War Poetry And Other War Issues English Literature Essay

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The direct cause of the outbreak of World War I was the assassination of archduke Ferdinand in 1914. He was murdered by a Serbian, so Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum. But Serbia, who were supported by Russia, rejected it. And Austria-Hungary were allies with the Germans so when the Germans saw that Russia were mobilizing an army, they send a warning to Russia. And France, who had a treaty with Russia, were now at war with Germany. And Britain had a treaty with Belgium and France also joined the war. During the war more countries joined the war for example the U.S. Because on the western front the troops were evenly matched and because defensive weapons were more effective that weapons used in attack, the war became a war in trenches. In 1918 the Germans started there last offensive and after this the Allies advanced. And 9th of November Kaiser Willem II surrendered.

Look at the pictures and ask yourself the following questions:

-What do these photos suggest about the mood of the new soldiers?

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All the soldiers are smiling, and the look happy that they will be heading towards the battlefield. Also there are allot of man who want to enlist and they look very forward to it.

-The mood of the civilians?

The civilians are also smiling and are probably very happy that these men are going to the battlefield and it looks like they're expecting that all of these men will return or at least the majority. And especially the female civilians seem to find it interesting that these young men are going to war.

-What is the overall feeling that these photos evoke?

These photos evoke the feeling that nobody is worried that some will not return and they look eager to go to war. And they are supported by the many civilians that are looking and cheering them when they go.

-How would you describe the weaponry of the photos of The Somme in 1916?

The artillery is massive, and because they were so huge most of them needed to be transported by train. And these weapons are likely to have a devastating impact on soldiers and buildings.

II. Poster assignment

1. Look up the meaning of the poetic devices symbolism and imagery.

Symbolism:

A symbol is a graphical, written, vocal or physical object which represents another, usually more complex, physical or abstract object, or an object property.

Imagery:

The use of expressive or evocative images in poetry, art, literature, or music.

2. Which symbols and imagery can you identify in each poster?

Poster I.

Symbols=

-marines->with the hat.

-suitcases.

-navy ships.

Imagery=

-It looks happy and it has light colors, which suggests that war is just a holiday, from which you'll return after a couple of weeks.

Poster II.

Symbols=

-soldiers.

-destroyed buildings.

Imagery=

-They are all walking together which suggests brotherhood.

-The image is very dark, so it's very sober.

3. Poster I: What does the circular image remind you of and how it's achieved? What does this symbol mean in the context of this poster?

It reminds me of holiday, like postcard. It's achieved by using light colors and drawing nice weather, calm seas and the fact that the soldier doesn't carry weapons but only a bag. So the symbol stand for the fact that the navy doesn't take part in the war and that so will see allot of places and having allot of free time in these places, like a holiday.

4. Describe the soldier's mood. Which aspects of the poster lead to your conclusion?

The soldier looks eager and happy. He doesn't look afraid and it looks like he has allot of confidence. The aspects that lead to my conclusion were his facial expressions, the fact that he stands up straight so confindence.

5. Poster II: Describe the textual and visual references of to darkness and light. How are darkness and light symbolically used in this poster?

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They all look towards the light, so they want to stay in the city. But they are still going threw the darkness(war). And after reading the text, it is clear that going to war is an obligation.

Light symbolically stands for peace, home and victory. Darkness symbolically stands for war, the path towards light.

III. Life in the trenches

A. General information

1. What was the function of communication trenches?

The communication trenches connected the front line with the support line and the support line with the reserve line. The function of communication trenches was to allow movement of messages, supplies, and men among the trenches. Some underground networks connected bunkers and gun emplacements with the communication trenches.

2. Was life in the trenches the same for every fighting country?

No, the allies had 4 "types" of trenches. The first, the front-line trench (or firing-and-attack trench), was located from 50 yards to 1 mile from the German's front trench. Several hundred yards behind the front-line trench was the support trench, with men and supplies that could immediately assist those on the front line. The reserve trench was dug several hundred yards further back and contained men and supplies that were available in emergencies should the first trenches be overrun.

German trench life was much different. They constructed elaborate and sophisticated tunnel and trench structures, sometimes with living quarters more than 50 feet below the surface. These trenches had electricity, beds, toilets and other niceties of life that contrasted sharply with the open-air trenches of the Allies.

3. What was the purpose of a three-week rotation schedule in the trenches?

On average, daily losses for the British soldiers were nearly 7,000 men killed, disabled or wounded. To keep morale as high as possible and to keep the soldiers on the front as fresh as possible, the British came up with a three-week rotation schedule. A week in the front trench was followed by a week in the support trench, which was followed by a week in the reserve trench. During this third week, the men could relax with sports, concerts and plays, keeping their minds away from life on the front.

4. Why did attacks primarily take place at dawn?

Assaults against the enemy trenches were suicide if begun in broad daylight, so attacks tended to take place just at dawn.

5. What did soldiers do at night?

Once the sun went down, men crawled out of their trenches. If they're out of the trenches, they're going to investigate the layout of the terrain and eavesdrop near the enemy lines to pick up information on their strengths, weakness and strategies.

6. What are iron rations?

The so-called 'Iron Ration' comprised an emergency ration of preserved meat, cheese, biscuit, tea, sugar and salt carried by all British soldiers in the field for use in the event of their being cut off from regular food supplies.

7. Why do you think that so many soldiers were convicted of inflicting wounds upon themselves?

Because if you're wounded on the front-line, you may go away from the fight. But if you got shot by the enemy, the effects will be much more dangerous than if you do it yourself.

B. WWI document archive

1. Now discuss the symbolism of darkness versus light. Can certain symbols change over time?

Darkness stands for bad times. Light stands for hope and better times. But in WWI these symbols were different. The fights took place at dawn so it was becoming light at the moment the fights took place and at night (darkness) it wasn't as dangerous as at dawn. So that made the meaning of the symbols change.

2. Look at the image of 'dawn' in the second text: How does the soldier describe yesterday's dawn' at the end of this excerpt? How does his description of dawn change by the next day?

He describes it as a good day with a lot of energy and action from the soldiers. I think that it was a new group of soldiers in the front trench. They were positive and looked forward to fight against the enemy.

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They are afraid for the future, what will happen. They are confused about what they are doing there, were is this fight for, what will the future bring and why is he fighting in this fight. A lot of confusion and no answers on the questions.

3. Look once more at the poster 'A wonderful opportunity for you' and compare McGill's description of dawn to the symbol of the sun in the poster. In what ways did WWI change the symbolism of sun/light/dawn?

Light meant, before WWI, hope, glory and a good day, but in WWI a meaning of light changed. Light means day and broad daylight. You were stupid if you went out the trenches to fight at broad daylight, because if you did that you were walking to your own grave. The fights took place at dawn so that meant also a lot of deaths. Another argument to change the meaning of light. The light came from the sun. The sun made the trenches to a filthy place. Rotting corpses and rats. It was disgusting.

You had some rest at night. Darkness became the light. Some hope and rest. The darkness also meant it that you've survived another day.

C. Poems and answers

1. Define the terms "metaphor" and "simile".

A metaphor is figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something in common. A metaphor expresses the unfamiliar (the tenor) in terms of the familiar (the vehicle). When Neil Young sings, "Love is a rose," "rose" is the vehicle for "love," the tenor.

And a simile is a figure of speech involving a comparison between two unlike entities. In a simile, unlike a metaphor, the resemblance is indicated by the words "like" or "as." Similes in everyday speech reflect simple comparisons, as in "He eats like a bird" or "She is slow as molasses." Similes in literature may be specific and direct or more lengthy and complex. The Homeric, or epic, simile, which is typically used in epic poetry, often extends to several lines.

2. Name some of the comparisons that Rosenberg makes and explain them.

Now you have touched this English hand, you will do the same to a German - it means that another rat will touch a German to, because there were so many rats in the trenches. So there should be enough on the German side, that will touch the German hands.

Haughty athletes, less chanced than you for life - it means that athletes have more chance on dying, because the athletes have to fight the war to and most of them will be shot and the rats won't be shot easily.

Poppies whose roots are in men's veins - The poppies' roots look like the veins of humans.

3. How is the nature portrayed in this poem (to what is it compared)?

As something that is very calm and quiet "To cross the sleeping green between". And it's compared to a living organism "Sprawled in the bowels of the earth", because bowels would mean something like intestines and that's something that a living organism has. The men that are fighting are also destroying the nature as you can read here "the torn fields of France".

4. How does the writer feel about life in the trenches?

The writer is very negative. He is talking about murder and about the chance of surviving. The trenches are also very dark, because "The darkness crumbles away", I wouldn't like to be there.

5. What function does the rat have in this poem?

When the rat runs to the other side of the trenches, he won't be shot and he can go wherever he wants to go. On the other hand, if a soldier attempted to run to the other side of the trenches, he would be shot. These soldiers don't have their freedom anymore, but the rat can go everywhere he likes to go. In the war one side will eventually lose, but the rats will never lose, because they can just live on. So it's much better to be a rat than a human who is fighting in the trenches.

IV. The war poets

1. Find information on the internet about Wilfred Owen. Rupert Brooke and Siegfried Sassoon. Write a short biography for each of them.

Wilfred Owen

Wilfred Owen was a British soldier and a poet. He was one of the leading poets of The First World War. He made some shocking poetry of the horrors of chemical warfare and of living in the trenches. The poem he is most known for is "Dulce et Decorum Est". He was killed in action when he was 25 years old at the Battle of the Sambre, just before the war ended. He was a friend of Siegfried Sassoon, another poet.

Rupert Brooke

Rupert Chawner Brooke was an English poet, who wrote poems about The First World War. Unlike Wilfred Owen, he has never experienced combat. He became very famous for the poem "The Soldier". He was one of the most important members of the Dymock poets, which were living in the village of Dymock, he spent some time there before the war. He also belonged to a literary group which was known as the Georgian poets.

He died 23 april 1915, when he was 27 years old on the Greek island of Skyros.

Siegfried Sassoon

Siegfried Sassoon was an English poet and author. He became known as a writer of anti-war poems in The First World War. He was born in Matfield, Kent. Driven by patriotism, he joined the British Army when the war started. During the war he was known for his heroism, for example he singlehandedly captured a German trench. He was called "Mad Jack", because his actions were often suicidal. After the war he was beginning to express his homosexuality more openly and he died September 1967 at the age of 80.

2. Look up the definitions of the following poetic devices:

Alliteration

A stylistic device, or literary technique, in which successive words (more strictly, stressed syllables) begin with the same consonant sound or letter.

Assonance

The repetition of vowel sounds within a short passage of verse.

Consonance

The repetition of consonant sounds in a short sequence of words.

Imagery

The use of expressive or evocative images in poetry, art, literature, or music.

Metaphor

A rhetorical trope defined as a direct comparison between two or more seemingly unrelated subjects. This device is known for usage in literature, especially in poetry, where with few words, emotions and associations from one context are associated with objects and entities in a different context.

Meter

A measure of rhythmic quantity in poetry. The organized succession of groups of syllables at basically regular intervals in a line of poetry, according to definite metrical patterns. The unit of meter is the foot.

Rhyme

The pattern established by the arrangement of rhymes in a stanza or poem, generally described by using letters of the alphabet to denote the recurrence of rhyming lines.

Symbol

A symbol is a graphical, written, vocal or physical object which represents another, usually more complex, physical or abstract object, or an object property.

Tone

The poet's or persona's attitude in style or expression toward the subject. Tone can also refer to the overall mood of the poem itself, in the sense of a pervading atmosphere intended to influence the readers' emotional response and foster expectations of the conclusion.

Simile

And a simile is a figure of speech involving a comparison between two unlike entities. In a simile, unlike a metaphor, the resemblance is indicated by the words "like" or "as."

3. Now you are going to read the poems on the following pages. Before answering the specific questions, it is useful to look for examples of these poetic devices in each poem and to describe their effect. Make a diagram as in the example:

Poetic device

Definition

"The things …" (Guest)

"Dulce …" (Owen)

Metaphor / simile

See above

As when behind the cause they see the little place called home

Bent double, like old beggars under sacks

Symbol

See above

The flag

Devil's sick of sin

Imagery

See above

On the foam

The green sea

Rhyme

See above

aa bb cc

ab ab cd cd

Meter / Pacing

See above

Trochee

Anapest

Tone

See above

Hopeful

negative

Alliteration

See above

Grass is once more green

Knock-kneed

Consonance

See above

Peonies and pansies

Cursed through sludge

Assonance

See above

Pomp and pride

Plunges, guttering

Rhyme :

4. Rhyme: Define the rhyme scheme of this poem.

The Rhyme scheme in this poem is aa bb cc. Because die rhymes on why, red rhymes on bed and wall rhymes on all.

5. When you read the poem aloud, how would you describe its meter/pacing? What does it remind you of?

The pacing is very quick and I think that the meter is a trochee, it reminds me a bit of a children's poem or a song.

6. What effect does it have on the listener/reader?

It makes it sound innocent and the reader would think that they are fighting for a good cause.

Tone and images

7. How would you describe the poets mood and/or the emotions the poem evokes?

You can tell the poet is in a good mood, because his poem sounds very innocent. But if you read the poem further, then you can see that the poet is expressing some sort of nationalism, but he fights for his people and not for the queen or king.

8. What specific images contribute to the poet's tone? Why or how do these images affect the tone at large?

The landscapes, such as the peonies and the pansies and the budding apple tree, because it makes the poem much more innocent and the children, because children are innocent as well. These images effect the tone at large, because the images increase the innocence of the poem.

Dulce et Decorum est

Meter/rhyme:

9. Is there a clear meter and rhyme scheme when you hear this poem read aloud?

Every sentence got 10 syllables. The rhyme scheme is ABABCDCD. In the second stanza it's ABABCD. It seems like stanza 2 and 3 are different, but stanza 3 is almost the same as stanza 2, it's like one stanza splits into two stanzas.

10. Compare the first stanzas of both poems. Does this poem sound as song-like as the first poem? Why (not)?

No, because this song isn't as constant as the other one. So it's harder to make a song of it.

Tone/images:

11. What kind of mood is expressed in this poem? Does the meter support this mood?

This poem is written by his own point of view. He wrote for himself about his own experiences. The mood of this poem is painful, confrontational and heavy. He uses symbolisms and images to make his experience more understandable.

Alliteration/consonance/assonance:

12. Can you find some examples of 'consonance' and 'assonance'? What is the effect of the 'U' sounds in line 2 and 4?

In the second line he wrote 'knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge'. He means that they were all scared and that there were a lot of diseases at the battlefield. He wrote this to identify himself as one of the soldiers to remind us that war isn't far away, it's closer than people think.

13. Look at line 9. What is the effect of the use of one syllable words in this line?

The effect of the use of syllable words in this line is that you get the feeling that gas was a fritting weapon and that you have to put on you're gasmask very quick.

Additional analysis:

14. What does Owen describe here? What is the message? Do you agree with him or not?

In the last stanza he describes the type of horror more extensively. He describes what he saw see and felt on the battlefield. In this last stanza he is using many sorts of alliteration like 'wagon, watch, white, writhing' and 'a devil's sick of sin'. The message he's telling you is that the attitude towards war has changed. The war was during to long. This last stanza calls up many feelings for the reader. We agree with his point, because we think that he means that the effects and impact of war are massive.

Trough Darkness to Light?

15. Compare the titles of both poems. How do these titles relate to each other?

Both poems are about to die for your own country. This will mean that the soldiers can be proud of themselves. They gave their lives for their country to give the people in your country a safe and secure environment.

16. Now that you've read the two poems by Owen and Quest: which poem do you prefer and why? Do you agree with Owen's opinion or with Quest's about war?

We prefer the last poem (Dolce et Decorum), because we think that within this poem you can feel the emotion better. This poem describes the feelings of the eyewitnesses who experienced the war and you can almost feel how these men suffered. We think that's important if you can sense how the felt and what kind of emotion you can tell apart. That's important for a poem.

V. Online activities

1. When you see millions

What does the first line of the poem suggest to you about the scale of the devastation caused by the war?

The poem mentions millions of mouthless dead. Mouthless dead refers to the human skull which only can appear when they are actually dead. The amount of dead people isn't given precisely, but the word "millions" give away that it's about a large number of war victims.

Are there any clues in the first two lines to suggest that the poet is haunted by horrific images of the war?

Yes, the poem is about the fact that the image of large groups of soldiers who died, keep on turning back in dreams. This might suggest that the poet dreams of his bad experiences; the deaths of these soldiers. Also, to speak of the mouthless dead, is quite a morbid way to talk about soldiers who past away. The choice to use specifically these words may give away that the poet has been either traumatised or confronted with death.

It was typical for the dead to be treated with great respect and offered words of commiseration by their fellow soldiers.  In this poem the message is very different.  What do the lines

'Say not soft things as other men have said,

That you'll remember. For you need not so'

suggest to you? 

It gives me the idea that the poet finds it important to use harsh words about the terrible things that have happened. Only to make sure that others remember what humans have done to each other, and that it must never happen again. Because you don't need to do it.

Why does the poet suggest that you do not need to praise the soldiers who have died in the war?

He's playing with the idea that they only have their own point of view to blame for the things that happened to them. Because both sides approved to start slaughter each other. The fact that they came up with this idea, is the cause of the bad things that happened to them.

The language of the poem is both sensational and emotive - eg 'mouthless dead' and 'gashed head.'  

What is the impact of using this sort of language?

As I said in my answer of question 2, it gives the reader a more morbid idea of what happened, an exaggerated image of the deaths of these soldiers. The poet uses this way of speaking to give the reader a clearer view of what happened.

The poet suggests that when you see the millions you should not cry.  What reason does he give?

They fulfil no purpose in your wellbeing. They can't see what is going on with the people who are still alive, and still have to fight with their situation. For those who try to stay alive, and fight in a different way, life is much harder. Those who have died, haven't tried this way. And now they're dead, they have chosen the "easy" way.

What do you notice about the punctuation in these two lines?  How does this affect the sound here?

Because of the punctuation the poem looks, at this point, very easy and short. Only simple thoughts explained here.

Look at the picture of a mass grave from the Great War above.  Why do you think the poet describes the 'o'ercrowded mass?'

Well, I think the poet may be having some trauma's because of the images of mass graves he once saw. Again, he's talking in a very strange way about the dead. In a twisted kind of way. It's better to talk about mass graves instead of overcrowded mass. Now it's like they're still alive.

What do you think is meant by the words 'perceive one face that you loved heretofore'?  How is the focus different from that of the previous lines?

That means that even though the chances are very small, people still look for faces between the dead ones they might have known. Trying to recognise the dead people you knew when they were still alive, and you notice that they aren't what they once were anymore.

The poem's final line makes use of personification technique.  What do you understand by this term?  Use a dictionary to help you.

Personification is giving human traits (qualities, feelings, action, or characteristics) to non-living objects (things, colors, qualities, or ideas).For example: The window winked at me. The verb, wink, is a human action. A window is a non-living object.  

This line is a personification because death has been given the ability to "take" people for itself, for eternity.

How is death described?  Use a quotation from the poem to support your answer.

Death, in this poem, is described as something that wasn't necessary in these circumstances. It is more like an automatic reaction for what the human race has done to each other. You can see this the best in the following quotation: "how should they know it is not curses heaped on each gashed head?" And the short phrase "Give them not praise" is also very important.

Do you think the poem's message is harsh? Realistic? Shocking?  Give reasons for your answer.

I think the way the poem is written is quite harsh and extreme. I don't think you should think that you must judge all the soldiers in this war, for what they've done to each other. Of course, some of them were doing wrong, but there was a large number of soldiers that joined to protect their motherlands, or because they had no choice. They way the poet uses words is quit weird and makes it nearly unbelievable.

(15) Think about the message of the poem.  Do you think this poem would have been published in the newspapers during the war? Give reasons for your answers.

Most definitely not. During that period of time you had to support those who defended your own country. I guess you would be some kind of traitor to publish something like that. The poem makes it look like this war was not necessary. And I think most of the people in that time would have disagreed.

2. Base details

IF I were fierce, and bald, and short of breath,

The title 'Base Details' is a pun on 'base' which can also mean dishonourable.  The poem begins in a splendid style with a slanderous caricature of majors at the base.  It begins with verse full of zest and energy.

1.  What are the two meanings of 'Base' in the poem's title?  Why do you think that Sassoon has chosen to use this word?

The first meaning is base as in a military base. The second meaning is dishonour, what probably means that Sassoon thinks that the way majors act in military bases is without honour.

2.  What do you think is going to come next?  Click on the first line to continue.

The poet will probably explain what he would do if he was one of the people who are most unfit for being a soldier.

I'd live with scarlet Majors at the Base,

1.  What do these two lines suggest about Sassoon's feelings towards the 'Majors at the Base'?

I guess he thinks they're cowards, because people who are not able to fight that well often joins them at base he says. He thinks they let the soldiers do al the dirty work for them, while they can live a comfy life.

And speed glum heroes up the line to death.

1. What does the word 'glum' mean?

It means that the "heroes" that are being sent do the frontline are without motivation, that they are grim, and that they'd rather do something else.

2.  Who are the 'heroes' mentioned here?

The average soldier, like the normal soldier who is the real hero in this situation. Not the majors, because they are the ones who speed them up the line to death.

3.  Why might the word 'glum' fit these heroes?  

Because they know they stand little chance to survive the situation they're going, and that their superiors are safe and sound right there in the military base.

You'd see me with my puffy petulant face,

1. Sassoon suggests that he would adopt a 'puffy petulant' face.  What is he suggesting about the majors at the base?

He suggests the majors are lazy and therefore puffy, fat, because they don't even lift a finger for the problems who are occurring.

2.  'puffy petulant' is an example of which literary technique?  

Alliteration, because the first two words begin with the same consonant sound or letter.

Guzzling and gulping in the best hotel,

In the phrase 'guzzling and gulping' Sassoon uses both alliteration and onomatopoeia.  What is this image suggesting about the people in the 'best hotel'?

That suggests that the people in these "best hotels" feast on all the good food they can have/buy, and live a luxurious life.

Reading the Roll of Honour. 'Poor young chap,' I'd say - 'I used to know his father well;

1.  This line suggests that the majors were more likely to have known soldiers' fathers.  What does this suggest to you about the relationship between the majors and soldiers? The actual proper soldiers who give their live in the frontline are the sons of those who once where the majors superiors. The roles have been swapped in the family line. I think that these soldiers are aware of this, which gives this situation a double feeling.

2.  Is the poet suggesting that the majors had an active role on the 'front line?'

Nope, contrarily in fact. Its suggests that they let the normal soldiers do the heavy work.

Yes, we've lost heavily in this last scrape.'

And when the war is done and youth stone dead,

1.  The next line is the last line.  Read the poem carefully and finish the poem yourself by writing your own last line.

It badly signs our mind's landscape.

I'd toddle safely home and die - in bed.   

1.  How does the actual last line differ from yours?  What is the impact of this last line? 

It's about a consequence that is directly about death, mine is more peaceful and hasn't got such a deep impact. This line does have this deep impact, it lets the reader give the idea that the lazy guy like the majors didn't die heroically like the normal soldiers did, but they die like most people wish they would, peacefully. But in this case with the fact that they let others die for their wellbeing.

2.  How would you describe the majors in Sassoon's poem?  

Successful?  Greedy?  Powerful?  Leaders?  Fools?

I would describe it as a poem that has effectively questioned the position that majors took in this war: being extremely lazy, living the good life while others gave their lives for them. It is a good way to give comment about this thing that happened.

Wordsearch

This can be found at the end of this report.

Remembrance Day

1. What is Remembrance Day and what is it celebrated?

It is a special day to remember all those men and women who were killed during the two World Wars and other conflicts. Before the Second World War it was known as Armistice Day and then was renamed in Remembrance Day after the Second World War.

2. What is the significance of the poppies that are worn in November?

It stands for the remembrance of those who died in order that we may be free. The poppy emblem was chosen because of the poppies that bloomed across some of the worst battlefields of Flanders in World War I, their red color an appropriate symbol for the bloodshed of trench warfare.

3. What is 'The Cenotaph'?

The Cenataph is a remembrance statue. An annual Remembrance Day service is held at the Cenataph. Official wreaths are laid on the steps of it.

Crossword Puzzle

This can also be found at the end of this report.

VI. Texts

A. Nimby neighbours' war with wounded soldiers' families

1. What kind of place is Headly Court?

It's a military rehabilitation centre. Servicemen and women who come back from a war with lost of body parts or a severe trauma go to this centre. The spend months to rebuild their lives in Headly Court.

2. For what purpose did its foundation buy a 6-bedroom property in the neighbourhood?

The purpose of this 6-bedroom house is that relatives can sleep there while they are there to support or visit the soldiers.

3. Why do the rich villagers object to adaptation of this property?

They are afraid for extra noise from the visitors, the extra traffic of them, the value of the houses from the villagers would go down, the arrival could destroy the character of the area and they are even afraid that the resident could become a terrorist target.

4. Why do you think that residents of the village did not want to be quoted in this article?

Because soldiers and the army have fought for their country and even lost parts of their body for it. Now the villagers say that they can't come, that isn't very kind of them. These soldiers fought for the security of their country, so also for these villagers, and then they are banned from this village. So the villagers are afraid that if their name is named in this article, they will, for example, receive hate mails.

5. Do you think that their arguments are realistic?

No, like the argument that wheelchairs would present a fire hazard is unrealistic and based on nothing. The other reasons are not well supported either. There won't come really big group's of relatives, because it's a 6-bedroom house so there will stay for about 12 peoples max. That won't cause so much extra traffic and noise. These people are there to support and visit the soldiers.

6. What is your opinion? With which party do you agree?

I think that the villagers overreact a little, because in that house won't stay so many people, so that won't cause so much trouble. So I agree with the decision from the Armed Forces to buy that house and make it a residence for relatives from wounded soldiers. The time it takes to rebuild you're life is long, so a little support from their family will give them strength to go on with their lives.

B. Royal Marine who lost arm and both legs in Taliban blast is refused full compensation payout by MoD

1. Who is Mark Ormrod and what has happened to him?

Mark Ormrod is a man who served in Afghanistan with the Royal Marines but after he stepping on a landmine, he lost his legs and one arm. After returning home he didn't get the full compensation.

2. How long has he served with the Marines?

He was 17 when he joined the Marines and now he 24 years old, so he served about seven years.

3. What problem is being described in this article?

Soldiers like Mark don't get the full compensation, while they are heavily injured and have the right to get the full compensation.

4. How does Mrs Dernie know Mark Ormrod?

Her son is also at Headley Court military rehabilitation centre in Surrey. Mark is also there.

5. Has the system of the Armed Forces Compensation Scheme considerably improved since last year?

No, they have made changes but they did not increase the maximum. And the changes made will only benefit a handful of wounded servicemen each year.

6. Is it clear why Mark Ormrod hasn't received full compensation from the AFCS's?

No, the Ministry of Defense only explained how the scheme works but not the details.

7. Do you think that Mark has the right to full compensation?

Yes, I think that he fought for his country and doing that he got badly injured and now the country were he gave his live for won't pay him fully.

8. How would you describe Mark's attitude and the way he looks at the rest of his life?

I think he's very optimistic about life. He has married and has a daughter, he wants to work again and he tries to pick his life back up.

C. Disabled

1. What kind of wounds does the soldier have?

He was lost his limbs.

2. In what kind of mood is he?

He's feeling sad and rejected. Lots of people are looking down on him, because he doesn't have any legs or arms and his life isn't what it used to be. He's just waiting for death.

3. What contrast is described in the first and second stanza?

The first stanza is about the period that he lost his limbs. The second stanza is about the period before he lost his limbs.

4. How has his relation with women changed?

Before losing his limbs he had girls everywhere around him. But now girls touch him like some queer disease.

5. Why does the writer say: "before he threw away his knees"?

It was his own decision to join the army. Now he thinks it's his own fault that he lost his limbs, because he gave himself up.

6. What does the writer mean by: "(his face) was younger than his youth"?

His looked younger than his actually age, so he was good-looking.

7. What is described in lines 17-20?

It describes the time when he used to wear blood on his leg proudly, but now he doesn't have any legs and he doesn't like to see blood at all after losing his limbs.

8. Why has the soldier joined the army?

He joint the army, because someone said he looked like a god in his kilts and he wanted to please his Meg(we guess his girlfriend) He also joined in order to show off.

9. What is 'his lie'?

At the moment he joined the army he wrote down that he was older than he actually was.

10. How would you describe the soldier's decision to join the army?

Foolish. He just decided to go in to the army. There were no good arguments for it. He just decided from a moment to another to join the army.

11. In line 37, a comparison is made between his achievements in a football match and his contribution to the war. How are these two alike and how do they differ from each other?

In both situations (at a football game and at home) there was cheering. But the cheering at a football game is a happy cheer, at his home there's no happy cheer at all. People were only happy because he survived, not because of what he had accomplished.

12. What is his prospect for the future?

He will spend a few sick years in Institutes and do what things the rules consider wise.

13. How would you describe the soldier's attitude and the way he looks at the rest of his life?

He is sad and his future doesn't look so bright. But instead of being sad he should be thankful to be alive and make the best out of his life.

14. In what way(s) do Mark Ormrod and the soldier from the poem resemble each other and how do they differ from each other? Support your answer with evidence from both texts.

They both lost limbs during a war:

  Disabled: "Legless, sewn short at elbow"

  Mark Ormrod: "A royal marine who lost both legs and his right arm"

Mark has a positive attitude and the soldier doesn't. The soldier is feeling sorry for himself,

   while Mark is trying to make the best of it.

   Disabled: "Now he will spend a few sick years in Institutes and do what things the rules

   consider wise"

Mark Ormrod: "This hasn't changed me, I've just got to get on with it. It's down to me

how much I can do in the future"

D. Prince Harry

1.Why was Harry not allowed to go to Iraq last year?

According to the army chiefs there were "unacceptable risks". These risks were reports that militant groups planned to kill or kidnap the prince.

2.How long has Harry been in the army so far?

He has joined the army in May 2005 and his is still in the army. So he has been about 5 years in the army.

3.How much time has Harry spent in Afghanistan?

He had been in Afghanistan for only 10 week.

4.Has Harry's brother, Prince William, ever been in a war zone?

No, he has yet got to see active operations.

5.Why did Harry have to leave Afghanistan?

A media blackout broke out and that leak led to the fear that Harry would be targeted by the Taliban.

6.What exactly has been proved by the role of the British media in all this? Why is this so important to Harry and his brother?

It proved that the British media were quite able to keep his deployment a secret, and this means that the systems works and that the British media can go along with the deal and that means that it can work again if he or his brother will be deployed again.

7.Will Harry be allowed to return to Afghanistan?

Whether he can return depends on the risk he poses to those serving beside him. The risks cannot be higher than the risks normally in operations.

8.What is your opinion about Harry, based on his comments?

I think he would love to go back to Afghanistan and that he is aware of the risks this involves. But when he says it was the happiest time in his life, I think he hasn't seen the horror of war.

9.What is your opinion about Harry's participation in the war? Should Harry have been in Afghanistan and should he be allowed on the front line again?

I think it's good that he's in the army because this gives the idea that he is just a normal person and not a prince. But I agree with that fact that he is a risk to those serving along side him because for the Taliban he is a high value target.