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"Since Ernest Hemingways controversial and surprising manuscript about sexual experimentation, gender role reversal, and artistic creativity was posthumously published (albeit in heavily edited form) as The Garden of Eden in 1986, discussions of gender and sexuality have dominated Hemingway scholarship" (Hemingways Theaters of Masculinity, review).
Critics very brashly vilify Hemingway and throw bitter words at him, especially nowadays among American critics where he is deemed to be a drunker and a frivolous, frolicsome man void of any emotions towards women who are allegedly disparaged in his novels. His constant godly manifest of masculinity is also under the regular criticism. Many critics such as Virginia Wolf dared to accuse him of losing his literary openness and expertise along with the blinding limited acuity of the world, which in Hemingway's eyes was dominated by male delights and desires (Baker 130).
Elektorowicz describes Hemingway as a hero and favorite of young literates in Paris and New York who first and foremost is associated with bullfighting, a courageous man boxer, brawny sportsman, hunter and angler, exemplary soldier and womanizer. And on the rich background of life experience one can detect a great, high-brow writer of 'Lost Generation'. In his austerity and simplicity we find a great Master whose books give the impression to be only a visor under which Hemingway hid his own traumatic experiences. He covers the reader not only with simplicity of style but also mundane, trivial affairs like associations and imagination from the youth period which appears to have been primitive but so important for all and sundry. He just simply follows the saying: "Homo sum; humani nil a me alienum puto" and in consequences he captures hearts of so many people in every nook of the world. Cosmopolitan and emphatic attitude towards culture and social disturbances wiped away the boundaries not only between countries but between people's social stratum and perception on the human matters.
Trespassing fictional landscapes we find Hemingway's memories of his childhood and middle-ages; for the most part, spectacular scenery of Michigan Lake, Safari, Corrida etc. where he used to hunt, fish, fight and lived his most enjoyable moments in life. Except for the memories we stumble upon the mirror image of his personality full of brutality and toughness.
His ostensible hardiness is overshadowed by the tenderness of his heart which can be thoroughly astounded on by scrutinizing the sentimental and emotional characters Hem created (63-79).
Iwan Kaszkin in the 'A Tragedy of Craftsmanship' brings up the scholastic simplicity in austerity in Hemingway's fiction defying it as an impressive mastery and artistry. Humanity has always endeavored and searched straightforwardness. That is why, Hemingway's literature attracts so many people by its minimalism and simplicity as the pure example of Nick Adams and his memories from the youthful time. At this stage Kaszkin recognizes the simply style of writing as nothing but the great genius of the high-brow writer (Krzeczkowski 76-77).
On the one hand, Hemingway's acuity of world is simple and straightforward, but on the other hand very harsh and brutal, however, this picture of the world depicted in his literature output appears to be designedly rudimentary and primitive. Likewise, the brutality itself is nothing wrong because Ernie demonstrates his toughness and robustness in the course of his fiction very often, but in contrast, those masculine and 'adamant' features are evidently overwhelmed by the greatness and kindness of his heart. Examining deeply Hemingway's fiction one can discern people who are hurt and paralyzed by traumatic life experience or very often just broken down or sociably disordered. In further scrutiny of his literature works, we shall observe that the awkwardness, robustness and impertinence unveil the other side of human nature. Namely self-restrain and continence as the paradigm of Jake Barnes who gives away his beloved woman to another man making for this reason his own life thorny and meaningless. Additionally, Hemingway's protagonists and characters, although being adults, illustrate their childish dreams and frivolous, lighthearted plays with the retrospection of angling, fishing, and hunting. The mature men fantasy and dream not only about frolicsome, boyish time but also show a great flight of imagination about drinking, whorehouse, smoking a pipe and so on and so forth. This model of characters only strengthens the statement that delusive imagination coats the essential tribulations, problems and burdens of the real life (78-79).
Piteously, as the Hemingway's health deteriorated, especially due to the long-term treatment with psychotropic drugs, his perception and both: theme and motifs changed radically. Along with him, his characters lost hopes, experienced psychological disorders and hit upon the dark sides of human existence. Alas, Ernest's fiction now accentuated and reflected everything that was bad in the human nature and his hopelessness in search of the individual bravery and courage (82). Death in love, the end of life and hope took the privilege ruining by implication all the high values Hemingway fought for in his entire life. His great mastery of convincing readers not to give up from the fight and search for the power of courage now surrendered to the 'Armageddon' of literary writing in which only the motifs of death, incapacity, failure and powerlessness dominate (82-90).
In summary, the whole lot that is discernible in Hemingway's literature works can be defined as: the life affirmation, death fascination, pessimism and despair along with cynical candidness, bluntness, skeptical Catholicism, complicated simplicity and tautological abbreviation of dialogues as well as the precision and meticulousness of allusions, and finally spasmodic, indifferent laugh. The whole range of conflicts in his literary portfolio yielded from Ernest's tragic disharmony between his soul and body - mens morbid in corpora sano (96).
For the Art is the mastery of Hemingway-'man' and novels of Hemingway - 'the artist' as Lionel Trilling stated in his 'Partisan Review' showing hence a unique differentiation among Papa Hemingway's literary work. Trilling embodied the portraiture of Ernest in the following few words: Hemingway the "artist" is aware, sensible, innocent, gratuitous, unbiased, veracious, truthful and intuitive; Hemingway "man", on the other hand, is hampered, embarrassed, naive, soulful, untruthful and egocentric (Elektorowicz 103).
Hemingway admitted once that the 'bona fide' American authorship came from Huckleberry Finn and that his genuine literary career commenced due to this book and its profound moral symbols. Throughout the whole life he came back to the book of the great adventures along the Mississippi River filled with the enormous scope enchantments by nature and expressions of true feelings. It seems very clear at this stage that Hemingway desired to release himself from liberal and humanitarian feelings exchanging and soothing them into the hidden, so far, verity (Elektorowicz 108-111).
In the reference to the above, Edmund Wilson in his "Letter to Russians about Hemingway" averred that when the first person narration appeared in Hemingway's fiction there was always something wrong with the narrator as he had lost totally the control over his personality and simultaneously his objective deep feelings and racking obsession of everyday situations had taken privilege yielding thereby in the mastery of dignity, seriousness and profound demureness. Yet, as Hemingway starts speaking straight from himself, his looses the ability of self-criticism and -awareness verging thence into sentimentalism, self-conceit and cockiness. Apparently, Wilson considered the autobiographical novel 'Green Hills of Africa' where it is clearly visible that 'man' and his prolificacy of personal affection and feelings surpasses 'the artist'. 'Green Hills of Africa' along with 'To Have or Not to Have' appear to Wilson a failure but at the same time he assays Hemingway in the face of the demand of the contemporary society in which the great writer was in the spotlight; controlled, suspected, permanently warned and chicaned. Some people admired Hemingway's style of writing; his perception of love, sexual relationships and the literary style, some, however, disparaged Hemingway accusing him of showing too much atrociousness, cruelty, Bohemianism, the lack of intellectualism and even Fascism (Elektorowicz 104-105).
Not paying attention to the constant change of the post-war society, Hemingway persisted in glorifying man and the great values the mankind possesses. 'The Great Lord of the Key West' defended his rights showing in the Nobel Prize Awarded novel 'The Old Man and the Sea' the highest, divine virtues a man can achieve; dignity, bravery and faith. Despite many bitter words thrown at him, Hemingway still tried to depict a modern man fighting with the mundane, everyday problems. As a matter of fact, those motifs and themes of the striving man are claimed by many critics to have been the source of Hemingway's artistic fall whereas the others consider them to have been the masterpiece (Elektorowicz 106).
To put it briefly, critics put Hemingway literary art to the political and moral stage which should exactly mirror the human life. But Hemingway rejected this way of perception and opened his heart and mind as a man not as an artist revealing easy social idealism in his fiction.
Wyndham Lewis in his "The Dumb Ox: A Study of Hemingway" critics Hemingway for his Beach-la-mar (Mencken) and burlesque life but as well defenses him and lauds for great courage and attitude towards the politic issues, precisely, for being beyond the politics affairs and demagogy. Lewis once admitted that he 'had a soft spot for Hemingway' and appreciated him wholly not only for his meaningful position among readers but for his profound and subtitle significance of his novels and acuity of the problems in the surrounding world. Hemingway contributed immensely to change of the social perception not only in terms of politics but also people damaged by traumatic life and war experience. Undoubtedly, Hemingway is a master of fictional prose full of astuteness and insight. Following, Lewis dares to compare Ernest with William Faulkner proving thence that those two so close, great writers of ever-times are so far different at the same time. Unlike Faulkner, Hemingway divers from politic background as if his whole-life, literary assemblage was hermetically closed for any political issues. Lewis even slightly jests at Hemingway's lack of interest of the American diplomacy and economics by affirming that even Ezra Pound did not succeed in persuading Ernest to read even one page from the famous economical "Credit Power and Democracy" for which Ezra was so recognizable. What is more, Hemingway is thought not to have even heard about the Fife Year Plan but surely, he was totally aware of the fact the in Mexico artists do not pay individual income taxes. Instead, Hem unveils his interest towards hazardous sports, sharks, people and their sexual life but undoubtedly, he is totally out if interests what political cases or events contributed to the war or even politicians who only raven some money from the war, the human detriment and injustice (119-123).
Considering Hemingway's characters in the shadow of his fiction, we notice that they characterize with shallowness, triviality, passiveness and tomfoolery. The boisterous and passionate world of male and female is just void of any power of will. They are like marionettes tossed fro and back, drugging, drinking and going under some psychological, mental, post-war diseases. "This metaphysical concern about the nature of the individual's existence in relation to the world made Hemingway conceive his protagonists as alienated individuals fighting a losing battle against the odds of life with courage, endurance and will as their only weapons" (Young, 158). Experiences, feelings and the tone are narrated with the voice of fictional characters described in his novels. It is worth mentioning that this unique writer uses the proletariat language in comparison with Robert Burns, for instance, as a poet of the people. Besides, the language Hem implies is simple, easy but at the same brittle with very short, natural sentences as a kind of modified Anglo-Saxon jargon Beach-la-mar or rather Volapük which can be easily accepted by the crowd of readers (124-127). Professedly, according to encyclopedia "Volapük ("World Language") was invented in 1879 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a German priest who lived in Baden. Schleyer claimed the idea for creating an international language was suggested to him by God in dream. His aim was to create a language which was "capable of expressing thought with the greatest clearness and accuracy" (Sprague, 1888) and was easy for as many people as possible to learn. Schleyer based the vocabulary of Volapük on English, German and Latin and tried to eliminate sounds that would difficult for speakers of other languages to pronounce" (Volapük).
From linguistic point of view, Hemingway is perceived to have created his masterworks for any group of people so that he even 'plaits' some expressions from immigrants making thus his literary writing cosmopolitan and easily understood as a kind of lingua franca. The example of the previously stated thesis can be the world 'damn' not only often discernible in Hemingway's writing but also very quickly acquired by the immigrants. As a matter of fact, this is the pure explanation that Hem crafts such a language in his books to be recognized and facilely, with pleasure read. Many claim that there is nothing special in such a style of writing as it is enough to take some jargon or dialect like Beach-la-mar or London cockney and just implement it into the writing but of course, they are far away from the truth. Such manipulation and overtures with language demands great mastery and here the Hemingway "artist" appears as a prominent irreplaceable genius of 'artisan' of language (Elektorowicz 139-147).
In the "Sun Also Rises" ("Fiesta") and "Farewell to Arms" Hemingway discloses himself as an outstanding backer of male and female power full of viciousness, cruelty and austerity which are emphasized by the gender differences. But beyond all those human characteristic, more important is the narration, specifically, the first person narration which suffers some indefensible consequences not taken into consideration by a casual reader. This difficulty can be discerned mostly in Hemingway's literature works especially those ones where the narrator is mistaken with the author-Hemingway himself as it came about with the book "The Sun Also Rises". The critics claim that the sexual impotence of Jack's becomes only a specific alibi for Hemingway and the vast bulk of features of the protagonist Jack is tagged to Hemingway and reflects his personal insight and traumatic records he underwent during the war. Alternatively, the eminence of the first person narration depends on the proper manipulation and bestowing the characters with the features that cannot by any account be associated with the author. As a result, the likelihood of connecting those two personae will be impossible. Noteworthy, Hemingway's first person narration is primary a blunt, monosyllabic, burlesque boor. Thus, this obtuseness and void of any good manners can be here by far mistaken with Hemingway. As a matter of fact the creation of the first person narration appears to be a top mastery, especially when eliminates the author from any suspicions and queries of him being a participant of a fiction. Briefly, concerning Hemingway's first person narration we shall agree that the first person, burlesque, blunted, caricature narration is the pure reflection of its outstanding, distinctive and exclusive creator.
In a word, in the Anglo-Saxon world there is no other man who with his uniqueness and distinctive prominence would be more significant for literature than Ernest Hemingway.