Georgia O'Keeffe (Georgia Totto O'Keeffe, November 15, 1887, WI - March 6, 1986, Santa Fe, USA) - is an American artist. O'Keeffe was born on a farm near Sun Prairie, Wisconsin. Her parents, Francis and Ida O'Keeffe Calyxtus Totto O'Keeffe worked on a farm and were engaged in cattle. Her father was of Irish descent. Ida Totto's father, George Victor Totto, after which Georgia was named, was a Hungarian immigrant who came to America in 1848 fleeing from the repression of the uprising in Hungary against the Austrians. In America, he met Isabel Wyckoff, with whom he was married. In 1858 they settled in Sun Prairie. By mother's side, Georgia was a descendant of Edward Fuller, who was a Mayflower passenger, and one of the signatories of the Mayflower Compact. O'Keefe grew up in Virginia, studied in Chicago and New York. In 1908 she met in New York with the photographer and gallery owner Alfred Stieglitz, and later, in 1924, they were married (Stiglitz had to first get a divorce).
Stiglitz took a lot of pictures of O'Keeffe, brought her into the circle of friends, photographers modernist Paul Strand, Edward Steichen, and others under his influence, she returned to painting, which for family reasons, stopped in 1908-1912. Since 1923, landscapes and still lives O'Keefe (particularly known for the flowers) began with the support of Stiglitz numerous exhibitions, and she has become fashionable and highly paid artist. In 1929, O'Keeffe moved to New Mexico, whose desert landscapes have a long kind of paintings. In 1932-1934 the artist suffered severe nervous breakdown, which was treated. In 1943, a retrospective of her works was held at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1946 - in New York's Museum of Modern Art.
After a 15-year hiatus, the giant exhibition of works by O'Keeffe at the Whitney Museum in 1972 attracted the attention of the younger generation of intellectuals, including - of feminist circles. In 1970, O'Keeffe began to lose her sight, she began to work with ceramics, she has written an autobiographical book. After 1982, she was no longer making art, according to Georgia O'keeffe (2011).
2. Beginning: finding her own voice.
Georgia was the second of seven children, and the first girl in the family. Her mother, Ida, promoted education and intellectual development of their children. Education of girls has been a tradition in the family. Georgia's mother, Ida, was educated on the East Coast, and all her daughters, with one exception, were taken by a professional art. Georgia, aged about 12 years, along with her sisters, started to learn drawing. Because parents have noticed in her the abilities in this direction, they proposed to continue studies in art school. Georgia attended the Town Hall School in Wisconsin, where she was in a local class of Sara Mann. In the years 1901-1902 went to school, Sacred Heart Academy in Madison, Wisconsin. There she was subjected to fierce criticism of the discipline and nuns engaged in school. However, there she has received a medal for good performance in the class diagram, and other subjects such as history, algebra and English, she also has been receiving very good grades.
In 1902, Georgia lived with her aunt Lola in Madison and attended Madison High School. Her parents emigrated from Wisconsin to Peacock Hill in Williamsburg, Virginia, where she wanted to move there permanently with his family. Georgia spent much time examining the flowers for the drawing classes, studying their color and shapes. Later, this was reflected in her work.
At the age of 15 she moved to Williamsburg in 1905, bequeathed to the Chatham Episcopal Institute in Virginia (now Chatham Hall). Despite the differences in dress and behavior, they were well liked and accepted. She taught others to play poker, drew caricatures of teachers and was doing other pranks. The Chatham met Mrs. Willis, drawing lessons teacher, who studied at the Art Students League in New York, saw the talent and individuality of Georgia, according to Georgia O'keeffe biography (2009).
In 1905, Georgia, despite her father's financial difficulties, began to study painting at the Art Institute of Chicago. In 1907 she joined the Art Students League in New York, where she studied under William Merritt Chase. In 1908 she received the William Merritt Chase for the oil painting "A dead rabbit with a copper pot." This award was a scholarship allowing Georgia to take part in the open air over Lake George in upstate New York. In 1908, O'Keeffe was the Rodin exhibition of watercolors at the "291", which was owned by her future husband, photographer Alfred Stieglitz.
In the autumn of 1908, disappointed O'Keeffe did not return to study in the League, but moved to Chicago and began working for a commercial artist. At that time, did not create anything and even said that the smell of turpentine seasoned her sick. She worked as a drawing teacher in a primary school near Amarillo in the Texas Panhandle.
Only in 1912, under the influence of innovative theories of Arthur Wesley Dow'a, whom she met while teaching summer school, held at the University of Virginia, she began painting again. His theories and theories of his protege, Charles J. Martin's, had a major impact on the artist's creative process. At that time, she worked as an assistant Bement, who introduced her to Dow'em. Later, she returned to Texas, where he taught in the Faculty of Art Canyon West Texas A & M University (then known as West Texas State Normal College). Canyon was located on south of Amarillo. O'Keeffe was impressed of the located in that area Palo Duro Canyon. She had to write about it later: "It's angry, simmering cauldron, filled with dramatic light and color."
3. First oils: New York and her fascination with architecture.
At the beginning of 1916, Anita Pollitzer had a few drawings to the Gallery 291Georgia Alfred Stieglitz. Anita had to say that these drawings were "the purest, finest, deepest work, which has long since been in 291", and that he would like them to leave. O'Keeffe was in the gallery for the first time in 1908, but did not talk at that time with Stieglitz, although highly valued his opinions as a critic. In April of 1916 years in 1910 Stieglitz exhibited her drawings, which were not reported. Only when the message reached Georgia, she contacted him first. In April of 1917 there was the first exhibition at the Gallery 291st Georgia, and these were mainly watercolors from Texas, according to Georgia O'keeffe (1887- 1986) (2009).
4. Lake George: art work.
Soon after his arrival to New York to Georgia, Stieglitz took her to his family home on Lake George in the Adirondack Mountains. They returned there many times each summer, which resulted in many paintings depicting the landscapes along the lake. Stieglitz arranged for Georgia, a place to live in the studio of his cousin and took care of her during her stay. Soon they fell in love. For Georgia, Stieglitz left his wife, Emmeline Obermeyer Stieglitz, and after a divorce in 1924, they got married. They spent the winter and spring in Manhattan, and summer and autumn on Lake George. Stieglitz began to photograph Georgia when she visited him in New York in 1917 in conjunction with his exhibition. In the years 1918 - 1937 she made over 300 portraits. Most of them were the erotic photos from the early years of their marriage. In February, 1921 Stieglitz photographs, including many images and acts of Georgia, presented a retrospective exhibition at Anderson Galleries. Photographs and Georgia have raised the overall sensation. In the first years of residence in New York, Georgia met many American modernist artists who belonged to the Stieglitz circle of friends, including Charles Demuth, Arthur Dove'a, Marsden Hartley, Paul Strand and Edward Steichen. Strand's photographic works and Stieglitz were the inspiration for Georgia. In New York she began to paint oil paintings and watercolors is not so far. In the twenties, O'Keeffe began to create paintings of floral forms in the high-magnification (as if seen through a magnifying glass.)
In 1924, he was her painting entitled "Petunia, No. 2," which is shown at an exhibition in 1925. Has done a lot of pictures of the buildings in New York, "City of Night and New York by Night", 1926, and "Radiator Building at Night", New York, 1927.
O'Keeffe work was associated with the movement of artists-feminists of the seventies. Judy Chicago O'Keeffee put up prominently in his work "The Dinner Party."
Since 1923, Stieglitz organized the annual exhibition of Georgia. In the twenties, has become one of the leading American artists. Her work has gained in price. In 1928 six of her paintings a series of "calla lily" sold for $ 25,000 U.S., which was the highest sum ever paid for a living for American artist's paintings. It attracted considerable media attention to O'Keeffe.
Around 1928 years Georgia O'Keeffe felt a desire to travel, to find creative inspiration. Influenced by the stories of friends who just returned from the western United States, Georgia, she wanted to learn and explore new places. In May 1929, along with Beck Strand she went by train to Taos, New Mexico. She went to Santa Fe and then to Albuquerque. Upon arrival, she as invited to spend their summers on the ranch Mabel Dodge Luhan in Taos area. O'Keeffe was then mounted many expeditions in the local mountains and deserts. During one of these expeditions arrived on the ranch, DH Lawrence, where he spent a few weeks, and painted a famous oil painting "Lawrence Tree", which is currently in the collections of Wadsworth Athenaeum in Hartford, Connecticut. During his stay in Taos in 1929, O'Keeffe visited a church missionary in Ranchos de Taos. While many artists painted the church, the image of O'Keeffe, distinguishes itself from others. O'Keeffe presented a fragment of a wall of the church against the dark sky, according to Georgia O'keeffe biography (2009).
5. New Mexico: landscapes, still lives, flowers.
From 1929 it passed in New Mexico several months of the year, depicting some of his most famous creations in which synthesizes abstraction with representations of flowers and landscapes typical of the area, mostly desert hills filled with rocks, shells andbones animals. The edges are ruffled, with subtle tonal transitions of varying colors to transform the subject into powerful abstract images, sometimes in erotic sense transfigured. In the thirties and forties O'Keeffe received numerous commissions and honorary degrees from several universities. In 1946 her husband died, and in 1949 O'Keeffe moved permanently to New Mexico. During the fifties she produced a series of paintings inspired by architectural forms to his home in New Mexico and a vast series of paintings of clouds as seen from the windows of an airplane.
6. Traveling and last years.
Since the beginning of the seventies she was hit by a disease to the eye, which eventually forced her to reduce the work. In 1962, O'Keefe was elected as a member of the American Academy of Arts. In 1977 it was about documentary film. In 2001, in Santa Fe Georgia was opened O'Keeffe Museum. On January 10, 1977 President Gerald Ford has been awarded the prestigious U.S. award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. She died in 1986 at the age of 98 years.