and nurseries and invited to complete a paper questionnaire.

Ethics

The participants were informed of the purpose of the study and assured that their responses would be confidential and they could choose to withdraw from the project at any time.  Opportunities were provided for the participants to ask questions about the study and receive feedback on the findings.

Measures used in the study

We used 12 general health questions and scoring method from 1 to 4, in which high score indicated worse mental health ( Appendix 1). Sample size of full-time works in this research was in total 58. In that sample we had 2 men and 56 women. 10 of the 56 women reported missing data, which put the number of women tested in this report to 46.

We used Chi-test to conduct this research.

 

RESULTS

The results from the population sample where organised into a table of raw data shown in Appendix 2. Summery has been given in Table 1.

 

Table 1. Means and standard deviation of mental health levels for male and female in full-time employment

 

Male

Female

Mean GHO

2.500

2.5023

SD GHO

0.23570

0.38144

*GHO- mental health data score (General Health Questionnaire-Appendix 1)

Due to limited sample size of men in this study (2 out of 48) the results are inconclusive.

 

DISCUSSION

Men in comparisons to women, are less likely to ask for professional help or discuss they concerns when it comes to mental health issues. They are also more likely to partake in unhealthy behaviours from alcohol and drug abuse, to more tragic affects ending in suicide.  Women, on the other hand, are still expected to be full-time mother and primary caregivers even if they work outside of the house.

The roles, responsibilities, and expectations that both genders carry in professional life, are one of the major mental health factor that can contribute to common conditions such as anxiety, mild depression or stress, to more severe and long-term mental illnesses.  

The difference how mental-health is experienced and managed, by male and female, will required modification in approach when providing the needed support. One of the big challenges when addressing men’s mental illness comes down to being criminalised due to substance abuse, alcohol and/or drug, and often accompanied by violence.

The recommendations below draw some examples as to how we can promote and improve on mental health approach and promote de-stigmatisation of the mental ill issue.

CONCLUSION

New research is needed to fully understand the reason for disproportional effects of suicide on men and women in the UK. Such evidence-based research would be beneficial and it can help high-risk groups to be identified and supported as needed.

There is also lack of differentiation in support provided by gender. As both sexes need a different approach to the issue of mental health this should be priorities to fully understand the best possible outcome by gender.

 

REFERENCES

  1. bitcmental_health_at_work_report-2017.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://wellbeing.bitc.org.uk/system/files/research/bitcmental_health_at_work_report-2017.pdf
  2. mens_mental_health_work.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.theworkfoundation.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/mens_mental_health_work.pdf
  3. Mental health statistics: men and women. (2015, October 26). Retrieved 20 February 2019, from https://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/statistics/mental-health-statistics-men-and-women

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1

General Health Questionnaire 12 Items and Scoring*

Have you recently…..

1

2

3

4

1 –

been able to concentrate on whatever you’re doing?

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

2 –

lost much sleep over worry?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

3 –

felt that you are playing a useful part in things?

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

4 –

felt capable of making decisions about things?

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

5 –

felt constantly under strain?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

6 –

felt you couldn’t overcome your difficulties?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

7

been able to enjoy your normal day

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

8 –

been able to face up to your problems?

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

9 –

been feeling unhappy or depressed?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

10 –

been losing confidence in yourself?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

11 –

been thinking of yourself as a worthless person?

Much less than usual

Less than usual

Same

More than usual

12 –

been feeling reasonably happy all things considered?

More than usual

Same

Less than usual

Much less than usual

*This is not a typical way of scoring the GHQ12, but it is a method that is useful for this exercise

** In this data set, high scores indicate worse mental health

APPENDIX 2

Case Processing Summary

Gender

Cases

Valid

Missing

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

GHO

male

2

100.0%

0

0.0%

2

100.0%

female

46

82.1%

10

17.9%

56

100.0%

PTvsFT = 1 (FILTER)

male

2

100.0%

0

0.0%

2

100.0%

female

46

82.1%

10

17.9%

56

100.0%

Descriptives

Gender

Statistic

Std. Error

GHO

male

Mean

2.5000

.16667

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

.3823

Upper Bound

4.6177

5% Trimmed Mean

.

Median

2.5000

Variance

.056

Std. Deviation

.23570

Minimum

2.33

Maximum

2.67

Range

.33

Interquartile Range

.

Skewness

.

.

Kurtosis

.

.

female

Mean

2.5023

.05624

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

2.3890

Upper Bound

2.6156

5% Trimmed Mean

2.5120

Median

2.4773

Variance

.146

Std. Deviation

.38144

Minimum

1.25

Maximum

3.42

Range

2.17

Interquartile Range

.52

Skewness

-.359

.350

Kurtosis

1.673

.688

PTvsFT = 1 (FILTER)

male

Mean

1.00

.000

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

1.00

Upper Bound

1.00

5% Trimmed Mean

1.00

Median

1.00

Variance

.000

Std. Deviation

.000

Minimum

1

Maximum

1

Range

0

Interquartile Range

0

Skewness

.

.

Kurtosis

.

.

female

Mean

1.00

.000

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

1.00

Upper Bound

1.00

5% Trimmed Mean

1.00

Median

1.00

Variance

.000

Std. Deviation

.000

Minimum

1

Maximum

1

Range

0

Interquartile Range

0

Skewness

.

.

Kurtosis

.

.

APPENDIX 3

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid

Missing

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

GHO * Gender

48

82.8%

10

17.2%

58

100.0%

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymptotic Significance (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

7.930a

18

.980

Likelihood Ratio

6.620

18

.993

Linear-by-Linear Association

.000

1

.993

N of Valid Cases

48

a. 38 cells (100.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .04.

Symmetric Measures

Value

Asymptotic Standard Errora

Approximate Tb

Approximate Significance

Nominal by Nominal

Contingency Coefficient

.377

.980

Interval by Interval

Pearson’s R

.001

.070

.008

.993c

Ordinal by Ordinal

Spearman Correlation

-.008

.099

-.051

.959c

N of Valid Cases

48

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

c. Based on normal approximation.

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