Diagnostic Test Related Musculoskeletal System Health And Social Care Essay

2423 words (10 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Health And Social Care Reference this

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

Both of these can reveal levels of various minerals and other substances indicating disease or a musculoskeletal disorder. The levels of certain protein in the blood may also help diagnose a disease. Blood and Urine samples are the most common tests used to diagnose problems within the musculoskeletal system. Also, prior to surgery, blood samples are used to detect bleeding tendencies. Urinary N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen or N-Tx and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) both reflects increased osteoclast activity and increased bone resorption.

b. Nerve Conduction Studies

It is used to measure the electrical activity of muscles when a muscle fiber contracts to determine if the muscles and nerves are working properly. It is performed by stimulating a peripheral nerve at several points along its course and recording the muscle action potential or the sensory action potential that results. Usually, surface or needle electrodes are used. It is placed on the skin over the nerve to stimulate the nerve fibers. A technique called truax biography will show nerve conduction patterns, which changes in various muscle and nerve diseases.

c. Imaging Procedures

X-Ray Studies

Bone X-Rays determines the bone density, erosion, and changes in bone relationships. It is used to diagnose broken bones or joint dislocations, guide orthopaedic surgery such as spine repair or infusion, assist in detection and diagnose of bone cancer, and locate foreign objects around soft tissues and in bones. Joint X-Rays reveal fluid irregularity, spur formation, narrowing and changes in joint structure. It is used to detect degenerative conditions on the joints, fractures, and tumors. Multiple X-Rays with multiple views are also needed for full assessment of the structure being examined.

Computed Tomography

It is used to identify the location and extent of fractures in areas that are difficult to evaluate such as acetabulum. It can be performed with or without the use of contrast agents and can illustrate a detailed specific plane of involved bone and can also reveal tumors of the soft tissues or injuries to the ligaments or tendons.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

It can demonstrate abnormalities such as tumors and narrowing of tissue pathways through the bone. It is a noninvasive procedure and electromagnets are used that is why patients with any metal implants, clips or pacemakers cannot have an MRI. IV contrast agent are used to enhance visualization.

Arthrography

It identifies acute or chronic tears of the joint capsule or supporting ligaments of the knee, shoulder, ankle, hip, or wrist. A radiopaque contrast agent or air is used. It is injected into the joint cavity to visualize the irregular surfaces. The joint will be put through its ROM to distribute the contrast agent accompanied by a series of X-Rays. If the contrast agent leaks, it means a tear is present.

Get Help With Your Essay

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Find out more

2. Discuss musculoskeletal changes associated with the aging process.

Aging leads to changes in balance, cartilage and bone tissue. The normal aging process does not need to have limited movements. Mobility is affected by personal lifestyle and the degree of activity that the individual has maintained throughout their life. Although, some of the limitations of mobility occurs as a result of fear, such as fear of falling.

a. Changes in Balance

The maintenance of balance relies on integrating responses from the visual system, vestibular system in the inner ear and the proprioceptors in the muscles and joints. And with aging, older people requires greater angular movement in joints for proprioception to be achieved.

b. Cartilaginous Changes

There is loss in the normal elastic properties of cartilage due to an increase in water loss and deposition of fibers. The increased fiber density in connective tissue and cartilage produces a mesh or interconnection for the deposition of calcium. And this accounts fot the increased calcification of cartilage with aging. The hyaline cartilage also loses fluid and is converted to fibrocartilage. The articular cartilage changes with the elasticity being lost. Thinning occurs over the weight bearing areas which affects functioning such as the changes in the menisci of the knee joint that will inhibit free movement. The loss of water from cartilage in the intervertebral discs leads to compaction of the vertebrae and shrinkage of the spinal column, which is seen as a loss in height. Many joint of the body becomes stiffened with aging. The height loss is also affected by joint changes and by the flattening of the arc of the foot.

c. Bone Changes

Osteoporosis is a normal aging process as the androgen decreases. It is an imbalance between bone reabsorption and formation. If it is severe, it may cause fractures and may lead to bowing of the long bones and to an increase in spinal curvature due to vertebral collapse.

3. Discuss patient preparation for an arthroscopy.

Arthroscopy is a procedure used to directly visualize a joint to diagnose joint disorders. Various treatments can also be performed through the arthroscope such as treatment of tears, defects, and disease processes.

Arthroscopy is most often performed as an outpatient procedure. It is a essentially a bloodless procedure with generally few complications. It is performed in the operating room under sterile conditions. Injection of local anesthesia into the joint or general anesthesia, a spinal or epidural anesthesia is used. The patient should be able to tolerate the anesthetic agent used. Heart and lung function should be adequate. Existing problems such as emphysema should be optimized as possible prior to surgery. Anticoagulants should be carefully adjusted prior to surgery if the patient is taking them.

Preoperatively, physical examination, blood tests and urinalysis will be performed. If the patient has a history of heart or lung problems, and is above the age of 50, an ECG and chest X-ray is obtained. The patient should also have instruction on exercises and postoperative mobilization such as crutch walking. Patients are generally encouraged to mobilize the affected part following surgery with adequate analgesia.

4. Discuss components of a musculoskeletal physical assessment.

a. Posture

Spine is assessed for normal curvature. It is convex through the thoracic portion and concave through the cervical and lumbar portions. Kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis are common deformities of the spine. Kyphosis is mostly seen in elderly patients with osteoporosis and in some with neuromuscular disease. The entire back, buttocks and legs should be exposed during inspection of the spine. Spinal curves and trunk symmetry are inspected from posterior and lateral views. Differences in the height of the shoulders or iliac crest are noted. Symmetry of the shoulders and hips, line of the vertebral column are inspected at erect position and patient bending forward. Height should be measured especially in adults because in older adults, loss of height occurs due to loss of vertebral cartilage and osteoporosis.

b. Gait

Have the patient walk away for a short distance and observe the patient’s gait for smoothness and rhythm. Unsteadiness and irregular movements which are frequently seen in elderly patients are abnormal.

c. Bone Integrity

Deformities and alignments are assessed in the bony skeleton. Symmetric parts are compared. Abnormal bone growths are observed. Shortened extremities, amputations, and body parts that are not in anatomical alignments are documented. If fractures are present, movement must be minimized to avoid additional injuries and some may include abnormal angulation of long bones, motion at points other that joints and crepitus.

d. Joint Function

ROM, deformity, stability and nodular formation are noted. ROM is done both actively and passively. Goniometer can be used for precise measurement of ROM. If the joint is compromised or painful, it should be examined for effusion, swelling and increase in temperature for it may reflect active inflammation. If there is positive inflammation on the joints, a physician is consulted. Palpation of the joint while it is in passive movement will provide information on joint integrity. The joint normally moves smoothly; snap or crack indicates a ligament is slipping over a bony prominence. The slightly roughened surfaces results in crepitus. Tissues around the joints are examined for nodule formation. The size of the joint is often exaggerated by atrophy of the muscle proximal and distal to that joint which is seen in rheumatoid arthritis.

e. Muscle Strength and Size

Muscular strength and coordination, size of individual muscles, and patient’s ability to change position are assessed. Muscle tone is determined by palpating the the muscle while passively moving the relaxed extremity while muscle strength is assessed by having the patient perform certain maneuvers with and without added resistance. Muscle clonus may also be elicited by sudden, forceful, sustained dorsiflexion of the foot or extension of the wrist. Involuntary twitching of muscle fiber groups may be observed. The girth of an extremityis measured to monitor increased size. It may decrease due to muscle atrophy. It is important that the measurement be taken at the same location of the extremity and with the extremity in the same position, with the muscles at rest. Distance from a specific landmark must be indicated. Variations in size greater than 1cm are considered significant.

f. Skin

Skin is inspected for edema, color, and temperature. Palpation is performed to reveal if any areas are warmer which suggests increased perfusion of inflammation, or vice versa. Cuts, bruises, skin color, and evidence of decreased circulation or inflammation are noted.

g. Neurovascular Status

Frequent neurovascular examination is important for patient with musculoskeletal disorders due to the risk for tissue and nerve damage. Circulation, motion and sensation are assessed.

SOURCES:

Brunner and Suddarth’s textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing 12th Edition

Julia Kneale et. al. (2005) Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing 2nd Edition

Clinical Assignment

1. Complete a musculoskeletal physical assessment.

a. Temporomandibular joint

Inspection:

No swelling

3 fingers can be inserted sideways

Palpation:

No swelling and tenderness

Both side firm, same strength

There was a snap during opening

Muscle strength

The jaw can move in all directions and can move against resistance

b. Cervical spine

Inspection:

Neck is straight and head is erect

Palpation:

No swelling and tenderness

No spasms

Both side firm, same strength

Patient was able to do the following: flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation

Muscle strength

Can oppose resistance applied

c. Thoracolumbar spine

Inspection:

No deformity

Vertically aligned

Palpation:

No swelling and tenderness

No spasms

Percussion

No tenderness

Muscle strength

Can flex, extend, laterally bend and rotate spine

Can oppose resistance applied

d. Upper extremities

Inspection:

No deformity on both sides

Symmetrically aligned

No deviations

Palpation:

No swelling and tenderness

No spasms

No atropy

Fat pads fairly solid

No synovial thickening

Percussion

Negative tinel’s sign

Muscle strength

Can perform ROM in shoulders, elbows, wrists and hands

Can oppose resistance

e. Lower extremities

Inspection:

No deformity on both sides

Symmetrically aligned

No deviations

Palpation:

Hip joint not swollen

No swelling and tenderness

No spasms

No atrophy

Muscle strength

Can perform ROM in shoulders, elbows, wrists and hands

Can oppose resistance

Web Assignment

1. Summarize an article discussing techniques used in assessing the musculoskeletal system. How do the components of the health history guide the assessment?

http://www.medkaau.com/videos/peguide.pdf

There are general and regional considerations in the article. The general considerations are as follows; the patient should be undressed and gowned as needed, some parts of the exams may not be appropriate depending on the clinical situation. Examining the musculoskeletal system is all about anatomy. When taking the patient’s history for acute problems, we should always inquire about the mechanism of injury, loss of function and onset of swelling or edema. Also, the initial treatment should be asked. Meanwhile, when taking the patient’s history for chronic problems, we should ask the patient about past injuries and treatments, effect of function, and current symptoms. There are cardinal signs of musculoskeletal disease which are pain, swelling, redness, increased warmth, deformity, and loss of function. We should always begin with inspection, palpation, and ROM regardless of the region being examined. A complete evaluation will include a focused neurologic exam of the affected area.

Find out how UKEssays.com can help you!

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

View our services

IPPA is first used in examination then active and passive ROM exercises in specific joints. After this, vascular status, pulses, capillary refill, erythema, cyanosis, clubbing, and lymphatic are assessed. The last things to be examined are the specific tests for Upper Extremities Snuffbox Tenderness, Drop Arm Test, Impingement Sign, Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Test, and Flexor Digitorum Profundus. And these are the vascular and neurologic tests; Allen Test, Phalen’s Test, and Tinel’s Sign. And these are for the lowe extremities; Collateral Ligament Testing, Lachman Test, Anterior/Posterior Drawer Test, Ballotable Patella, and Milking the Knee. For the Back are the following tests Straight Leg Raising, FABER Test which stands for Flexion, ABduction, and External Rotation of the hip. It is used to differentiate hip or sacroiliac joint pathology from spine problems.

Both of these can reveal levels of various minerals and other substances indicating disease or a musculoskeletal disorder. The levels of certain protein in the blood may also help diagnose a disease. Blood and Urine samples are the most common tests used to diagnose problems within the musculoskeletal system. Also, prior to surgery, blood samples are used to detect bleeding tendencies. Urinary N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen or N-Tx and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) both reflects increased osteoclast activity and increased bone resorption.

b. Nerve Conduction Studies

It is used to measure the electrical activity of muscles when a muscle fiber contracts to determine if the muscles and nerves are working properly. It is performed by stimulating a peripheral nerve at several points along its course and recording the muscle action potential or the sensory action potential that results. Usually, surface or needle electrodes are used. It is placed on the skin over the nerve to stimulate the nerve fibers. A technique called truax biography will show nerve conduction patterns, which changes in various muscle and nerve diseases.

c. Imaging Procedures

X-Ray Studies

Bone X-Rays determines the bone density, erosion, and changes in bone relationships. It is used to diagnose broken bones or joint dislocations, guide orthopaedic surgery such as spine repair or infusion, assist in detection and diagnose of bone cancer, and locate foreign objects around soft tissues and in bones. Joint X-Rays reveal fluid irregularity, spur formation, narrowing and changes in joint structure. It is used to detect degenerative conditions on the joints, fractures, and tumors. Multiple X-Rays with multiple views are also needed for full assessment of the structure being examined.

Computed Tomography

It is used to identify the location and extent of fractures in areas that are difficult to evaluate such as acetabulum. It can be performed with or without the use of contrast agents and can illustrate a detailed specific plane of involved bone and can also reveal tumors of the soft tissues or injuries to the ligaments or tendons.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

It can demonstrate abnormalities such as tumors and narrowing of tissue pathways through the bone. It is a noninvasive procedure and electromagnets are used that is why patients with any metal implants, clips or pacemakers cannot have an MRI. IV contrast agent are used to enhance visualization.

Arthrography

It identifies acute or chronic tears of the joint capsule or supporting ligaments of the knee, shoulder, ankle, hip, or wrist. A radiopaque contrast agent or air is used. It is injected into the joint cavity to visualize the irregular surfaces. The joint will be put through its ROM to distribute the contrast agent accompanied by a series of X-Rays. If the contrast agent leaks, it means a tear is present.

2. Discuss musculoskeletal changes associated with the aging process.

Aging leads to changes in balance, cartilage and bone tissue. The normal aging process does not need to have limited movements. Mobility is affected by personal lifestyle and the degree of activity that the individual has maintained throughout their life. Although, some of the limitations of mobility occurs as a result of fear, such as fear of falling.

a. Changes in Balance

The maintenance of balance relies on integrating responses from the visual system, vestibular system in the inner ear and the proprioceptors in the muscles and joints. And with aging, older people requires greater angular movement in joints for proprioception to be achieved.

b. Cartilaginous Changes

There is loss in the normal elastic properties of cartilage due to an increase in water loss and deposition of fibers. The increased fiber density in connective tissue and cartilage produces a mesh or interconnection for the deposition of calcium. And this accounts fot the increased calcification of cartilage with aging. The hyaline cartilage also loses fluid and is converted to fibrocartilage. The articular cartilage changes with the elasticity being lost. Thinning occurs over the weight bearing areas which affects functioning such as the changes in the menisci of the knee joint that will inhibit free movement. The loss of water from cartilage in the intervertebral discs leads to compaction of the vertebrae and shrinkage of the spinal column, which is seen as a loss in height. Many joint of the body becomes stiffened with aging. The height loss is also affected by joint changes and by the flattening of the arc of the foot.

c. Bone Changes

Osteoporosis is a normal aging process as the androgen decreases. It is an imbalance between bone reabsorption and formation. If it is severe, it may cause fractures and may lead to bowing of the long bones and to an increase in spinal curvature due to vertebral collapse.

3. Discuss patient preparation for an arthroscopy.

Arthroscopy is a procedure used to directly visualize a joint to diagnose joint disorders. Various treatments can also be performed through the arthroscope such as treatment of tears, defects, and disease processes.

Arthroscopy is most often performed as an outpatient procedure. It is a essentially a bloodless procedure with generally few complications. It is performed in the operating room under sterile conditions. Injection of local anesthesia into the joint or general anesthesia, a spinal or epidural anesthesia is used. The patient should be able to tolerate the anesthetic agent used. Heart and lung function should be adequate. Existing problems such as emphysema should be optimized as possible prior to surgery. Anticoagulants should be carefully adjusted prior to surgery if the patient is taking them.

Preoperatively, physical examination, blood tests and urinalysis will be performed. If the patient has a history of heart or lung problems, and is above the age of 50, an ECG and chest X-ray is obtained. The patient should also have instruction on exercises and postoperative mobilization such as crutch walking. Patients are generally encouraged to mobilize the affected part following surgery with adequate analgesia.

4. Discuss components of a musculoskeletal physical assessment.

a. Posture

Spine is assessed for normal curvature. It is convex through the thoracic portion and concave through the cervical and lumbar portions. Kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis are common deformities of the spine. Kyphosis is mostly seen in elderly patients with osteoporosis and in some with neuromuscular disease. The entire back, buttocks and legs should be exposed during inspection of the spine. Spinal curves and trunk symmetry are inspected from posterior and lateral views. Differences in the height of the shoulders or iliac crest are noted. Symmetry of the shoulders and hips, line of the vertebral column are inspected at erect position and patient bending forward. Height should be measured especially in adults because in older adults, loss of height occurs due to loss of vertebral cartilage and osteoporosis.

b. Gait

Have the patient walk away for a short distance and observe the patient’s gait for smoothness and rhythm. Unsteadiness and irregular movements which are frequently seen in elderly patients are abnormal.

c. Bone Integrity

Deformities and alignments are assessed in the bony skeleton. Symmetric parts are compared. Abnormal bone growths are observed. Shortened extremities, amputations, and body parts that are not in anatomical alignments are documented. If fractures are present, movement must be minimized to avoid additional injuries and some may include abnormal angulation of long bones, motion at points other that joints and crepitus.

d. Joint Function

ROM, deformity, stability and nodular formation are noted. ROM is done both actively and passively. Goniometer can be used for precise measurement of ROM. If the joint is compromised or painful, it should be examined for effusion, swelling and increase in temperature for it may reflect active inflammation. If there is positive inflammation on the joints, a physician is consulted. Palpation of the joint while it is in passive movement will provide information on joint integrity. The joint normally moves smoothly; snap or crack indicates a ligament is slipping over a bony prominence. The slightly roughened surfaces results in crepitus. Tissues around the joints are examined for nodule formation. The size of the joint is often exaggerated by atrophy of the muscle proximal and distal to that joint which is seen in rheumatoid arthritis.

e. Muscle Strength and Size

Muscular strength and coordination, size of individual muscles, and patient’s ability to change position are assessed. Muscle tone is determined by palpating the the muscle while passively moving the relaxed extremity while muscle strength is assessed by having the patient perform certain maneuvers with and without added resistance. Muscle clonus may also be elicited by sudden, forceful, sustained dorsiflexion of the foot or extension of the wrist. Involuntary twitching of muscle fiber groups may be observed. The girth of an extremityis measured to monitor increased size. It may decrease due to muscle atrophy. It is important that the measurement be taken at the same location of the extremity and with the extremity in the same position, with the muscles at rest. Distance from a specific landmark must be indicated. Variations in size greater than 1cm are considered significant.

f. Skin

Skin is inspected for edema, color, and temperature. Palpation is performed to reveal if any areas are warmer which suggests increased perfusion of inflammation, or vice versa. Cuts, bruises, skin color, and evidence of decreased circulation or inflammation are noted.

g. Neurovascular Status

Frequent neurovascular examination is important for patient with musculoskeletal disorders due to the risk for tissue and nerve damage. Circulation, motion and sensation are assessed.

SOURCES:

Brunner and Suddarth’s textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing 12th Edition

Julia Kneale et. al. (2005) Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing 2nd Edition

Clinical Assignment

1. Complete a musculoskeletal physical assessment.

a. Temporomandibular joint

Inspection:

No swelling

3 fingers can be inserted sideways

Palpation:

No swelling and tenderness

Both side firm, same strength

There was a snap during opening

Muscle strength

The jaw can move in all directions and can move against resistance

b. Cervical spine

Inspection:

Neck is straight and head is erect

Palpation:

No swelling and tenderness

No spasms

Both side firm, same strength

Patient was able to do the following: flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation

Muscle strength

Can oppose resistance applied

c. Thoracolumbar spine

Inspection:

No deformity

Vertically aligned

Palpation:

No swelling and tenderness

No spasms

Percussion

No tenderness

Muscle strength

Can flex, extend, laterally bend and rotate spine

Can oppose resistance applied

d. Upper extremities

Inspection:

No deformity on both sides

Symmetrically aligned

No deviations

Palpation:

No swelling and tenderness

No spasms

No atropy

Fat pads fairly solid

No synovial thickening

Percussion

Negative tinel’s sign

Muscle strength

Can perform ROM in shoulders, elbows, wrists and hands

Can oppose resistance

e. Lower extremities

Inspection:

No deformity on both sides

Symmetrically aligned

No deviations

Palpation:

Hip joint not swollen

No swelling and tenderness

No spasms

No atrophy

Muscle strength

Can perform ROM in shoulders, elbows, wrists and hands

Can oppose resistance

Web Assignment

1. Summarize an article discussing techniques used in assessing the musculoskeletal system. How do the components of the health history guide the assessment?

http://www.medkaau.com/videos/peguide.pdf

There are general and regional considerations in the article. The general considerations are as follows; the patient should be undressed and gowned as needed, some parts of the exams may not be appropriate depending on the clinical situation. Examining the musculoskeletal system is all about anatomy. When taking the patient’s history for acute problems, we should always inquire about the mechanism of injury, loss of function and onset of swelling or edema. Also, the initial treatment should be asked. Meanwhile, when taking the patient’s history for chronic problems, we should ask the patient about past injuries and treatments, effect of function, and current symptoms. There are cardinal signs of musculoskeletal disease which are pain, swelling, redness, increased warmth, deformity, and loss of function. We should always begin with inspection, palpation, and ROM regardless of the region being examined. A complete evaluation will include a focused neurologic exam of the affected area.

IPPA is first used in examination then active and passive ROM exercises in specific joints. After this, vascular status, pulses, capillary refill, erythema, cyanosis, clubbing, and lymphatic are assessed. The last things to be examined are the specific tests for Upper Extremities Snuffbox Tenderness, Drop Arm Test, Impingement Sign, Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Test, and Flexor Digitorum Profundus. And these are the vascular and neurologic tests; Allen Test, Phalen’s Test, and Tinel’s Sign. And these are for the lowe extremities; Collateral Ligament Testing, Lachman Test, Anterior/Posterior Drawer Test, Ballotable Patella, and Milking the Knee. For the Back are the following tests Straight Leg Raising, FABER Test which stands for Flexion, ABduction, and External Rotation of the hip. It is used to differentiate hip or sacroiliac joint pathology from spine problems.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: