The Broadened Notion Of Intertextuality Of Martin Heidegger English Literature Essay

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This paper seeks to establish a broadened notion of intertextuality between the works of Martin Heidegger and James Joyce's Finnegans Wake. To that end it proposes a Wakean hermeneutics of openness whereby an interpretive methodology is developed in accordance with the Wake's proposed wish for a contract of meaning with its readers. With this hermeneutical strategy it will develop a reading of HCE and Dasein as post-Christian structures. It will argue that both Joyce and Heidegger cultivate new archetypes of human being that import a Christian narrative into their existential structure, proffering a peculiarly secularised post-Christianity. That is, HCE and Dasein represent a move away from a propositional, epistemological Christianity, understood as a set of truth claims about reality, towards a Christian narrative of fallenness, guilt and redemption grounded as ontological constituents of human being. In examining this transition from epistemology to ontology I will explicate the structural similarities of Dasein and HCE, respectively fallen into Being and language, falling prey to idle chatter and finally called to resoluteness, with ALP urging her husband to "stand up straight", being herself identified with Being - "anna is, livia was, plurabelle's to be." [FW 215.24]

Diese Abhandlung sucht eine ausgeweiterte Vorstellung der Intertextualität zwischen den Werken von Martin Heidegger und James Joyces Finnegans Wake zu begründen. Zu deisem Zweck, schlägt sie eine "Wakean" Hermeneutic von Offenheit vor, dadurch eine interpretative Methodik entwickelt wird, die dem Wunsch von Finnegans Wake einen Vertrag der Sinn mit den Lesern abzuschließen entspricht. Mit dieser hermeneutische Strategie wird sie eine Lesung von HCE und Dasein als nachchristliche Strukturen entwickeln. Sie wird erörtern, dass beide Joyce und Heidegger neue Archetypen dem menschlichen Daseins fördern, die eine christliche Erzählung in deren existenzielle Struktur einführen, und eine eigentümlich verweltlichtes Nach-Christentum anbieten. Das heißt, HCE und Dasein repräsentieren eine Bewegung weg von ein verhältnismäßiges, erkenntnistheoretisches Christentum nach eine christliche Erzählung von Gefallenheit, Schuld und Erlösung als ontologische Bestandteile des menschlichen Daseins. Durch eine Untersuchung dieser Transition von Erkenntnistheorie nach Ontologie werde ich die strukturelle Änlichkeiten zwischen Dasein und HCE, jeweils in Dasein und Sprache gefallen, dem leeren Gerede anheim gefallen und endlich zur Entschlossenheit gerufen als ALP, die selbst mit Dasein identifiziert wird - "anna is, livia was, plurabelle's to be" [FW 215.24], ihren Mann "aufrechtzustehen" drängt, erklären

Finnegans Wake studies may be divided according to critical conceptions of language and meaning. If historical and genetic studies of Joyce offer an invaluable tool for explication, we must guard against their tendency towards exclusivity. The Wake's structure and thematic content also demand interpretation. The text itself, at least, is clear about its hermeneutic openness,

"her leaves, my darling dearest, sinsinsinning since the night of time and each and all of their branches meeting and shaking twisty hands all over again in their new world through the germination of its germination from Ond's outset to till Odd's end" [1] 

The pages ("leaves") of the Wake reach its readers in a gesture of interpretation, "shaking twisty hands all over again in their new world." The world of the text is important - it provided the enabling conditions, the historical climate in which its author wrote - but the text itself is interpreted in a "new world." As Hans-Georg Gadamer realised, both author and reader exist within tradition, subject to particular horizons of understanding and conditioned by particular prejudices. Sensitive interpretation occurs through a fusion of horizons (Horizontverschmelzung) whereby a reader establishes a dialectic between his own horizon and that of the text's.

Just as the events of history do not in general manifest any agreement with the subjective ideas of the person who stands and acts within history, so the sense of a text in general reaches far beyond what its author originally intended. The task of understanding is concerned above all with the meaning of the text itself… The hermeneutical reduction to the author's meaning is just as inappropriate as the reduction of historical events to the intentions of their protagonists, [2] 

Authorial intent lays an important claim but does not exhaust textual meaning. One must allow meaning to enjoy the "germination of its germination" in new worldly horizons. Thus Wakean interpretation is not solely archival but rather the archive supplements our evolving knowledge of the text as we encounter it in our time. Thus, as an evolving work, one must allow Finnegans Wake its prophetic resonance where it appears to anticipate an event ahead of its time, or its language recalls a modern colloquial expression unknown to its author. One must further allow approaches to the text through various theoretical discourses with which Joyce would not have been familiar. As Jacques Derrida [3] recognised, Joyce anticipates these approaches and mocks them even as they produce their critical yield. The Wake must retain this challenging force; criticism is never satisfying where it moves by domestication.

The danger risked, of course, by total hermeneutic openness is that interpretation is reduced to complete textual anarchy. Joyce scholars remain particularly sensitive to the allegation that Finnegans Wake can mean absolutely anything. Yet this danger is avoided with the Wakean hermeneutics outlined above. The work's pages are described as "shaking hands" with a "new world." A contract of meaning is established. It is not at all that in thus reading the Wake "anything can mean anything." Rather, it is that the strength of any possible interpretation must be ascertained by its receptive context. Literary and critical theories are now able to engage with the work if the novel's text provides a successful thematic or syntactic context for their employment. This contextual hermeneutic provides a much needed rubric for Terry Eagletons humorous observation that "it is always worth testing out any literary theory by asking: How would it work with Joyce's Finnegans Wake." [4] We are no longer in a realm where Leavisian critical norms exert complete interpretive control over the text, yet we have avoided the anarchism of textual solipsism. Critical discourses with which Joyce was unfamiliar may be legitimately employed provided they are carefully grounded in a sensitive reading of the text.

But can such sensitive approaches develop anything like a Wakean subject stable enough to sustain thematic exploration? Many reject the notion of narrative meaning in Finnegans Wake [5] but upon learning of the "fall of a once wallstrait oldparr" being "retaled early in bed and later on down through all Christian minstrelsy," [6] perhaps we find a narrative of this very instability. That is, it is the confusion surrounding the fall of Earwicker-Adam that leads to the dissolution of narrative stability, hence the instability is itself incorporated into the very fall narrative it embodies. In Finnegans Wake, man has fallen into language, where he evades any attempt to classify or theorize him. As critic Jean-Michel Rabaté notes "We generally agree that any theory, while covering a certain field, also designates by its elaboration a gap, an empty space which it attempts to bridge, to fill in, to recover. In the case of the Wake, however, the real object of narratology may prove to be the gap itself" [7] The structure of the subject, then, is formed around a pre-theoretical lack, or gap. The narrative subject of Finnegans Wake is not man as he is revealed by scientific theory or literary allegory. Nor is it even, as Robert Theall [8] avers, the machinic processes upon which these theories and allegories are predicated [9] ; for it is clear that these processes themselves tear apart the fixed identify of the subject and are hence a cause of his fall. No, the subject of the narrative of Finnegans Wake is something very like Martin Heidegger's notion of Dasein; the site upon which anything like a subject can show up, even if only to be claimed by a modern gestell. I will now explore this shared site of narration - the pre-subjective structure of Being termed Dasein and the universal character archetype HCE - revealing how it is structurally bound-up with Christian narratives of fallenness, redemption and the dangers of idle-chatter. [10] 

In Being and Time, Martin Heidegger seeks to retrieve what he calls the question of the meaning of Being [Sinn von Sein]. This is not a question of formal or definitional meaning [Bedeutung] but an enquiry into our everyday (pre-ontoligcal/pre-theoretical) background sense of Being, or that which allows us to understand Being in general. In order to get at this meaning of Being [11] in general, Heidegger declares that he must lay bare the existential structure of the questioner. This will allow him to interpret hermeneutically the meaning of Being from the meaning of Dasein within Being. This second announced task was never completed but the first provides the motivating force for Being and Time's desire to excavate man's ontic, existentiell (the particular public modality in which Dasein understands itself as dwelling - e.g. "philosopher") structure to reveal an ontological, existential (the underlying structure upon which interpretive existentiell possibilities are predicated) archetype. In laying bare these structures, philosophy offers what Heidegger calls in Basic Questions the "immediately useless, though sovereign, knowledge of the essence of things." [12] This region of fundamental ontology is more primordial than the realms of entities at stake in theoretical ontologies (such as anthropology, theology, philosophy, science), affording Heidegger a locus of operation immune to the vicissitudes of scientific or theoretical destabilisation. It is in this region that Heidegger maps a Christian narrative of fallenness and redemption onto the temporal and interpretive structure of Dasein.

In Finnegans Wake, James Joyce is also concerned with foundational existential ground. Much like Heidegger, Joyce demonstrates his intention to excavate traditional notions of human being to find an underlying scaffold. The social narratives of the nineteenth century were corroded and failing. [13] In the face of this realisation, both writers appear to have sought refuge in the archetypal. In Joyce's case, this archetype is a narrative of man's fallenness. In the characters of Finn McCool, Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker (HCE) and Anna Livia Plurabelle (ALP), he presents archetypal human beings that share many of the structural features of Dasein. Upon the "fall of a once wallstrait oldparr," we learn of Finn that,

The humptyhillhead of humself promptly sends an unquiring one well to the west in quest of his tumptytumtoes: and their upturnpikepointandplace is at the knock in the park where oranges have been laid to rust upon the green since devlinsfirst loved livvy… Well, Him being so on the flounder of his bulk like an overgrown babeling, let wee peep, see, at Hom, well,… ш Hum! From Shopalist to Bailywick or from ashtun to baronoath or from Buythebanks to Roundthehead or from the foot of the bill to ireglint's eye he calmy extensolies. [14] 

And similarly of his son, Shaun that, as the four judges approach him to enquire into the nature of his Being,

Afeared themselves were to wonder at the class of a crossroads puzzler he would likely be, length by bredth nonplussing his thickness, ells upon ells of him, making so many square yards of him, one half of him in Conn's half but the whole of him nevertheless in Owenmore's five quarters. There would he lay till they would him descry, spancelled down upon a blossomy bed, at one foule stretch, amongst the daffydowndillies, the flowers of narcosis fourfettering his footlights, a halohedge of wild spuds hovering over him, epicures waltzing with gardenfillers, puritan shoots advancing to Aran chiefs. [15] 

"Humptyhillhead" suggests the head of the fallen HCE (In his primordial incarnation as Big Master Finnegan) lies at the hill of Howth Castle (HCE is "Howth Castle Environs). West of Howth hill lies the village of Chapelizod, with its turnpike, and Phoenix Park, where it is suggested Finn's feet rest "upturnpikepointandplace." We are told that, lying prone he "calmly extensolies, suggesting "extended, so lies" with perhaps also an echo of "existential." Likewise, his son Shaun is described as lying across Ireland's ancient divide between "Conn's half" and "Owen's half," being covered by various kinds of potatoes (Flounders / Epicures / Garden Fillers / Aran Chiefs). Much like Dasein, HCE does not, in its everyday comportment, encounter itself as being merely present-to-hand. In no sense, to use Heideggerian terminology, is the present-to-hand [vorhanden] a grounding of the ready-to-hand [zuhanden]. Both Finn and Shaun are woven into the landscape. How are we to understand this? A new concept of spatiality seems to have emerged.

Heidegger too develops a unique notion of spatiality. He continues his assault on Cartesian metaphysics with the claim that Dasein's primordial understanding of spatiality is not one of measurable distances and physical location but of "de-severing" [ent-fernen]. De-severing

stands for a constitutive state of Dasein's Being - a state with regards to which removing something in the sense of putting it away is only a determinate factical mode. "De-severing" amounts to making the farness vanish - that is, making the remoteness of something disappear, bringing it close. [16] 

De-severing is a kind of "de-distancing" process, whereby through its concerns Dasein reveals beings in their closeness. When one sits on a chair holding a telephone conversation with a colleague abroad, even though one is physically touching the chair, our colleague is closer, being fully bound up in the Dasein-with of our care. Likewise, even though many metres may separate houses in rural villages, because of the culture in which they abide, they are, in a certain sense, closer to each other than city apartments. "Objective" distances emerge only secondarily, when Dasein is confronted with an explicit problem involving distance (calculating the necessary length of a joist, for example). When Joyce writes of Finnegan, "the humptyhillhead of humself promptly sends an unquiring one well to the west in quest of his tumptytumtoes," [17] the textuality transforms a seemingly ontic statement into a disclosive existential revelation. Just as Heidegger has derived space from de-severance, Joyce seems to propose that our notions of distance and our subjectivity in an objective world emerge from and are mapped to a more primordial hidden truth: our fallenness. Like Dasein, HCE is an existential clearing in which man and world show up. If Dasein is said to be Being-in-the-world, HCE might be termed, in accordance with his publican profession, as Being-INN-the-world. It seems the world of the Wake is not a simple "wherein" of a narrative but a surreal manifestation bound-up with that narrative.

Let us examine the narrative more closely. According to McHugh, the etymology of the Basque word for orange is "the fruit which was first eaten." [18] Taken with the Irish flag we find in "oranges laid to rust upon the green," this suggests that the Irish nation is itself in some sense fallen. This Biblical imagery is enhanced when we realise that "devlin first loved livvy" reveals not only a relationship between Dublin and the River Liffey but the Devil (as a tempting serpent) and Eve. We are even told that Finn lies like an overgrown 'babeling' (Tower of Babel). He is symbolised by the "ш" rune depicting man's prone state. Shaun is described as lying in "one foule stretch" for "ells upon ells," a Miltonic metaphor reminding of Satan lying prostrate, outcast to the fires of Hell. This "fall of a once wallstrait oldpar" is repeated endlessly in all forms of HCE from Adam to Shaun. In Finnegans Wake it takes the form of a scandal in the park, whereby Earwicker exposes himself or is seduced by two maids. He is overseen by three soldiers, who spread gossip all over Dublin until he is put on trial, judged by the four old men, buried and finally served up as food, Osiris-like, by his wife ALP. At this point the next incarnation arrives from over the sea. It is "retaled early in bed and later on life down through all Christian minstrelsy" [19] but it is also written by "the first and till last alshemist…over every square inch of the only foolscap available, his own body" with his "costive Satan's antinomian manganese limolitimious nature." [20] The narrative is broad enough to embrace all previous religious narratives, both the demonic and divine. Like a Blakean synthesis, the Wake combines past truths into one supreme narrative. As with Heidegger, Joyce subordinates orthodox theism to a human narrative of Being.

As statements of the recurring "fall" theme, these Biblical and national images suggest that Irish religious and cultural structures have themselves grown out of the underlying structure of human being. We learn of HCE that "Father Barley… got up of a morning arley and he met with a plattonem blondes names Hips and Haws, [21] " suggesting how the archetypal man, in his fallen state, is similar to John Barleycorn, a pagan symbol for the process of the barley harvest and brewing of beer and whiskey. The theme of Earwicker's seduction by the two maids ("Hips" and "Haws") finds echo here in the process of brewing beer. The world of the Wake is narratively bound to the fall of man. This narrative structure is so foundational that it is imbricated into the very landscape itself.

Fallenness [Verfallenheit] is also an important aspect of Dasein, being associated with its authenticity [Eigentlichkeit]. Indeed, "falling reveals an essential ontological structure of Dasein itself." [22] Dreyfus outlines three forms of this structure: absorption, language and reflexivity. [23] Let us examine these. Dasein does not exist as a subject but is instead already bound up with the world such that it is the clearing-foundation in which human subjectivity shows up.

In falling, Dasein itself as factical Being-in-the-world, is something from which it has already fallen-away… [it] has fallen into the world, which itself belongs to its being. [24] 

In the kind of handling and being-busy which is "absorbed in the thing one is handling" … the essential structure of care - falling - makes itself known. [25] 

The care structure of Dasein's skilled coping makes falling a necessity. The subject, or the self, which emerges in Dasein, is the inherited for-the-sake-of-which upon which it takes a public stand. That is, Dasein falls away from its essence and interprets itself in terms of the care structure that reveals the "there" into which it has fallen. This is the nature of Dasein's facticity. Dasein can never recover its grounded essence. It is always already thrown [geworfen] into Being in that its being is always already an issue for it. Dasein's thrownness [Geworfenheit] is the content of its facticity [Faktizität] flavoured by its state-of-mind [Befindlichkeit], or as Blattner calls it, its "attunement." [Stimmung] [26] Because it is thus fallen, cut off from its ontological root, Dasein is "interpretation all the way down." [27] It did not choose the thrownness of its existence but must inexorably take a stand on it.

Because it is ungrounded in this way, occupying only public stations of Being, Heidegger speaks of Dasein having fallen into the one self [das Man] (an agreed upon way of public being). In Finnegans Wake, Shem poses the question, "when is a man not a man?" and answers "when he is sham." When is he "sham"? When he "yeat the abblokooken" [28] (eats the cooking apple), when he falls away from himself, when he loses himself in the one, when he covers over his own mortality.

For the most part, everyday Dasein covers up the ownmost possibility of its Being - that possibility which is non-relational and not to be outstripped [by its demise in death]. [29] 

Dasein, like HCE fleeing from his accusers, tries to deny its own structure. Later we will adumbrate this structure as "guilt." First, though, we investigate the other modality of Dasein's fallenness.

While Dasein is always already fallen, severed from the nothingness of its roots, we are afforded a glimpse of HCE in a pre-fallen state, "before he fell hill he filled heaven: a stream, alplapping streamlet, coyly coiled um, cool of her curls." [30] Yet while this vista, an eirenic vision of male and female archetypes lying in coitus, demonstrates the harmonious interaction of HCE and ALP, it remains but a fleeting thought, and is never realised in all the ages of the Wake. It appears but a single time. HCE falls with the first thunderclap, announcing the end of the ginnungagap (in Norse mythology the void before time), the brief moment before the Vichian ages reset themselves and the cycle begins anew. Far from "filling heaven," HCE is brought low by the scandalous rann (satirical song once used to humiliate ancient Irish kings) composed by his detractors. This song, "The Ballad of Persse O"Reilly" (perhaps a pun on the female genitalia and a garrulous "oh really?") chortles with loquacious glee, humiliatingly asking all and sundry

Have you heard of one Humpty Dumpty / How he fell with a roll and a rumble… He was one time our King of the Castle / Now he's kicked about like a rotten old parsnip. [31] 

Although we are told that at one time HCE was "King of the Castle," as with the Edenic vision this is never substantiated in actuality. The facticity of HCE seems to be always to inherit the thrownness of its fall. It is the rann that holds sway throughout Lucalizod.

The wararrow went round, so it did, (a nation wants a gaze) and the ballad… stump-stampaded on to a slip of blancovide and headed by an excessively rough and red woodcut, privately printed at the rimepress of Delville, soon fluttered its secrets on white highway and brown byway to the rose of the winds and the blew of the gaels, from archway to lattice and from black hand to pink ear, village crying to village, through the five pussyfours green of the united states of Scotia Picta [32] 

Thus the intoxicated song spreads across Ireland (Scotia) and brings low Earwicker. Just as Heidegger notes that we never encounter an objective present "east wind" but rather "wind in the sails" [33] it would seem here that the rann "flutters its secrets… to the rose of the wrings and the blew of the gaels." The very elements themselves are disclosed by the narrative fall.

Scotia may also be suggestive of Duns Scotus, renowned for his univocal ontology and doctrine of the categories. If we allow ourselves this interpretation, the "united states" may perhaps refer to his nine categories of beings, with the rann itself the univocity, or "one voice" of Being. Given this reading, Being itself is a comedic and humiliating song with human being the fallen sinner thrust into its midst. The singers of the rann may hold themselves to have embarked on a Dionysiac dance but in their dreamlike, Appoline facticity they constantly morph into HCE himself. One is left to contemplate whether the song of Being is a Nietzschean wisdom of Silenus, that the truth of human existence is that it would have been better for it to never exist at all. [34] 

Before we see why this reading can be avoided, let us observe that with this rann we have encountered the third way in which Dasein is fallen: its subjection to idle talk [Gerede]

Discourse, which belongs to the essential state of Dasein's Being and has a share in constituting Dasein's disclosedness, has the possibility of becoming idle talk. And when it does so, it serves not so much to keep Being-in-the-world open for us in an articulated understanding, as rather to close it off, and cover up the beings within the world. [35] 

Discourse, as the logos, is the way in which we let something be shown, or articulated as the thing it is. As Being-in-the-world, Dasein pre-ontologically discloses beings as they are given by the world's equipmental nexus. This world-nexus can be articulated like joints (perhaps in a skeleton). Discourse can take the form of telling, in which one articulates, for example, a hammer as being "too heavy," before reaching for another. "Telling is the articulation of intelligibility." [36] It need not be linguistic in character - for example, one can tellingly articulate the intelligibility of an escalator by using it, or can articulate the above proposition regarding the hammer by simply discarding it and reaching for another. However, when it speaks about something towards which it bears no comportment, Dasein has fallen into idle talk. Idle talk has become de-worlded and, as such, does not articulate the intelligibility of the world, but rather makes empty statements about the merely present-to-hand. The present-to-hand emerges from Dasein's de-worlded, impoverished way of understanding. In short, idle talk passes over the phenomenon of the world.

The groundlessness of idle talk is no obstacle to its becoming public; instead it encourages this. Idle talk is the possibility of understanding everything without previously making the thing one's own. If this were done, idle talk would founder… Idle talk is something which anyone can rake up; it not only releases one from the task of genuinely understanding, but develops an undifferentiated kind of intelligibility, for which nothing is closed off any longer. [37] 

Idle talk does not grant informed articulation but empty, de-worlded speculation. Against analytical tradition, Heidegger holds that interpretation is impoverished when it is detached and merely observational. The present-to-hand is the province of the correct but not of truth.

In Finnegans Wake, as we have seen, Joyce certainly seems to suggest that human beings suffer negative consequences from idle talk. After relentlessly heckling HCE over his alleged scandals, the customers at his inn announce that "you"ll read it tomorrow, marn, when the curds on the table." [38] The scandal of Earwicker lacks any ground. It is confused, and those who partake in spreading it themselves merge into the accused. Yet nothing can prevent it being blared by tabloid headlines. Perhaps feeling that he has strayed too far from what Heidegger would term the public identity of how one is a gentleman, Earwicker scrambles to articulate a defence of himself, arguing that though he has surely done wrong in his life, "I like to think… confessedly in my baron gentilhomme to the manhor bourne." [39] The tension between idle talk and discourse gives rise to panic and guilt. In idle talk, the subtlety of human being and its complexity is levelled into dismissive categorisation. One is "guilty" because they say so. It is simpler to accuse disposively than to listen discursively. HCE is defeated, beaten and left to lie fallen on his barroom floor.

Pressing our enquiry into these narratives we approach the issue of guilt. In the face of idle talk, the futility of Earwicker's discourse reveals him in his guilt. Conversely, for Dasein, as we will see, guilt is what calls human being away from idle talk. In both instances guilt is the core structure of human being. In regards to their function as narratives, does guilt reveal in Being and Time and Finnegans Wake what might be called "salvation?"

To approach the issue of guilt in Heidegger, we must examine his thinking regarding death. For Heidegger, Dasein's ownmost [eigenst - most its own] possibility is death. In death, Dasein exists in such a way that "absolutely nothing more is still outstanding in it." It has become "no-longer-being-there." [40] Being-towards-death is neither a realisation Dasein can have, nor something that occasionally emerges when it dwells on mortality. Rather, it belongs essentially to Dasein. Of course, ontically, in a certain sense, "Dasein is dying as long as it exists," [41] but by "ownmost" Heidegger wishes to imply a more primordial Being-towards. Death is part of Dasein's existential structure.

As Being-towards-death, Dasein can flee into the one and, as inauthentic, try to cover up its anxiety. This fallenness is inauthentic. It does not embrace Dasein as the being it is but instead attempts, in futility, to obscure it. When inauthentic, Dasein occupies itself with idle talk and diversionary curiosity [Neugier], maintaining that "one of these days one will die too, in the end, but right now it has nothing to do with [me]." [42] Dying is always something to do tomorrow; today it is certain that I will not die. In this way Dasein lives as if it were immortal but still, death is its ownmost possibility. How, then, can Dasein face death authentically? Heidegger writes,

Anticipation turns out to be the possibility of understanding one's ownmost and uttermost potentiality-for-Being - that is to say, the possibility of authentic existence. [43] 

Authentic Dasein anticipates [läuft vor] its Being-towards-death. This anticipation is not an intellectual realisation but an ontological comportment. In authentic existence, Dasein resolutely projects itself upon its ownmost possibility for being. Projection is, as Blattner notes, "just pressing ahead into some possibility." [44] Dasein's possibilities are the public for-the-sake-of-whichs into which it has been acculturated. When authentic, Dasein accepts that it can never, in an "objectively" grounded sense, be these possibilities because they are public stands, not its ownmost possibility. Dasein's core is always hollow; its ownmost possibility is anxiety/death. This acceptance is the transformation, via a moment of vision [Augenblick], to authentic resoluteness. In the transformation, Dasein is stripped of all levelled meaning and liberated from the power of idle talk.

Resoluteness brings the self right into its current concernful being-amidst what is available, and pushes it into solicitous being with others. [45] 

Dasein joyously accepts its existence and even its anxiety by opening up to its situation and other Daseins whom it encounters in its shared world. That is, Dasein projects itself upon its own death. Dasein chooses its own emptiness as the ground for its existential comportment. It renounces the search for grounded meaning and accepts situational, cultural meaning, even though this meaning is projected upon emptiness.

Guilt is that which reveals Dasein as the being it is. Dasein is called to authenticity by its guilty conscience.

This call whose mood has been attuned by anxiety is what makes it possible first and foremost for Dasein to project itself upon its ownmost potentiality for being" [46] 

Only by embracing this revelation can Dasein comport itself authentically. The call of guilt [Gewissensruf] reveals a fundamental lack. For Heidegger, "if one takes "laden with moral guilt" as a "quality" of Dasein, one has said very little." [47] Guilt is not a simple emotion; Dasein is infected with it in its existential structure. [*] Dasein is guilty in its ownmost possibility. Heidegger writes,

We define the formally existential idea of the "Guilty!" as "Being-the-basis for a Being which has been defined by a "not" - that is to say, as "Being-the-basis of a nullity." [48] 

What is this nullity? Heidegger writes that Dasein is

never existent before its ground, but rather in each case only in terms of it and as it. Being the ground therefore means never to have power over One's ownmost being from the ground up. This not belongs to the existential sense of thrownness. Being the ground is itself a nullity of itself. [49] 

That is, Dasein cannot ever get back behind its thrownness. Or as Blattner has it, the nullity thesis states that Dasein cannot press ahead into its attunements [50] . Dasein can never climb out of the world such that its existence is no longer of any concern to it, being instead always already bound up with a care structure that presents its thrown facticity in accordance with its attunement. In anxiety, Dasein realises it is thus imprisoned, and realises that grounded meaning is forever elusive outside of its ownmost possibility of death.

The call of conscience, then, reveals Dasein as guilty, and to be authentic, Dasein must embrace this guilt. In the vernacular, it might be said that Dasein must accept itself for what it is. By accepting fallen meaning as fallen, Dasein casts off distraction and dwells mindfully in the heritage of the one. This has profound implications as a social narrative. But what of Earwicker? Does guilt likewise lead him out of fallenness? HCE's guilt, while no less axiological, may seem more traditionally moral but, as we will see, as an archetypal narrative, Earwicker is no less prone to his thrown nullity

The Earwicker narrative is universal to all men. "it was… a pleasant turn of the populace which gave him as sense of those normative letters the nickname Here comes Everybody." [51] In every incarnation, HCE is tempted into scandal. Like Dasein, HCE seems unable to get behind its thrownness. Earwicker is always unable to avoid its facticity, characterised by its thrownness into moral guilt. Earwicker's fall is predicated on Finn's and re-enacted by Shaun. As Campbell and Robinson aver, "the bier of Finnegan is the stage on which history enacts itself in the goings and comings of HCE." [52] Finn, as the original faller is the existential structure of HCE who in turn is the existential structure of Shaun and Shem. Together the male archetypes of Finnegans Wake are the paternal structure of human being. As a trinity, grandfather, father and sons are Dadsein.

What of the female? In Being and Time, Heidegger is silent on the question of gender, referring to Dasein in the neuter and presumably regarding sex as a specific existentiell. ALP, however, as female, is complicit in HCE's transgression and yet is also his loyal defender. She offers "a reiz every morning for Standfast Dick and a drop every minute for Stumblestone Davy." [53] As her namesake suggests, Anna Liffey is the river of life that flows around HCE. The dramatic narrative of human being is always a question of gender: "Every telling has a taling and that's the he and she of it." [54] The narratives of HCE and ALP are entwined in primal Being-with. Joyce once wrote that, in her youth, "[ALP's] Pandora's box [contained] all the ills flesh is heir to." [55] Yet still she offers "the primal sacrament of baptism or the regeneration of all men by affusion of water," [56] consoling her husband: "Rise up… you have slept too long. You did so drool. I was so sharm. But there's a great poet in you too!" [57] ALP is both the alpha of the fall and the omega of redemption. Ultimately, man's guilt is bearable because it is washed clean by woman. Man is forgiven his transgressions by the very being against whom he has transgressed. There can be no permanent resolution or closure, but, as the narrative repeats, perpetual consolation. It is this consolation that provides a way out of despair. Existentially, Dadsein is cast between these poles of transgression and redemption. ALP first entices, flowing like a river from "swerve of shore to bend of bay" [58] before washing clean her husband's guilt. Guilt is primal but so is salvation. One is the possibility for the other and these two faces of ALP flow over the existential bones of man.

But is ALP herself wholly subordinate to a male protagonist? Is woman placed into existence to be the plaything and comforter of man? In her final epiphanic moments before rebirth, ALP is presented as if with a choice. Running out towards the sea, weary with the detritus of life, she realises, as if addressing her husband on the shore,

I thought you were all glittering with the noblest of carriage. You"re only a bumpkin. I thought you were great in all things, in guilt and in glory. You"re buy a puny. Home! [59] 

The cares of her life, her concern for her husband, are suddenly cast off and placed into perspective. Man's guilt and redemption, his existential meaning, are puny irrelevances. She is free to turn towards her home. ALP's existential narrative will be interrupted by the ginnungagap of her dissolution in a primal sea.

I go back to you, my cold father, my cold mad father, cold mad feary father, till the near sight of the mere size of him, the moyles and moyles of it, moananoaning, makes me seasilt saltsick and I rush, my only, into your arms. [60] 

But what is this? This primal sea is not feminine. Having scarcely finished renouncing the concerns of men, ALP greets not her primal mother but her father. How exactly are we to interpret this passage?

The diabolical duality of Finnegans Wake rises here to a crescendo. ALP seemingly longs to return to her father, and yet speaks of him as a lover, suggesting a return to HCE. Addressing this male entity, she wishes to "rush, my only, into [his] arms" and yet at once proclaims him "cold," "mad" and "feary." It becomes clear that an obscene phallic pun runs through the passage, with ALP exclaiming at the "mere size of him" and complaining of being "seasilt saltsick" after his "moananoaning" (echoing Onanism). To be blunt, it appears ALP has said farewell to men only to rush into the arms of her lover who is also her father upon whom she performs incestuous fellatio. The possibility of simple redemption or resolution for either character is thus scandalised by the complexity of the final male archetype into which ALP flows. Even here, at the end of the cycle, the dual nexus of guilt and redemption continues to provide the uttermost horizon of human being. Guilt-redemption is the rootless thrownness of existence. And then it begins again: a divine comedy of soteriology.

The archetypes of Finnegans Wake and Being and Time preserve Christian narratives of existence as human existential structures. From a state of fallenness, man is redeemed either by a diabolical equivocity, which casts redemption and damnation as shifting poles of sexual identity or a resolute piety, which projects itself into a cultural world, publicly grounding its groundlessness. We have moved from structure to foundation; surface to essence (and that which determines essence); from epistemology to fundamental ontology. Finnegans Wake and Being and Time replace redemption through Christ with post-Christian paradox.

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