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# Financial Analysis of banking sector of India

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Published: Thu, 28 Sep 2017

Financial Analysis of banking sector of India: Special Reference to Private Sector Banks

Financial statements are those statements which provide information about profitability and financial position of a business. It includes two statements, i.e., profit & loss a/c or income statement and balance sheet or position statement. The income statement presents the summary of the income earned and the expenses incurred during a financial year. Position statement presents the financial position of the business at the end of the year. This paper is try to present all the components of balance sheet and profit and loss account in common size and analyze the individual item in Balance Sheet & Profit & Loss A/c as compare to total liabilities/Assets/Income/Expenditure.

Objectives

1. To compare the financial position with the help of Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account
2. To compare the financial performance through a common-size financial statement.

Introduction

After preparation of the financial statements, one may be interested in knowing the position of an enterprise from different points of view. This can be done by analyzing the financial statement with the help of different tools of analysis such as Common size statement analysis, funds flow analysis, cash flow analysis, Common size/ comparative statement analysis, etc. Here I have done financial analysis by Common size financial statement analysis. Common size financial statement analysis, also called vertical analysis, is just one technique that financial managers use to analyze their financial statements. It is not another type of income statement. It is just a tool that is used to analyze the income statement and position statement. With the use of this method of common-size financial statements, the comparisons between the financial statements of different companies become easy. In this method, each of figures in the financial statements are reported in the form of percentage. This percentage is the figure of one frequent base figure. This base figure determines the percentile of all the figures in the common-size financial statements. By using this method, it is easy to compare the financial statements of the same company from different periods or comparing the companies of different size. Due to this method, the bias between the company sizes is removed, and investor can effectively compare the financial statements. The selection of base figure depends on the financial statements’ head. In income statements, the revenue can be selected as the base figure and all the incomes and expenses can be measured against it.

Moreover, in the balance sheet of the company, all the related items are divided by the total of their items. For example, if the investor wants to find out the percentage of the inventory in balance sheet, he or she will have to divide the figure of inventory with the total assets.

Methodology

For the purpose of this study individual item of balance sheet converted into common size i.e.in 100 for this purpose an individual item in balance sheet divided by total assets/total liabilities and converted into 100.This is also to profit and loss account i.e. individual item in profit and loss account divided by total income/total expenditure and converted into100.For this analysis three years Balance Sheet and Profit and loss account of top three private banks viz.ICICI bank,HDFC bank and Axis bank was analyzed.

Balance Sheets as on 31st March 2011

 Capital and Liabilities Axis(Rs.000) HDFC(Rs.000) ICICI(Rs.000) Capital 4,105,458 0.169 4,652,257 0.167 11521129 0.283 Reserves and Surplus 185,882,797 7.658 249140426 8.982 539,388,244 13.277 Deposits 1,892,378,010 77.967 2,085,864,054 75.206 2,256,021,077 55.535 Borrowings 262,678,824 10.822 143,940,610 5.189 1,095,542,771 26.968 Other Liabilities and Provisions 82,088,627 3.382 289,928,565 10.453 159,863,467 3.935 Total 2,427,133,716 100 2,773,525,912 100 4,062,336,688 100 Assets Cash and Balance with RBI 138,861,630 5.721 251,008,158 9.050 209,069,703 5.146 Balance with Banks and Money at call and Short Notice 75,224,929 3.099 45,680,191 1.647 131,831,128 3.245 Investments 719,916,208 29.661 709,293,656 25.573 1,346,859,630 33.154 Advances 1,424,078,286 58.673 1,599,826,654 57.682 2,163,659,014 53.26 Fixed Assets 22,731,456 0.936 21,706,480 0.782 47,442,551 1.167 Other Assets 46,321,207 1.908 146,010,773 5.264 163,474,662 4.024 Total 2,427,133,716 100 2,773,525,912 100 4,062,336,688 100
 Axis(Rs.000) HDFC(Rs.000) ICICI(Rs.000) Income Interest Earned 151,548,058 76.589 199,282,122 82.13 259,740,528 79.62 Other Income 46,321,338 23.410 43,351,527 17.87 66,478,925 20.38 Total 197,869,396 100 242,633,649 100 326,219,453 100 Expenditure Interest Expended 85,918,230 52.394 93,850,839 46.15 169,571,515 61.728 Operating Expenses 47,794,281 29.145 71,529,141 35.171 66,172,492 24.088 Provision and Contingencies 30,271,979 18.460 37,989,660 18.680 38,961,684 14.183 Total 163,984,490 100 203,369,640 100 274,705,691 100

Profit & Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2011

Balance Sheets as on 31st March 2012

 Capital and Liabilities Axis(Rs.000) HDFC(Rs.000) ICICI(Rs.000) Capital 4,132,039 0.144 4,693,377 0.138 11551537 0.243 Reserves and Surplus 223,953,384 7.840 294,553378 8.716 592,500,885 12.509 Deposits 2,201,043,033 77.059 2,467,064,459 73.00 2,554,999,561 53.94 Borrowings 340,716,721 11.928 238,465,086 7.057 1,401,649,073 29.592 Other Liabilities and Provisions 86,432,757 3.026 374,318,690 11.077 175,769,846 3.710 Total 2,856,277,934 100 3,379,094,990 100 4,736,470,902 100 Assets Cash and Balance with RBI 107,029,214 3.747 149,910,945 4.436 204,612,935 4.319 Balance with Banks and Money at call and Short Notice 32,309,943 1.131 59,466,318 1.759 157,680,199 3.329 Investments 931,920,859 32.627 974,829,094 28.848 1,595,600,430 33.687 Advances 1,697,595,386 59.433 1,954,200,292 57.83 2,537,276,579 53.568 Fixed Assets 22,593,250 0.791 23,471,940 0.694 46,146,870 0.974 Other Assets 64,829,282 2.269 217,216,401 6.428 195,153,889 4.120 Total 2,856,277,934 100 3,379,094,990 100 4,736,470,902 100

Profit & Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2012

 Axis(Rs.000) HDFC(Rs.000) ICICI(Rs.000) Income Interest Earned 219,946,474 80.228 272,863,517 83.880 335,426,522 81.720 Other Income 54,202,163 19.771 52,436,949 16.12 75,027,598 18.279 Total 274,148,637 100 325,300,466 100 410,454,120 100 Expenditure Interest Expended 139,769,024 60.316 149,895,780 54.78 228,084,964 65.958 Operating Expenses 60,070,995 25.923 85,900,571 31.393 78,504,433 22.702 Provision and Contingencies 31,886,564 13.760 37,833,208 13.826 39,212,151 11.339 Total 231,726,583 100 273,629,559 100 345,801,548 100

Balance Sheets as on 31st March 2013

 Capital and Liabilities Axis(Rs.000) HDFC(Rs.000) ICICI(Rs.000) Capital 4,679,545 0.137 4,758,838 0.117 11581197 0.216 Reserves and Surplus 326,399,054 9.584 363881809 8.925 655,478,392 12.211 Deposits 2,526,135,881 74.176 2,960,917,699 72.621 2,926,136,257 54.511 Borrowings 439,510,984 12.906 394,966,127 9.687 1,453,414,944 27.076 Other Liabilities and Provisions 108,881,120 3.197 352,705,377 8.651 321,336,021 5.986 Total 3,405,606,584 100 4,077,229,850 100 5,367,946,811 100 Assets Cash and Balance with RBI 147,920,883 4.343 146,308,790 3.588 190,527,309 3.549 Balance with Banks and Money at call and Short Notice 56,428,716 1.656 129,002,845 3.164 223,647,879 4.166 Investments 1,137,375,370 33.397 1,109,604,124 27.214 1,713,935,993 31.929 Advances 1,969,659,574 57.835 2,472,451,151 60.640 2,902,494,351 54.07 Fixed Assets 23,556,420 0.691 27,733,162 0.680 46,470,587 0.865 Other Assets 70,665,621 2.074 192,129,778 4.712 290,870,692 5.418 Total 3,405,606,584 100 4,077,229,850 100 5,367,946,811 100

Profit & Loss Account for the year ended 31st March 2013

 Axis(Rs.000) HDFC(Rs.000) ICICI(Rs.000) Income Interest Earned 271,825,744 80.579 358,610,213 83.409 400,755,969 82.764 Other Income 65,511,063 19.420 71,329,645 16.590 83,457,012 17.235 Total 337,336,807 100 429,939,858 100 484,212,981 100 Expenditure Interest Expended 175,163,111 61.343 196,954,474 54.567 262,091,848 65.366 Operating Expenses 69,142,375 24.214 115,518,963 32.005 90,128,837 22.478 Provision and Contingencies 41,236,992 14.441 48,463,621 13.427 48,737,569 12.155 Total 285,542,478 100 360,937,058 100 400,958,254 100

Capital to Total Liabilities

 Year Name of Bank Axis HDFC ICICI 2010-11 0.16 0.16 0.28 2011-12 0.14 0.13 0.24 2012-13 0.13 0.11 0.21

Interpretation

Capital Common size statement of ICICI Bank was more than Axis Bank & HDFC Bank in these three years. It is also seen that in all these three years Capital Common size statement of these banks were decreased consistently.

Reserve and surplus to Total Liabilities

 Year Name of Bank Axis HDFC ICICI 2010-11 7.68 8.98 13.27 2011-12 7.84 8.71 12.50 2012-13 9.58 8.92 12.21

Interpretation

Common size statement of Accumulated Reserve and Surplus of ICICI Bank was more than Axis Bank & HDFC Bank, but this Common size statement consistently decreases. This Common size statement of Axis bank consistently increases.

Deposits to Total Liabilities

 Year Name of Bank Axis HDFC ICICI 2010-11 77.96 75.20 55.53 2011-12 77.05 73.00 53.94 2012-13 74.17 72.62 54.51

Interpretation

Deposit Common size statement Axis bank was more than HDFC & ICICI bank; however this Common size statement of Axis bank and HDFC bank consistently decreases.

Borrowings to Total Liabilities

 Year Name of Bank Axis HDFC ICICI 2010-11 10.82 5.18 26.96 2011-12 11.92 7.05 29.59 2012-13 12.90 9.68 27.07

Interpretation

As regards to borrowings, ICICI bank has more borrowings than Axis bank and HDFC bank, it is also depicts that borrowings of Axis bank and HDFC bank consistently increases.

Other liabilities & Provisions to Total Liabilities

 Year Name of Bank Axis HDFC ICICI 2010-11 3.38 10.45 3.93 2011-12 3.02 11.07 3.71 2012-13 3.19 8.65 5.98

Interpretation

Other liabilities and provisions of HDFC bank was more than Axis bank and ICICI bank and it is upto10% on an average, however the axis bank & ICICI bank maintains this Common size statement upto 3% on an average.

Cash & Balances with RBI to Total Assets

 Year Name of Bank Axis HDFC ICICI 2010-11 5.72 9.05 5.14 2011-12 3.74 4.43 4.31 2012-13 4.34 3.58 3.54

Interpretation

Cash balance of HDFC bank in year 2010-11 was in highest Common size statement. Cash balance of HDFC bank and ICICI bank continuously decreases.

Balance with Banks and Money at call and Short Notice to Total Assets

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