Case Study Of Keppel In Tianjin Environmental Sciences Essay

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In PDD1, we identified China's real estate market and Keppel Land's marketing style and challenges faced by them when they are developing in China. In PDD2, we follow up with the latest project that Keppel Land is taking to collaborate with Singapore and Chinese government to develop an eco-city in Tianjin. This is a major project of an eco-city of a large scale that has high level of commitment from both governments. Throughout this project, we realise that there are different level of marketing approach and even more complex compared to PDD1. Furthermore, we were exposed to a more macro level of marketing which involves various sectors including retail, office, hotel, complex, service apartment and many more. However, in the interest of time, we only focus on the residential component. Nonetheless, we did not only base on our own thoughts ' we did throughout research and also interview expats, staffs and the General Manager of Marketing and Assistant General Manager of Marketing of Keppel Land.


In 2007, half of the world's population was defined as living in cities, and there is a need for sustainable urban planning and development. This is especially true in urbanising China, where pollution levels have reached an unhealthy level.

From 2010 to 2025, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development estimate that 300 million Chinese living in rural areas now will move into cities, raising the need for urbanization in China. As a result, it will adversely contribute to environmental degradation.

According to a 2007 studies done by the World Bank:

? 16 in 20 (80%) heavily polluted cities are located in China

? 1 in 5 (20%) people living in China breathes in heavily polluted air

In April 2007, our Senior Minister, Mr Goh Chok Tong proposed the idea of a joint project to be done by Singapore and Peoples' Republic of China (PRC). With the agreement from Premier Wen Jia Bao of PRC, Tianjin was chosen out of the four given sites (Tianjin, Tangshan, Baotou and Urumqi) and was confirmed in the Framework Agreement on the development of the eco-city.

1.1 Layout Overview

Chapter 2 introduces the meaning of an eco-city and the significance of sustainability today and what the term 'eco-city' means and also examines China's eco-city. Chapter 3 provides details of the master plan of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City and the projected outcome and vision of the whole eco-city zero in on the eco-city itself, providing information about its strategic location, features and attributes, viability and sustainability. Chapter 4 showcases Keppel Land's stake in Tianjin eco-city and the launch of their first phase, Seasons Park. Chapter 5 provides information about Seasons Park and the marketing strategies involved. Chapter 6 examines the limitations of this report and provides recommendations. This is followed by the conclusion which summarises the main points in this report.

1.2 Objectives and Scope of Study

In this report we will be covering the following:

' To find out the rationale of eco-city in China

' The eco-city features in Tianjin eco-city

' To find out the marketing strategies adopted by Keppel Land in Tianjin eco-city

' To find out how developers overcome challenges in the green-market

' Evaluate the success of the eco-city concept in the initial phase

1.3 Research Methods, Literature and Theoretical Review

Over the course of research and compiling this project, we have read through reports and articles on various websites and have come across parallel situations faced by other eco-cities in China.

We have found out about the various issues and challenges faced by eco-cities in China. A more recent news article wrote about the success of this project with Keppel Land where at least 90% of the residential development, was sold in the first phase. We also did a comparison study of different eco cities in China and other parts of the world.

An interview was done with Ms Jacquelyn Wong, Assistant Marketing General Manager of Keppel Land. She gave us an insight on the residential aspect of Keppel Land's plans and its surrounding infrastructure and also the buyers' needs and recommendation by architects.

An extensive comparative study was made to compare among other eco cities and Keppel Land's marketing strategy on its residential development, Seasons Park. It will highlight challenges and successes made by the various projects.

A throughout online research was done to back the objectives of this report. Legitimate websites set-up by the various government committees from both countries provided a huge amount of information found in this report.

2 Introduction to Eco-City

What is an eco-city and does it differ from a sustainable city? Rodney R. White describes the eco-city as 'a city that provides an acceptable standard of living for its human occupants without depleting the ecosystems and biochemical cycles on which it depends'; he believes it to be the most durable kind of settlement that humans can build.

What defines an eco-city is when the city is 'doing more with less' not only by going with natural flows but also by helping to regenerate those natural systems.'

The following ways describes how a city can be as ecologically friendly as possible:

Berkeley: building cities for a healthier future (R. Register, 1987)

In short, an eco-city enhances the quality of health, life, the area, country and the planet. Today, when we talk about an eco-city, people tend to raise a brow and question the practicality of it, especially having one in an Asian country.

2.1 Eco-City in China

China is the world's superlative place for experimentation and innovation for green technologies based on surveys with top eco-city builders. In addition, pilot cities are deploying faster based on merit for its small land size and a lower cost projected. Generally, upon the discovery of a workable solution for the deployment of a pilot city, the upshot will be at a scale that is almost unimaginable.

China remains zealous to uphold their image on sustainability to the world through the various developments and improvement of a city area that is able to self sustain without any detrimental impacts to its surrounding. Undoubtedly, to achieve the goals towards sustainability, it takes one successful city to start the ball rolling. However, the positive effects of sustainable cities will only be present over a period of time.

In the process of achieving an eco-city, there are also several upsets involved. One example is the UK-designed Dongtan eco-city. The initial schedule to usher in the world expo was extended due to political issues which resulted in the permit being lapsed and construction works came to a halt. Just as in particular, the development of Huangbaiyu eco-city located in Benxi, Liaoning was unsuccessful owing to factors such as the conflict of interest between parties' involved, lack of communication and oversights, desire for rapid scale and the use of faulty materials. Thus, such factors as mentioned above can determine the success or failure of an eco-city development.

2.2 Eco-Cities and Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park in China

Tianjin Eco-City Dongtan Eco-City Suzhou Industrial Park

Location Tianjin Binhai New Area, China Chongming in Shanghai, China Suzhou, China

Land Size 31.23 km2 86 km2 258 km2

Estimated Population 350,000 500,000 568,000

Barrier-free accessibility Yes No No

Water Quality Portable water directly from taps

More than half supplied by rain capture and recycled grey water

Water is tapped from the Tai Lake

Waste Management 60% of all waste will be recycled

Treated sewage will be channel led into a lake which will supplement water supplies for local communities Organic waste is burned in an incinerator, catering for part of the town's electricity requirements.

Turf and vegetation cover the roofs, a natural form of insulation that also recycles waste water.

Up to 80% of solid waste is re'cycled Sewage and dangerous waste disposal collected, treated and disposed properly according to the national standards

Transportation 90% of trips within the eco-city should be in the form of green trips via non-motorized transport Connected by cycle routes and public transport corridors. The roads are laid out so that walking or cycling to work is quicker than -driving.

Pollution-free buses powered by fuel cells

Designed small, lightweight vehicles that consume little energy Many transport links from and to the park (Yangtze River, the East China Sea, to Nanjing)

Close proximity to Shanghai

Renewable Energy 15% of the energy utilized

Types: geothermal, hydropower & solar power City will be largely powered by renewable energy ' the wind, the sun and biomass

Wind turbines-Powered by wind power but also solar energy and fuel extracted from municipal waste Power is tapped from three different sources with a dual feed system, ensuring sufficiency and reliability

Employment Create 50% employment for residents in the city

Create more employment for local graduates

Societal Clusters of inclusive, close-knit communities cutting across demographics

Helps to handle urban overcrowding- Prevent China from curbing its world-leading carbon emissions Six times more space for pedestrians

An intranet service forecasts travel times and connects people who want to share a car Living Amenities (international schools & hospitals, sports centers, houses, serviced apartments, shopping malls, car hire operators and even an amusement park)

Economical Long-term savings, financial and ecological, will quickly outweigh initial costs Realize basic modernization and build itself into a development zone of international competitiveness

Establishing environmental protection investment mechanisms related to social economic development

2.3 Challenges for a Sustainable Urban China

The urban growth in China has proved to generate various challenges and problems despite the well structured plan related to urban development for a sustainable city. These challenges and problems was a direct impact created in relation to the government planning policies, implemented in year 2005.

2.3.1 Depletion in Natural Resources

With rapid urbanization, China faces scarcity of natural resources supply owing to its low efficiency in utilizing resources, pollution, environmental damage, poor wastewater treatment and the increase difficulties in obtaining certain resources such as petroleum and electricity. These eventually caused water resource shortage which strained some northern cities to limit their water supply. With urban population and quality of life escalating, the demand for clean and superior energy also increases significantly. Additionally, the dependent on foreign oil and coal is growing. Thus, increases the difficulties for China to achieve its goal as an eco-city.

2.3.2 Environmental Degradation

Urbanization in China has post many detrimental impacts to the environment such as desertification, floods, droughts and pollutions. These impacts have worsened the air and water quality in China.

Another challenge towards the sustainable development was the solid wastes in China which was mainly due to the increasing amount and impact of untreated hazardous wastes on the environment. Almost two thirds of the cities are amazed by the sum of refuse left in the suburbs and along rivers that caused serious water pollution, decline in water quality and the wide spread of infectious diseases. Accumulating problems as above have led to the continuous degradation of the environment, posing a threat towards extinction.

2.3.3 Urban Infrastructure

Vehicular population in urban areas has been rising by more than 15% per annum. As such, many obstacles in public transportation were faced in China whereby many cities choose public transport as a mode of last resort. These problems have continued to impose major pressure on land development, resulting in the conversion of agricultural land to urban areas meant for transportation infrastructure development, leading to environmental degradation. This posed a significant risk of China becoming over-dependent on car-based transportation and heightens the difficulties towards a sustainable city.

2.3.4 Gaps in Regional Development

China housed a huge population especially in the developed region. The increasing activities in the urban area have overtaken the agricultural land, leaving only a substantial amount in the suburbs areas. As a result, it drives peasants off the ground and transforms the pattern of land-use pushing them to abandon arable land.

Given the poor living and overcrowding conditions in the central areas of the city, urban redevelopment has improved the quality of the built environment. However, social interaction among residents is also changing with the fast pace of modern life. Residents have become less integrated and socialized, despite being in a shared living environment. Thus, increases the difficulty to create a community that is vibrant with the widening gap in regional development.

2.3.5 Effects on Low-Income Population

Many cities have moved heavily polluting industries to areas where many poor migrants live and the polluted water and air in these areas have a negative effect on their health. Urban housing for rural migrants often lacks basic amenities and is of lower quality that the average for urban residents in the same income category.

On the whole, for China to meet the urban challenges which may hinder the development towards sustainable cities, appropriate management frameworks should be in place so as to accommodate the low-income population.

3 Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City

The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City is an agreement between the governments of China and Singapore to develop a socially harmonious, environmentally friendly and resource-conserving city in China. Designed to be practical, replicable and scalable, the Tianjin eco-city will demonstrate the determination of both countries in tackling environmental protection, resource and energy conservation, and sustainable development, and serve as a model for sustainable development for other cities in China.

The Singapore government formed a Ministerial Committee in 2011 in order to improve the coordination and support among its agencies for the project ' a sign that reflects the importance of the project to the Singapore government.

3.1 Location

The eco-city site is located 40 km from the Tianjin city centre and 150 km from Beijing. The site is 10 km from the core district of the Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA), with the southern tip of the site only a 5 to 10 minute drive from the TEDA, the current driving force behind Tianjin's economic growth.

Why choose Tianjin?

' Strategically located next to the major highways that link the eco-city to Tianjin Port, Tianjin Airport, Tianjin City and Beijing.

' Tianjin being one of China's four municipalities located in the heart of Bohai Rim. It is known to be the third largest city after Beijing and Shanghai. It houses the largest port in North China and it has a growing population of about 11 million.

' It is one of its kind eco-industrial parks in China built completely in compliance to eco-city's green building evaluation standards, a system that draws the best standards from Singapore's Green Mark and China's Green Star standards.

Why choose this specific location in Tianjin?

' The eco-city site is located 40 km from the Tianjin city centre and 150 km from Beijing. The site is 10 km from the core district of the Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA), with the southern tip of the site only a 10-minute drive from the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA).

' Existing infrastructures that supports this project, like the good transport network that is backed by neighbouring cities-Beijing would benefit the industry clusters in TEDA as it increases the conveniences for work. Hence, inevitably raises the demand for homes. There are also evident growths of investors fluxing in this area which can be used by investors and property developers to expand and grow.

3.2 Planning Vision

In the planning of the Tianjin eco-city, one of the main guiding principles was to adopt a holistic approach towards creating and designing a liveable, efficient and compact city, which would be developed in an ecologically sound and environmentally sustainable manner.

3.3 Master Plan

The Master Plan of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City lays down the guidelines for the eco-city's development as a scalable, practicable and replicable model for sustainable development for other cities in China and around the world. It was jointly developed by the China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, the Tianjin Institute of Urban Planning and Design, and the Singapore planning team led by the Urban Redevelopment Authority. It has been endorsed by the Ministerial-level eco-city Joint Working Committee and will be submitted to the Tianjin Municipal Government for formal approval in due course.

The basic building block of the eco-city Master Plan is a single cell, or "Eco-Cell", that serves to integrate the different land uses within a modular 400m by 400m grid. Educational institutions, commercial areas, workplaces and recreational areas are distributed within these Eco-Cells and located close to the residential areas to minimize commuting. Together, these Eco-Cells add up to form neighbourhoods, districts, and eventually the urban centres.

Another highlight of the Master Plan is an "Eco-Valley" running through the eco-city as a north-south connector. It serves as the main ecological green spine and incorporates water-sensitive urban design elements, such as eco-swales and dry streams. The Eco-Valley will connect the major transit nodes, residential areas, community facilities and commercial centres. It will be a key public open space and focal point of the eco-city.

3.4 Design Features

The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City seeks to address the challenge of sustainable development in a holistic and balanced manner, and this aim is underpinned by the concept of man living in harmony with his fellow man, with the economy and with the environment. This culminates in some distinguishing features of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City:

Design Features Characteristics

1. Energy Efficiency and Use of Clean, Renewable Energy ' Solar energy and geothermal energy

' For a start, the eco-city will draw on waste heat from a major nearby power plant to provide district heating.

2. Green Buildings ' Green building standards

' Wind and solar energy

' Energy-conservation and environment-friendly mindset will also be cultivated in its residents.

3. Green Transportation ' An efficient and easily accessible public transport system

' Green trips, which include public transportation, cycling and walking,

' The target is for at least 90 per cent of the trips within the eco-city to be via walking, cycling or use of public transport.

4. Ecologically Friendly ' Natural environment

' Existing wetlands and biodiversity will be preserved.

' Extensive greenery will be a distinctive feature of the eco-city, with lush green spaces and recreational spaces sensitively interspersed throughout the city.

5. Water Management ' Water recycling and more efficient use of water resources

' The eco-city is located in an area of low rainfall. Water from rivers flowing through the region will not be able to meet the needs of the eco-city.

' To overcome this constraint and to reduce its reliance on external water sources, the eco-City will draw a significant part of its water supply from non-traditional sources such as desalinated water and recycled domestic and industrial wastewater.

' To provide a quality living environment for residents, tap water will be potable and in line with PRC and international standards.

6. Waste Management ' Integrated waste management

' Emphasis on the "3Rs" of waste management - Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. The conservation of resources and reduction of waste generation will be encouraged through

' Public education programmes

' Non-organic waste will be recycled and reused, while organic waste will be used as biomass for energy.

7. Economic Vibrancy ' R&D centre for environment-related technologies

' Eco-themed recreational tours

' Economically viable

8. Social Harmony ' The eco-city will place emphasis on the development and strengthening of social harmony among the residents.

' Subsidized public housing

' Communal amenities and facilities will be widely accessible

' Barrier-free accessibility

9. Heritage Conservation ' Respect local heritage

' Ji Canal, a canal with 1,000 years of history, will be retained

' Two existing villages within the eco-city site, Qingtuozi and Wuqi, will be conserved through adaptive reuse or partial rebuilding.

3.5 Seven Sectors of Landscaping

The city will be divided into seven sectors consisting of the Lifescape, Solarscape, Urbanscape, Earthscape, Windscape, Eco Corridors and an Eco Valley. Each sector will feature its own unique characteristics as below.


The Lifescape made up of soil mounds will balance the apartments and buildings


The Solarscape will hold the city's administrative and civic centre. Located on the waterfront, the area will feature a floating stage for public events


This is the focal point of the eco-city. Urbanscape has stacked concept interconnecting bridges at numerous levels for efficient use of vertical space


The Earthscape is the suburb of the city with stepped concepts to maximise public green space


The Windscape will respect local heritage. The profile of the Ji Canal, Qingtuozi which is a century old, will be retained. Two existing villages within the eco-city site will also be conserved through adaptive reuse of partial rebuilding.

Eco Corridors

The four eco corridors also serves as relief spaces within the eco-city where minimal, low impact activities can take place.

Eco Valley

The eco valley will serve as a transit corridor from which a light rail transit system operates, allowing residents to easily commute within the site, as well as connect to neighbouring townships and surrounding developments.

3.6 Attributes of Tianjin Eco-City

The above graphs show an increasing affluence of the Chinese. Therefore, affordability and willingness to spend can encourage investors to be confident that there are consumers out there. Where there is an increase in income, firms setting up in Tianjin would have to ensure that the rates are competitive.

' An important manufacturing centre of China- labour and skills are constantly improving

' Cheaper labour cost as compared to eastern China- attract more investors

' High level of government endorsement and support

' Sense of security - developments in Tianjin eco-city are carried by the biggest developer from many countries

' Enjoyed good infrastructure support- reduce the use of private transport

' Attract business investors so that residents do not need to travel out of Tianjin eco-city to work- reduces the need of private transport

' Building an Age-Friendly Eco Sanctuary for the Elderly- provision of nursing and medical services

3.7 Investment in Tianjin Eco-City

This project consists of two consortiums, Singapore and Chinese consortium with a share of 50:50. The Singapore consortium is made up of 3 main categories namely Keppel Group, Qatar Investment Authority and Investors. Keppel Group has committed itself to target 50% of the investment. Qatar Investment Authority invested 10% while 40% of the investments will come from investors.

The Chinese consortium has 45% of the investments from Tianjin TEDA Investment Holdings Co., 20% from the China Development Bank and 45% from investors.

This joint project with more than 250 registered enterprises, have garnered up to RMB 12.4 billion in total of registered capital, with committed investments amounting to RMB 21.4billion.

There are many opportunities presented at the Tianjin eco-city. They are:

1. Development of Infra & Utilities in transportations, water supplies, electrical supply, telecommunications and many more

2. Developers will work towards the land development of the industrial, commercial and residential industry.

3. Approving use of Research & Development Incubation. For example, making prototypes of vehicles, buildings, technology and many more.

4. The development manpower that is equipped with unique sustainability skills

Tianjin eco-city is an internationalized development and from PDD1, we concluded that China consumers favor international developers and they brands international developers as high class.

4 Keppel Land's stake in Tianjin Eco-City

Keppel Land is privileged to contribute to the transformation of Singapore into world-renowned Garden City which showcases some of the world's best solutions in sustainable urban living. Keppel Land will build on its Singapore experience for Seasons Park in Sino-Singapore Tianjin eco-city. Keppel Land has been appointed the project manager for the development of the site, which will be carried out in phases.

Keppel Group has taken up a 36.6-ha site, which will be developed in phases and expected to yield about into a total of 4,995 homes plus office and retails with Gross Floor Area of about 680,000 sq m by Keppel Land. It is strategically located along the Eco-Valley, in close proximity to the Eco-Business Park and the commercial sub-centre which is located next to a planned light rail station.

4.1 Phase One Development Plan

Keppel Corporation Limited and Keppel Land Limited will take up interests of 45% and 55% respectively in a 36.8-ha site located in the 4-sq km Start-Up Area (SUA) of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin eco-city (Tianjin eco-city). The total capital investment cost of Keppel's development is about RMB 705 million (approximately S$148.5 million).

Phase 1 is expected to yield about 1,760 homes with a total Gross Floor Area (GFA) of about 170,000 sq m and commercial developments (including office and retail) covering a total GFA of about 40,000 sq m.

Seasons Park, the first phase of the Keppel development, launched its quality eco-homes in October 2010.

5.1 Location

Seasons Park is strategically located along the Eco-Valley, the ecological green spine linking major transit nodes, residential developments and commercial centres within the eco-city. The development is also in close proximity to the Eco-Business Park and the commercial sub-centre.

Well connected by various transportation networks, Seasons Park is highly accessible from all the key cities and economic districts.

Attributes on location

Firstly, a main road is situated in the middle with surrounding proposed amenities and there will also be an upcoming university and eco-park right located around the corner.

Secondly, Seasons Park is also located in the area of the South Business Centre which is near to the business hub with industries supporting the area.

5.3.1 Macro Scale Price Comparison

We will be discussing the various comparisons made with the different districts in Tianjin and made a comparison against the price per square meters for Quarter 4 2010 performance report.

In addition, with the effect of buyer's expectations on the residential prices, a sharp rebound was seen in Q4 2010. A total of 685,128 sq m area was transacted in the first two months of Q4 2010, an increase of 333,073 sq m area. The average prices per square feet for the individual districts are indicated as below:

In both Q3 and Q4, the land transactions in Tianjin remained stable. Residential plot for subsidized housing also remained stable in supply and many plots were transacted successfully.

With huge amount of subsidized housing supply, strong demand is buoyant. Hence, contributes to the increase of housing prices. In additional, with the boost of new-fangled land supply in the prospect, the pace of rapidly increasing prices is expected to become more rational. In the long run, the real estate market will continue stable and develop healthily.

5.3.2 Micro Scale Price Comparison

5.3.3 Phasing Strategy

Phasing Strategy (not too cheap, neither too expensive)

The average price for a sale during the soft launch was about RM 11,000 ' S$2,124 (US$1,643) per sq m. The prices are arrived based on the comparables of the nearby developments as they have finished before the establishment of the seasons park. By comparing the different developments, together with own market intelligence and projections, prices of the apartments are set differently, based on the difference between the number of bedrooms, features, additional factors, location, amenities, facilities proximity, and units/floor. Adding on, a comparison on the pricing was also done with the city centre of the similar kind of facilities provided.

However, prices of the apartments will be expected to increase in the future due to some factors. Firstly, after the proposed amenities are built, prices of the properties will increased. Adding on to that, future developments will be constructed nearer to the main road. As the property is nearer to the main road, it can fetch a higher price compared to those that are further away. These are the factors that will cause an increase in price of the property.

Thirdly, the prime area will be located near the main road, facing the train terminal, subway. The Phase I of our project, which is the back from the main road, has kicked off. Thus, when the future amenities starts to build in, we will be able to fetch a higher property value when we also build our building near the main road. However, if we were to start off the development near the main road, it will be difficult for us to price our property in the future when the proposed amenities are up.

Hence, we believe that with the various development in Tianjin being accomplished, especially the business hub, there will be a high demand for residential needs.

5.5 Promotion

(promote whole eco-city) tv advertisement in good cities ' putting macro advantages information in showflat (economy graphs) 'Singapore style in China, which one is bigger showflat, in city or site? advertising media trade representatives, government initiatives, incentives, branding (national development, not private) showflat and sales gallery (done by Singapore designer, finishes, timing of launch- good time? How many units? Look at takeup rate)

China is a very big country. Thus, the method of promotion used is critical. We do not want to advertise extensively, and end up advertising to the wrong target audience, which results in wasting resources, but at the same time, the promotion must reach out to our target audience. Thus, it is important to choose the right form, and amount of promotion method.

The Seasons Park is promoted via road show, show flat, and advertisement on hoardings / billboards. Soft advertising are also done, through the use of newspaper, SMSes, and radio. In additional, there is also a offsite gallery in the city that is mended by 2 sale agents in China with Keppel and.

Lastly, we also use our own database of the buyers who made a deal with us before the Tianjin eco-city project. Furthermore, to make it even more attractive, we give commission to buyers who invite their friends to buy.

This project is an overseas project in China and it is difficult for us to get ground data such as surveying people in China. So, we came up with our own evaluation based on our own thinking and recommendations after our extensive secondary data research and interview with Keppel Land.

After doing our comparison study with Dongtan and Suzhou Industrial Park, we felt that Tianjin eco-city rely mainly on its realistic and reasonable design to prevent itself from falling out of practicality. One of the major successful factors will be that Tianjin eco-city has a very strong government support with frequent checks being conducted by various leaders from Singapore and China.

We came out with an idea that Tianjin eco-city can implement to enhance the eco-friendly city. The government can set up a live website where residents can log-in to check on their homes' utilities usage and the recommended level of usage. The website will show graphs of every month usage and if residents were comply with a total usage below a certain level set, they will be rewarded. We feel that this program will in turn help the eco-city to be more environmental friendly when everyone plays their part.

Keppel Land definitely did a great job for their marketing segment. We have a few recommendations that could improve their promotion area, which is to put up economy banners of Tianjin and charts of sales of Seasons Park inside the show flat.

7 Conclusion

A Chinese government supporting fresh and innovative thinking about cities can be considered a very positive achievement. The swift progression and project will be due to the committed government representatives.

At last, we hope that Tianjin eco-city will be a big success and it will create a ripple effect all around the world and one day, Singapore will become an eco-country itself.