Reviewing The Novel A Brave New World English Literature Essay

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A. Title- The title of the book Brave New World comes from a Shakespearean play called The Tempest in Act V Scene I, and the title is ironic to the Shakespearean play because Huxley describes "the brave world" perversely with not only the undertones of conformity from 1984, but also with blatant sex with children. Shakespeare describes the scene as "goodly creatures….beauteous mankind" which completely contrasts with the ritualistic world of Huxley. Huxley chooses this title to show that this world, in which he writes, is new and brave however these positive adjectives do not reflect the actions and feelings of the society, and with this knowledge, Huxley uses change to sort of scare the audience through his clear cut voice and develop that this country is corrupt in nature.

B. The book begins with innocent school children receiving a tour from the Director and through the tour, the readers can already see that this world is conformed due to the caste systems, the embryonic cloning in masses, and the commonality of sex and promiscuous-ism. The purpose in writing the beginning so shocking is to set the stage for other events in the book and to get the readers used to his type of mood and tone. Again, Huxley uses this imaginative mind to create a world such that people are "decanted" and not "born" lacking individualism and creativity among each person in the society. This sense of conformity creates a veil of suspicion for continuing on with the book.

C. London is the major setting of the novel and although many landmarks are seen in London, there are also new ones created for the new world, for example the Slough Crematorium and the College of Emotional Engineering. The time period/time frame is taken place in the future, where scientific advancement is evident in every walk and aspect of life; in fact, parts and types of sciences have morphed into god-like powers, dictating and controlling human behavior, especially for the upper class that need to be controlled. The atmosphere of the book shows devilish joy and fabricated, fake, and induced happiness; the suppression that is abundant is so subtle and slightly detailed that it is not even suspected. In the aftermath of World War I, the general mood and motive were to obliterate the bitter past and create a new utopian society. When Huxley wrote the novel in 1932, he took much of his creative knowledge and amplified it in an extreme form, creating a world ruled by totalitarianism, controversial science, and insane engineering. The inspiration for the book came from the leaders such as, Karl Marx, Henry Ford, and Sigmund Freud.

D. John - He is the son of the Director and Linda (his mother), John is the only predominant character to have grown up outside of the new society of the World State. It seems that John cannot accept that the world as turn to the worse from what it was before its glorious days and does not accept the society in which sex and drugs run rampant. He is labeled and marked as the outsider and has lived his life completely far away from his village on the Savage Reservation and finds himself unable to live within the World State society due to the conformity and the corrupt nature of the society. His entire worldview is of Shakespeare's plays, and he can quote pretty well.

Bernard Marx - Bernard is an Alpha male, who are supposed to be the cream of the crop in that they are the smartest, most beautiful, and all around better but fails conform in with society because of his weak and low physical body and structure. He has untraditional beliefs on relationships involving sex, activities including sports and communal gatherings. His self consciousness about his size and body structure makes him angry and mad at the World State's society of expecting him to be the greatest since he is of the Alpha Caste. Bernard shows a bit of emotion in seeing that he cares what others think of him and becomes depressed just because of the expectation for him to be muscular and tall and not to mention beautiful and witty. Bernard's discontent stems from his strong desire to fit in with the society, rather than living in the criticism of it with a life of mockery, when threatened about his size, Bernard can be irrational and mean. This inferiority complex of his reminds me of Curly from Of Mice and Men.

Helmholtz Watson - Another Alpha caste member and teacher at the College of Emotional Engineering, Helmholtz is the perfect example of his system and caste, but feels that his work is empty and meaningless. He believes that his significance of life should be greater would like to start using his writing skills for something more important and meaningful. Watson and Bernard are friends because they are discontent with the World State's society, but Watson's criticisms of the World State are more philosophical and intellectual than Bernard's menial complaints. Because of this, Watson finds Bernard boastful and petty nature to be his downfall.

Henry Foster - Foster is one of Lenina's many lovers, and he is a perfectly orthodox male part of the Alpha caste, blatantly talking about Lenina's body with his friends and coworkers. His relationship with Lenina, and his nonchalent attitude about it, infuriate the Bernard.

Lenina Crowned - Linda, a vaccinator worker at the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre, attracts many characters, including Bernard Marx and John and due to society's standards of sleeping around. Her personality and nature are sometimes against what society expects of her, which makes her appealing to the reader. For example, she shows that the culture's standards by dating and having sex with one man for several months but is attracted to Bernard and at the same time, she develops a passion for John. Her values and morals are those of a typical World State citizen. She communicates to the readers that she only provides sex and is lustful towards most of the characters in the book, and she is unable to share Bernard's and John's system of morals.

Mustapha Mond -  Mustapha is The Resident World Controller of Western Europe, one of few and selected ten World Controllers. He was once a young and ambitious scientist performing illicit and sound research to further develop human life. When his hard work was discovered, he had two choices, either to train to become a World Controller or be exiled forever and away from the society. He chose to give up his passion of science, and now he covers up scientific experiments and discoveries and exiles people for not believing in the World State's beliefs. He also keeps a library of forbidden books in his safe, which ranges from Shakespeare to other religious works such as the Bible. His name Mond means "world," and Mond is apparently the character with the most power in the world in the book.

The Director - The Director regulates the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. He is a power figure, with the power to exile anybody, but his secret makes this god like character vulnerable because of his son, John, with his wife Linda, which is a obscene and scandalous act to the World State as a whole.

Linda -  Linda is John's mother, and part of the Beta caste. While visiting the Savage Reservation, she actually became legitimately and surprisingly (for this generation of society) pregnant with the Director's son. During a heavy storm, she got lost, was stuck with a severe head injury and was left behind. A group of natives found her lying down and brought Linda to their home and village. Linda's life was saved, but however, Linda could not get an abortion on the Indian Reservation, and because she was pregnant (which is strange), she was too ashamed to return to the World State with a baby. Her own nature in which she lived was based on her promiscuity, and she desperately wants to return to World State for the soma in which she is addicted to.

Fanny Crowne - Fanny's role in the book is to mainly voice the orthodox values of her caste and society and to present them in a way that appeals to the World State. Specifically, she scolds Lenina that she should more relationships in her life because society looks down on girls who concentrate on one man for too long, according to society's ways.

E. The novel is told in a third person view varying from Bernard, John, and Lenina but mostly maintains to be John for the majority of the book.

F. John who is the protagonist of the novel and the mark and symbol of the previous world order before the World State. Within the society of the old world order, emotion and individualism were key aspects in living ordinary lives in contrasts to the World State. The conflict starts when John is taken from his Savage Reservation to London, where he refutes the understood adjectives of the brave new world and points out its moral decay and conformity falls. In comes the antagonist Mustapha Mond who is the symbol of the brave new world and World State. As one of the Controllers of the ten in the world, he represents the intellectual, scientific society of the new world order, where moral decay and conformity are more valued than emotions and individualism. He wittingly rebuttals John's criticisms on his supposed utopian society, forcing the Savage to realize that the old world order and brave new world are completely different and can never co-exist.

II. Commentary on Plot, Etc.

A. John - He is the son of the Director and Linda (his mother), John is the only predominant character to have grown up outside of the new society of the World State. It seems that John cannot accept that the world as turn to the worse from what it was before its glorious days and does not accept the society in which sex and drugs run rampant. He is labeled and marked as the outsider and has lived his life completely far away from his village on the Savage Reservation and finds himself unable to live within the World State society due to the conformity and the corrupt nature of the society. His entire worldview is of Shakespeare's plays, and he can quote pretty well.

Bernard Marx - Bernard is an Alpha male, who are supposed to be the cream of the crop in that they are the smartest, most beautiful, and all around better but fails conform in with society because of his weak and low physical body and structure. He has untraditional beliefs on relationships involving sex, activities including sports and communal gatherings. His self consciousness about his size and body structure makes him angry and mad at the World State's society of expecting him to be the greatest since he is of the Alpha Caste. Bernard shows a bit of emotion in seeing that he cares what others think of him and becomes depressed just because of the expectation for him to be muscular and tall and not to mention beautiful and witty. Bernard's discontent stems from his strong desire to fit in with the society, rather than living in the criticism of it with a life of mockery, when threatened about his size, Bernard can be irrational and mean. This inferiority complex of his reminds me of Curly from Of Mice and Men.

Helmholtz Watson - Another Alpha caste member and teacher at the College of Emotional Engineering, Helmholtz is the perfect example of his system and caste, but feels that his work is empty and meaningless. He believes that his significance of life should be greater would like to start using his writing skills for something more important and meaningful. Watson and Bernard are friends because they are discontent with the World State's society, but Watson's criticisms of the World State are more philosophical and intellectual than Bernard's menial complaints. Because of this, Watson finds Bernard boastful and petty nature to be his downfall.

Henry Foster - Foster is one of Lenina's many lovers, and he is a perfectly orthodox male part of the Alpha caste, blatantly talking about Lenina's body with his friends and coworkers. His relationship with Lenina, and his nonchalent attitude about it, infuriate the Bernard.

Lenina Crowned - Linda, a vaccinator worker at the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre, attracts many characters, including Bernard Marx and John and due to society's standards of sleeping around. Her personality and nature are sometimes against what society expects of her, which makes her appealing to the reader. For example, she shows that the culture's standards by dating and having sex with one man for several months but is attracted to Bernard and at the same time, she develops a passion for John. Her values and morals are those of a typical World State citizen. She communicates to the readers that she only provides sex and is lustful towards most of the characters in the book, and she is unable to share Bernard's and John's system of morals.

Mustapha Mond -  Mustapha is The Resident World Controller of Western Europe, one of few and selected ten World Controllers. He was once a young and ambitious scientist performing illicit and sound research to further develop human life. When his hard work was discovered, he had two choices, either to train to become a World Controller or be exiled forever and away from the society. He chose to give up his passion of science, and now he covers up scientific experiments and discoveries and exiles people for not believing in the World State's beliefs. He also keeps a library of forbidden books in his safe, which ranges from Shakespeare to other religious works such as the Bible. His name Mond means "world," and Mond is apparently the character with the most power in the world in the book.

The Director - The Director regulates the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. He is a power figure, with the power to exile anybody, but his secret makes this god like character vulnerable because of his son, John, with his wife Linda, which is a obscene and scandalous act to the World State as a whole.

Linda -  Linda is John's mother, and part of the Beta caste. While visiting the Savage Reservation, she actually became legitimately and surprisingly (for this generation of society) pregnant with the Director's son. During a heavy storm, she got lost, was stuck with a severe head injury and was left behind. A group of natives found her lying down and brought Linda to their home and village. Linda's life was saved, but however, Linda could not get an abortion on the Indian Reservation, and because she was pregnant (which is strange), she was too ashamed to return to the World State with a baby. Her own nature in which she lived was based on her promiscuity, and she desperately wants to return to World State for the soma in which she is addicted to.

Fanny Crowne - Fanny's role in the book is to mainly voice the orthodox values of her caste and society and to present them in a way that appeals to the World State. Specifically, she scolds Lenina that she should more relationships in her life because society looks down on girls who concentrate on one man for too long, according to society's ways.

B. Plot:

1. Brave New World presents an issue of whether conformity and corruption within a society is deemed acceptable or not, compared to the old runic but morally correct society.

2.

3. One of the most recurring events or names in this class is Ford and numerous references to his name. Throughout Brave New World, the people of the World State use the word Ford as a connotation as pure and respectable and can be compared to as lord in the Medieval Times. Another recurring event is sex. Brave New World is all about sex. Certain reproductive rights limit two-thirds of women to be sterilized, while the rest use contraceptives and remove their ovaries when in need to produce new and more humans. The activity of sex is controlled by a system of social praise for being promiscuous and not monogamy but polygamy.

4. A similar character that I compared was Curley from Of Mice and Men to Bernard Marx because both have inferiority complexes in addition to both of them being expected to be strong and have a bulker build. Curly is expected to be strong because he is the leader of the workplace, and with his small build, no one is really intimidated by his size. The Alpha caste that Bernard decant into is usually strong, big, and intelligent, while Bernard is lacking one of the supposed aspects. Both of them become ferocious when referred to their size because they see it as a weakness.

5. Yes, I believe that the ending to Brave New World was satisfactory because the reader can totally learn from what Huxley is saying. While Bernard is in exile and John is dead and nothing in the world of Brave New World changed, the readers are learning that their stories doesn't become the reader's story (our story). Huxley teaches us that we need to face the world's problems instead of blocking them with TV or any other drug, and that liberty and individualism is definitely worth fighting for and precious. Huxley's book allows the reader to create a brave new world that is worthy such a title.

III. Memorable Lines/Scenes

A. One quote from Brave New World that really interested me was," Every one works for every one else. We can't do without any one. Even Epsilons are useful. We couldn't do without Epsilons. Every one works for every one else. We can't do without any one. . . ." This quote really appeals to me because this shows that not one single person can do everything by themselves, and that the work needs to be divided. No matter the race, gender, or religion, humans need unity and companionship in order to survive.

B. Another quote that completely sums up the author's purpose in writing this book is, "All our science is just a cookery book, with an orthodox theory of cooking that nobody's allowed to question, and a list of recipes that mustn't be added to except by special permission from the head cook." Huxley obtain uses metaphors to convey a major theme of technology used for conformity or other inhuman goals.

IV. Theme and Other Abstract Ideas

A. & B. & C. Discus major themes, how they are portrayed, and moral and ethnical problems in the book.

Drugs and Alcohol Abuse- The drug that is used the most is the soma, which induces hallucinations and are used by those in power to control the people in Brave New World's, World State. Huxley describes it as "the perfect drug," with all the benefits of a regular drug such as the calming and "free the mind" effect with no dangerous consequences. The people of the World State have been made to love soma and use it to escape the problems or dissatisfaction in life. The problem, as John defines it, is that the people are enslaved by soma and morphed into robots with no individuality.

Sex- Sex is often linked to violence in Brave New World as the two polar ends of passion and love. In this totalitarian environment, promiscuity is the rule within society, and emotions and attachment to one single person is considered illegal. Sex is no longer performed for reproduction but instead for the sake of sex and slut. Sex is used to keep the citizens busy with their lives and having multiple sex lives occupies their lives even more. This action has desensitized and destroyed love and passion. Sex is treated nonchalantly and casually rather than in private between two and only people that love each other.

Society and Class- Society in the world of Brave New World is divided into five castes: Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons, with each caste going down in class in descending order. Because of the technology used by the World State, the caste is already set for you and robots/humans are decant to their appropriate status; the lower the caste, the less physically fit, intellectual power, and more orthodox the individual is. For adults, the two upper castes (Alpha and Beta) interact normally with each other but don't regard the lower classes to be equals. In short, class is yet another tool for control in this utopia.

D. The purpose in the author writing this book is for the sake of the reader to understand that this society is corrupt and has the potential to be our society. Huxley is speaking/writing out against unfair government control within our world and we must stand up to face the problems and challenges. Also, Huxley is advocating individualism as a greater power than conformity due to the creative mind and rational thought.

E. Animal Imagery- Animal imagery is flooded in Brave New World. In the first chapter, there's the repetition of "straight from the horse's mouth," Foster's statement that cows could emerge out of embryos, more imagery can be seen in "Rams wrapped in theremogene beget no lambs." Later on, when John returns to the hospital, he notices Delta children staring at Linda with "the stupid curiosity of animals." We can assume that Huxley's message is that the new world has desensitized its people that they resemble animals.

V. Style

A. In the beginning of the book there seems to be a happy, positive mood described in the novel, and for a second, changes in this brave new world seem greatly improved. But as the novel continues, the writing style conveys distortion and despair, as the truth is revealed and uncovered about the brave new world.

B. Huxley's diction can be dramatic in Brave New World. In Chapter Thirteen when Lenina forgets to give an immunization to a bottle and the bottle dies. "Twenty-two years, eight months, and four days from that moment, a promising young Alpha-Minus administrator at Mwanza-Mwanza was to die of trypanosomiasis." Also, Huxley diction shows his tone toward the end of Chapter Three, "Slowly, majestically, with a faint humming of machinery, the Conveyors moved forward, thirty-three centimeters an hour. In the red darkness glinted innumerable rubies." This tone of darkness and negativity can be seen as the dystopic society in which the World State exists in.

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