This paper is the review of journal article "The performance evaluation context: Social, emotional, cognitive, political and relationship components" published by the author Ferris, G. R., et al (2008). The above mentioned journal article mainly describes about the importance of the performance evaluation in the human resource management. This paper mainly discusses and criticises about the author's ideas in the article like the cognitive, social, emotional, political, and relationship context of performance evaluation. In concluding, the process of performance evaluation depends on the individual behaviour and the emotional aspects at the working environment.
Author Ferris, G. R., et al (2008) observations signify that major areas of performance evaluation differs with respect to relationship and mutual sharing of knowledge between superior and subordinates, at the same time overall result of the performance evaluation result depends upon the individuals and their experience within the organisations.
Context of Performance Evaluation:
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As authors observations signifies that the empirical studies suggest different models, theories and many studies which shows their own way to identify the improvement of the performance management in organisation. As Wong (2006) specifies that performance evaluation has traditionally been viewed as a measurement problem, where as Mitwa (2000) specifies that the organisation should distinguish between outcomes (results /output), behaviour (the process) and appropriate performance measurement devices, which shows drastic change in views and the importance of the performance evaluation has become a vital challenge in modern competitive market for the organisations.
Author Ferris, G. R. (2008) specifies that one of the most universal mechanisms by which an organization holds individuals accountable for their behaviour is performance evaluation. He also signifies from his observation of accountability theory and application that the not only the individual behaviour plays significant role, but also we have to take different parameters into consideration during the performance evaluation.
Technically Ferris, G. R. (2008) has identified different elements of accountability process which offer in-depth understanding during the performance evaluation process, they are - firstly-accountability elements major depends not only on the individual behaviour at the same with the unique characters such as skills, knowledge and abilities into the rating relationships. On the other hand author's observation signifies that during the performance evaluation individuals play a vital role and importantly along with the sharing of knowledge, teamwork, trust created between the supervisor and the subordinates.
Secondly- while evaluating other certain specified issues should be taken into consideration as Ferris, G. R. (2008) specifies that, during the performance evaluation process the ratters /supervisors should be able to communicate the expected outcome from the employees, which shows the role of the employees should be explained thoroughly and should well understood by the employees, authors observation shows that the providing the specific expectation from the employees gives justification to the performance evaluation process. This clearly indicates the putting standard expectations from the employees with open observation by the supervisors/ratter, hence this give clear understanding of getting accuracy during performance evaluations process.
Ferris, G. R. (2008) also identified that two dimensions or categories of job performance can be distinguished across almost all jobs. They are
The explicitly prescribed tasks and duties typically provided in job descriptions (i.e., task performance); and
Those aspects of performance dictated by the social context of the job and work environment.
Therefore, they argued that one prominent feature of social contextual performance is social effectiveness (i.e., the effectiveness with which individuals develop and maintain good interpersonal relations with others in their work environment)' (p4).
Author's observation specifies that the 'task performance' usually would take place as per job requirement and would not necessarily same to all the job descriptions, where as the second as aspect of social context will equally places special role in work place.
On the other hand Ferris, G. R. (2008) also signifies that the contextual features such as cognitive, social, emotional, political, relationship are very important to understand, how these explains in nature of performance evaluation process and outcomes. Cognitive context in rating as author's observed that significance importance has been given to the behaviour and performance, which in other words complicated process of rating on the basis of limited information. Whereas comprehensive explanation from Ferris, G. R. (2008) it's clear that the in social context of the performance evaluation process has been researched from decades.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
As Ferris, G. R. (2008) specifies from Borman (1991) tested a model which positioned cognitive ability, based on the job knowledge and task proficiency as predictors of supervisor rating of subordinates performance, at the same time achievement oration, dependability and recognition received by ratee and the level of disciplinary actions taken against the rate are taken into consideration.
At the same time author observed that social influence and politics context of performance evaluation specifically the procedure and strategies of influence demonstrated by the should have an effect on supervisor perception of liking subordinate, which in turn result in building good relationship between supervisor and subordinate. Ferris, G. R. (2008) also signifies that the affect and emotional context of the performance evaluation process had drastically changed, as we pay more attention to those who can create a positive impact at first instance in work place and this would automatically get positive performance evaluation from their supervisors. At the same time major aspect of performance evaluation process, as author observed is emotional aspect of the individuals.
As Ferris, G. R. (2008) specifies from his review of the social context of performance evaluation, that emotional reactions of individual directly impact during the performance evaluation process. More over it's the impact of emotions depends on the behaviour of the individuals and level of reaction to the emotional aspects as observed by the supervisors in workplace. Secondly the emotional intelligence aspect plays vital role during the performance evaluation as author observed that the emotional intelligence 'particular, we would expect emotional intelligence of both the rater/supervisor and ratee/subordinate to be inversely related to the type and severity of an affective reaction from performance evaluations' Ferris, G. R. (2008). In other words as result of the negative events in the work place may attract attention of the supervisors/rater resulting the tampered outcome or behaviour from the supervisors/rates towards subordinates/rate.
Though the performance evaluation is properly defined the aspect of the negative outcomes of the emotional behaviour could be controlled as author observed that the Ferris, G. R. (2008) higher this control higher the cost. Along with this its important to understand the features of the work relations, specifically its totally depends between the supervisors and subordinates behaviours.
As Ferris, G. R. (2008) identified from Ferris & Judge (1991) that, it's important to learn and develop skills such as political skills to effectively understand others at work and use such knowledge to influence other to act towards achieving individual, team or organisations objectives. Author's observation also signifies that the creating reputation with the behavioural and the emotional aspects of the subordinates plays a vital role in overall process of the performance evaluation.
Factors affecting performance evaluations:
From the in depth understanding and the observation on different models of the performance evaluation, it's important to understand that the individual behaviour and outcomes identically. As sholihin (2009) specifies that the fairness in the workplace and its impact of organisational effectiveness forms an important element of what has been termed as 'organisational justice research', whereas Woehr(1992) signifies that the in larger part 'performance evolution literature has stressed the notion that human judgements of performance are inherently fallible and hence add a source of error to performance evaluation', hence the outcome of performance evaluation plays a vital role and at the same time individuals behaviour and emotional aspects would need to taken into considerations during the performance evaluation process.
On the other hand Dhiman (2007) signifies that in the last decade or so, significance importance has given to social context during the performance appraisal process, which indicates that some the major factors or underpinning issues which need to be taken into consideration during the performance evaluation process.
This has also supported by wong (2006) from (Murphy and Cleveland (1995) that studying performance evaluation by considering influence of macro contexts on performance evaluation. whereas Dhiman (2007) identified that some of the factors which needs to taken into consideration during performance evaluation process, these factors include appraisal purpose (Jawahar and Williams, 1997), assesses upward influence tactics (Ferris et al., 1994), relationship with supervisors (Fagenson, 1989), assessors' accountability (Curtis, Harvey and Ravden, 2005),' etc, as literatures also signifies the basic parameters to be considered are the behavioural and emotional outcomes of the subordinates in workplace.
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As solihin (2009) signifies that the fairness during the performance evaluation process, fairness negatively associated with the dysfunctional attitudes and behaviour such as job related tension and enhances functional behaviour such as task satisfaction, job satisfaction and performance management (p.1). Where as Kepes (2009) signifies that that the many macro and micro researchers specifies that differential pay allocation affect organisational effectiveness by attracting and retaining better employees, and by motivating employee to achieve higher performance (p.2). Hence this shows the difference in the pay allocation are affecting performance out come and at the same time fairness during the performance evaluation depends on the behavioural and emotional outcomes of the individuals during performance evaluation.
As Author's observation from the literature review that the more control on the behavioural aspects would result more cost. As Hartmann (2009) specifies the significance of interpersonal trust plays vital role when organisational participants engage in situations that demand collaborative situations (cf. Coletti, Sedatole, & Towry, 2005), which means the social context of performance evaluation such as the behaviour aspect for creating a trust among the superiors and subordinates needs to be substantially integrated to achieve the organisational objectives.
As Hartmann (2009) also specifies to meet day-to-day business requirements the supervisors are typically use formal controls such as performance evaluation systems. Whereas Clausen (2008) signifies that an effective system of evaluating job performance should accurately outline the employee's responsibilities and contributions to an organisation, which means that the control over the behaviour and emotional aspects it's very important to communicate the expectations from the employee's behaviour at the work place. In simple words it all about doe's and don'ts at work place. Significantly the overall literature review signifies that the as behaviour aspects and the outcomes depends on the different attributes that significantly impact in achieving organisational objectives.
In concluding, the different models and critical analysis of the performance evaluation clearly indicates that the process of performance evaluation depends on the individual behaviour and the emotional aspects in the workplace. The expectation level of the individual outcomes with regard to getting work done and the level of relationships developed with the supervisors as per "criticism of the behaviour" aspects. In the present time the significance of the attributes to be considered during performance evaluation process has grown widely, much importance has given to the task oriented performance evaluation. For the present economic conditions the challenging and innovative process of performance evolution to be developed in organisation to achieve sustainable competitive advantage for best outcomes by controlling the cost levels.