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Mahmoud Darwish, is one of the most significant and recognized artists to the Arabic world. He was born on March 13, 1941 in a small village in the Galilee of AlÂ Birweh, Palestine, into a land-owning Sunni Muslim family. At the early age of seven, Darwish's father was killed and his family was forced to leave Palestine in order to escape for safety to Lebanon as the Israeli Army's massacres and occupations increased. As they returned through an underground tunnel the next year to only find that their village (among 400 others) has been destroyed. Under military rule of the state of Israel, Darwish and his family were grounded and subjected to curfews and strict rules. From this point onwards is where the poet never found his homeland except through language and his ever-loving audience. Mahmoud Darwish's uprising talent and determination is marked after being under such harsh military sieges by the State of Israel. His emotional life combined with an unstable life took him from a quaint village of the unknown to the international halls of fame.Â
In Darwish's early twenties he faced numerous house arrest and was constantly imprisoned by the state of Israel for publicly reading his poetry. He also was imprisoned many times for not carrying the proper papers (identification cards). His life was in exile for twenty-six years between Palestine, toÂ Russia, where he attended the University of Moscow for one year. Darwish later went to Cairo, Egypt then returned to Palestine in 1996 as Yasser Arafat (the ex Palestinian president) asked for an appeal from the ex president of Israel Barac to allow Darwish to return to the West Bank legally.Â It is perhaps Darwish's very special relationship to the Arabic language that has set him apart from other Arab poets of his time. Today America identifies Palestine through Palestinian art, and through Edward Saed (Palestinian-American scholar,Arab activist, and university professor in the U.S.) who came out with the most influential book about what are Arabs in Arabic society, such a dynamic book, and hard to understand, unlike the softer side to Palestinians brought by Darwish, and Nasser Khalifa whom sang his poems.Â
As a number of Darwish's works have even been called "prophetic", it still remains that these poems have been an advantage ofÂ his artistic intuition and acute political common sense. He manages to see and read what veryÂ little of the Palestinian people can. When poems like these follow that artistic intuition, it gains itsÂ significance to the readers, because it usually is an expression of what theÂ Palestinians fear most but are unable to utter or ever express.
Darwish's connection to language and poetry remains unmatched by any connection he has with anything or anyone. He constructs a kingdom of his homeland in his language. He has the talent to uncover, exploit, and define music in language through use of poetry. His poetry has been an interesting field in the Arab world as musiciansÂ compose the most beautiful and popular of songsÂ from his lyrics.
Darwish was the poet of resistance as he wrote in the defense of Palestinian politics. He shaped who or what he wanted to be by the pursuitÂ of writing. He wrote the Palestinian declaration of independence in1988 and many poems of resistance that areÂ a major fundamental part of every Arab's culture; from superstructure to, social structure to, infrastructure. However, this does not mean he ignored writing about love and death, in fact his poems struck people. Darwish wrote poems that people can easily understand, and others that held critics so mystified as to whereÂ to begin to decipher. In all this, he remains confident in his open and honest relationship to his readers.Â
When I move closer to pure poetry, Palestinians say go back to what you were. But I have learned from experience that I can take my reader with me if he trusts me. I can make my modernity, and I can play my games if I am sincere." (New York Times interview)Â
This intricate relationship with his ever-increasing audience is best described in this excerpt:
"Whenever I search for myself I find the others, And when I search for them, I only find my alien self, So am I the individual- crowd?" (Mural)ÿÂ
As an accomplished and very well known poet in the Eastern hemisphere,Â Darwish awards and honors include the Ibn Sina Prize, the Lenin Peace Prize, the 1969 Lotus prize from the Union of Afro-Asian Writers, France's Knight of Arts and Belles Lettres medal in 1997, the 2001 Prize for Cultural Freedom from the Lannan Foundation, the Moroccan Wissam of intellectual merit handed to him by King Mohammad VI of Morocco, and the USSR's Stalin Peace Prize. Significance
As another significance Mahmud Darwish brought upon his self was becoming editor forÂ the PLO's (Palestine Liberation Organization) monthly journal andÂ itsÂ director of the group's research center. In 1987 he was appointed to the PLO executive committee, and resigned in 1993 in opposition to the Oslo Agreement, which was signed at a Washington ceremony hosted by US President Bill Clinton on September 13, 1993, during which Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin ended decades as sworn enemies with an uneasy handshake. Darwish later served in accordance to the Palestinian literary review Al-Karmel (magazine published in Palestine in Arabic) as its editor in chief and founder. Al-Karmel was published out of the Sakakini Centre (The Khalil Sakakini Cultural Centre Foundation is a non- governmental, non-profit organization dedicated to the promotion of arts and culture in Palestine) since 1997.Â His most recent translations in English, "Mahmoud Darwish: Adam of Two Edens" (Jusoor and Syracuse University Press, 2000) and "The Raven's Ink: A Chapbook" (Lannan Foundation, 2001) include a host of Darwish's most acclaimed poems written between 1984 and 1999. Even though "he is known the world over as the poet of Palestine," as Margaret Obank says in her review of "The Adam of Two Edens," Darwish's poetry "has been published only sparingly in English." These two volumes are an excellent introduction, in English, to this poet who is considered to be "indisputably among the greatest of our century's poets." (Carolyne Forche)
Some of the exploited poet'sÂ recent poetry titles include The Butterfly's Burden (Copper Canyon Press, 2006), Unfortunately, It Was Paradise: Selected Poems (2003), Stage of Siege (2002), The Adam of Two Edens (2001), Mural (2000), Bed of the Stranger (1999), Psalms (1995), Why Did You Leave the Horse Alone? (1994), and The Music of Human Flesh (1980).
Darwish wasÂ harassed by the Israeli military governor whenever his poetry went public. His discovery of poetry is recalled as "a threat to the sword"; the exploited poet took advantage of this by. His words described the Arab and Palestinian identity that needed to be invasive. These harassments expelled DarwishÂ to leave to Moscow and then Egypt, thenÂ alas to settle in Beirut until the invasion war ended, eraÂ 1982. After Beirut he became a "wondering exile" in Arab capitals, settling in Paris for a while, then Amman, and finally Ramallah, moving a step closer to the home which he still cannot reach.
"There is no age sufficient for me, To pull my end to my beginning." (Mural)
HisÂ journey during the exodus enlightened him to create poetry upon magnificent literary creations. This comes to explain how even when Darwish was distant from his country he still tried to dismantle with his poetry and unveil the truth. LaterÂ in 1988, his widely circulated militant poem "Passers by in Passing Words," was given a very significant applause as it was influential to all the Arabic communities familiarity and passion of the untidiness drawn from the revolution brought up by war. This applause was promoted as the poem called for a great uproar in Israel. However,Â a book in French entitled "Palestine Mon Pays: L'affaire du Poeme," published by Les Editions de Minuit in 1988, documents some of the articles that were written in defense of his poem. In comparison to another situation, but in March 2000, the minister of education in Israel, proposed to the school board to include Darwish's poetry in Israeli high school curriculum. Yossi Sarid (minister of education in Israel) suggestion ended in a poor vote for the Barak Government. Darwish held a strong standÂ in politics. In 1993, when Darwish resigned from the PLO executive committee to protest the Oslo Accords, he could see at the time, as very few people within the PLO could, that there was a structural problem with the accord itself that would only pave the way for escalation. "I hoped I was wrong. I'm very sad that I was right." (New York Times interview)
The poet's life revolved around Palestine as an everlasting wail in his poetry with only the passion to request a truth to be unveiled. Later, his choice to reside in RamAllah while it was under siege during the second Intifada was that of only a small sacrifice. His new home pushed him to excavate his last three poems against resistance while under siege and under the iniquityÂ of siege. "Mohammad," "The Sacrifice" and "A State of Siege" were published in newspapers in Palestine and the Arab world during 2001 - 2002. TheÂ last one, "A State of Siege describes the siege of Ramallah and the Palestinian land in profound images that invoke daily life in a vivid and multi-layered way:Â
A woman asked the cloud: please enfold my loved one, My clothes are soaked with his blood, If you shall not be rain, my love, Be trees, Saturated with fertility, be trees, And if you shall not be trees, my love, Be a stone, Saturated with humidity, be a stone, And if you shall not be a stone, my love, Be a moon, In the loved one's dream, be a moon, So said a woman to her son, In his funeral, He goes on to add: During the siege, time becomes a space, That has hardened in its eternity, During the siege, space becomes a time, That is late for its yesterday and tomorrow (A State of Siege)
Darwish's popularity and reputation as a highly recognized poet is due to the fact that he initiates in his works of what being an Arab is through an open minded conception resting upon others rather than on its self image. In his oeuvres, he dialogues with a group of cultures (Canaanite, Hebrew, Greek, Roman, Persian, Egyptian, Arab, French, English, Ottoman, Native American) as well as with myths of the three monotheistic religions. These dialogues create multiple layers within the poem that may be difficult to appreciate unless the reader can develop a full understanding of the "I"s and the "others" of the text. When Darwish reads publicly,Â he easily draws scores of thousands of residents from allÂ social classes; taxi drivers, bazaar merchants, hospital workers, students and more rush to find a hearing under the influential poet's lips. Darwish did not just break the barrier between Palestinians but also ideology. Like a role model Darwish became a personal possession and another reminiscence to the Palestinians who suffered through exile and war. Which ever part of Palestine or whomever's relation to Palestine through sympathy or its seize all view Darwish as a national treasure.Â