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For a couple of years ago, key players in the world of literature have faced numerous challenges in coming up with concrete analysis for conversations. This group of individuals include; foreign language teachers and students, speech pathologists and therapists, linguists, translators among others. More specifically, the analysis of distinct features in speech in various languages has been a big challenge. In other aspects, challenges have also been observed in monitoring the speech features of; lipsing, tooth gashing, sounds made with a cleft palate among others (Laver, 1994).
Importantly, many assumptions have been made concerning the analysis of spoken language; whereby it is noted that the distinctive characteristics of spoken language are not fully adhered to. The IPA was developed in the year 1886 by a group of language teachers in France and Britain in the leadership of Paul Passy. Since this time, various developments have been done on it so as to ensure its acceptability and efficiency in language and conversation analysis. In relation to this, the IPA methodology in analyzing distinctive features in speech is very accurate and efficient. The IPA adopts the principle of providing one letter for each distinctive speech segment thus making it appropriate. Due to the complexities and difficulties experienced in conversation analysis of various languages, the IPA definitely stands to be the most appropriate (IPA, 1999).
Basically, the purpose of this research study is to come up with the right procedure, assumptions and methodologies in making precise analysis of conversations. Precisely, the research is aimed at providing efficient analysis criteria for conversations and spoken languages as well as sounds. In order to accomplish this task, a qualitative approach and analysis will be adopted (Skinner, 1990).
As outlined above, the research has various aims as well as purposes; below are some of the main objectives of the research study.
1. Analyze and sufficiently evaluate the concept of conversation analysis
2. Highlight the categories of conversation analysis procedures
3. Discuss the applicability of IPA in conversation analysis.
IPA is an efficient and accurate method adopted in conversation analysis
Lack of utilization of the distinctive speech features will ultimately lead to wrong speech or conversation analysis.
IPA is basically the criteria of choice in solving or the challenges and difficulties faced in conversation analysis.
The methodologies to be used will entail life interviews so as to get the actual results in identifying linkage with the themes. A qualitative analysis will be the guiding principle in coming up with concrete conclusion. In this aspect, a good number of individuals from different groups will be interviewed. In relation with this, a sample space ranging from 120 to 300 individuals will be examined. The use of questionnaires will also be used though to a limited population of 20 to 50 persons. Notably, the individuals will be randomly selected so as to avoid bias. In addition, the issue of considering a diverse sample of languages will be profoundly adhered to (Laver, 1994).
In support of the hypothesis, methods of data analysis and interpretation will be sufficiently administered. A point worth noting is that, expertise knowledge and skills in conversation analysis will be greatly put into consideration. This will involve the assistance of grammar tutors, linguists and other expertise in literature and languages. More significantly, literature review of the work of various authors and scholars in the field of literature will be catered for (Pullum, 1986).
Significance of research
The research is of great importance to a diverse sphere of individuals and groups. To begin with, linguists and foreign grammar teachers will use the ideas postulated by the study to add to their body of knowledge. This will help them to overcome the many challenges they face in handling various issues in languages and conversations analysis. Interviewers will also benefit form this research study, in that they will get to understand better the features to look for while analyzing languages and conversions. The outcome of the study will be of help all practitioners in literature field since they will be able to avoid the numerous mistakes occurring in conversation analysis. The student's body of knowledge will also be increased after taking note of the research outcome; this will help them in dealing with future challenges in conversations and language analysis (IPA, 1999).
The IPA is an abbreviation of the "International Phonetic Alphabet", which is a system of alphabet of phonetic notation. The system is basically developed from Latin alphabet. In this regard, the IPA is a standardized representation of spoken language and was developed by the International Phonetic Association. Importantly, the IPA represents only the qualities of speech which are distinctive in spoken language, intonation, phonemes, and the separation of syllables and words. This aspect makes the IPA an important tool in conversation analysis since it only looks at the distinctive qualities of speech. As outlined by Laver (1994), the IPA represents extensive qualities of speech like; tooth gnashing, sound prepared with a cleft palate, lipsing among others (Laver, 1994).
From another perspective, the symbols adopted by the IPA are composed of various elements of diacritics and letters. This distinctive feature enables the representation of a composite number of English words into only one simple or letter. It is further noted that, the International phonetic association removes, modifies or adds diacritics or letters at different occasions. Since its development in the year 1886, the International Phonetic Association has led various developments and changes in the world of literature and more precisely the IPA thus making language analysis easier (Skinner, 1990).
The various revisions during the years 1988, 1900, 1932, 1993 has led to removal and addition of a significant number of letters for voiceless implosives and mid-central vowels. The recent changes of the alphabet in the year 2005 led to the addition of letter for the labiodental flap. The numerous changes done on the IPA has led to its efficiency and accuracy in dealing with analysis of conversations and languages. These changes have led to the accommodation and integration of aspects of grammar from various corners of the globe thus making it the best method (Pullum, 1986).
As described by Pullum (1986), the IPA works on the principle of providing one letter to each segment of speech. This aspect makes it very efficient and accurate in analysis of conversation and language thus easy to be adopted. Based on this, no combination of letters in the representation of sounds; thus making it appropriate and effective. Unlike English and other European languages, the IPA has no letters with context- dependent values of words. Another good aspect of the IPA is that; it doesn't have separate letters two sounds thus making it easier to distinguish between controversial sounds (Pullum, 1986).
An aspect worth observing is that, the IPA has good component of symbols to represent vowels, diacritics and consonants. For instance, the IPA has 107 letters for representing vowels and consonants, 31 for Diacritics and 19 signs for suprasgmental qualities like tone, length, intonation and stress. This diversity of symbols and signs make the IPA very precise in the analysis of conversation and languages. The selection of IPA letters has widely been based on Greek and Latin language thus making them easy to correlate with Latin (Laver, 1994).
As stipulated by Shosted (2006), the IPA has received international acceptance and recognition due to its effectiveness in conversation analysis. The use of rotation and diacritics has facilitated the use of cursive forms in letter harmonization. Further, the IPA facilitates the retrieval of sound values of Latin letters from the original letters. An issue of consideration is that, the adoption of diacritic marks has aided transcription. Fortunately, other aspects of speech like; tone and stress are also aided by the use of symbols suprasgmental features. With this in mind, the analysis of languages or conversations using IPA is made more accurately and faster. This is on the basis that, distinctive and qualitative features of speech will be taken into account thus facilitating accurate and acceptable conclusions (Shosted, 2006).
In regard to transcribing and analysis of speech, IPA stands a potential position of providing the best results. This is based on the fact that it a good number of symbols is used by the IPA in analysis speech. As illustrated by Pullum (1986), the diverse number of symbols gives a chance for attainment of high level of precisions and accuracy. In relation with this, the structure of analysis will be based on a wider range of details thus be able to make concrete conclusions. This is in contrast to other forms of analysis which only incorporate a few symbols thus leading to the exclusion of many details. This will definitely lead to wrong transcription thus making other methods unacceptable (Pullum, 1986).
The research study will utilize primary data as well as secondary data from various scholarly works on the topic. The primary forms of data collection will involve live interviews and interrogation of different people with different languages. These interviews will entail a sample of between 50 to 80 people who will be randomly selected. An aspect worth of consideration is that, expertise will be necessary in data collection so as to facilitate attainment of precise conclusion. The use of modern equipments for recording and recording conversation will also be used. This will help in facilitating precise analysis of the speech since a particular sample can be replayed over time to ensure surety and precision. Data testing and regression will also be utilized in establishing the right statistics (IPA, 1999).
The research analysis will be purely on qualitative basis. In this case, only the qualitative and distinctive features of conversations will be put into consideration. After data collection and recording, a concrete analysis will be done. This will involve a composite literature review of the works of other scholars and researchers on the field of speech analysis (Shosted, 2006).
A good analysis will strictly follow a Systematic search for themes. This consideration should be followed in all cases in order to be able to arrive at acceptable conclusions. Secondly, an analysis of the connectivity between the themes should also be established. In so doing, one will be able to establish a good judgment between different pieces of speech. With this in mind, a detailed scrutiny of the whole speech should be administered; whereby all aspects of speech will be analyzed. It should also be observed that, a super ordinate theme should be established so as to make genuine interpretation of all the cases (Pullum, 1986).
The analysis will utilize the principles stipulated by the IPA as well as a detailed comparison with the methodology of other criteria for speech analysis. As described by Pullum (1986), the IPA works on the principle of providing one letter to each segment of speech. With these principles, one will be able to accurately make distinctions and accurate analysis between IPA and other methods. This aspect makes it very efficient and accurate in analysis of conversation and language thus easy to be adopted. Based on this, no combination of letters in the representation of sounds; thus making it appropriate and effective. With this in mind, this aspect of speech will be used in scrutinizing the data collected form the various individuals. Unlike English and other European languages, the IPA has no letters with context- dependent values of words. Another good aspect of the IPA is that; it doesn't have separate letters two sounds thus making it easier to distinguish between controversial sounds (Pullum, 1986).
It should further be considered that, all symbols stipulated by IPA should be accurately analyzed in making conclusions. For instance the signs and symbols representing vowels, diacritics as well as consonants should be adopted. For instance, the IPA has 107 letters for representing vowels and consonants, 31 for Diacritics and 19 signs for suprasgmental qualities like tone, length, intonation and stress. This diversity of symbols and signs make the IPA very precise in the analysis of conversation and languages. Despite the diversity of the languages, the keen adherence to the symbols should be able to give acceptable results (Laver, 1994).
The IPA is globally accepted due to its effectiveness in speech analysis. In this case, rotation and diacritics should be fully utilized in making transcriptions between various speeches. Further, cursive forms in letter harmonization should also be adopted in the analysis of the data collected so as to help in ensuring accuracy. Further, the IPA facilitates the retrieval of sound values of Latin letters from the original letters. An issue of consideration is that, the adoption of diacritic marks has aided transcription (Shosted, 2006).
Fortunately, other aspects of speech like; tone and stress should also be fully addressed so as to ensure accuracy in conversation transcription. Additionally, the aspect of scrutinizing suprasgmental features should also be given attention. With this in mind, the analysis of languages or conversations using IPA will made more accurate and faster. This will attribute to consideration of the distinctive and qualitative features of speech which will facilitate accurate and acceptable conclusions (Shosted, 2006).
In regard to transcribing and analysis of speech, IPA stands a potential position of providing the best results in speech analysis. This is based on the fact that it has a good number of symbols is used by the IPA in analysis speech. As illustrated by Pullum (1986), the diverse number of symbols gives a chance for attainment of high level of precisions and accuracy. In relation with this, the structure of analysis will be based on this wide range of details thus be able to make concrete conclusions. This is in contrast to other forms of analysis which only incorporate a few symbols thus leading to the exclusion of many details. This will definitely lead to wrong transcription thus making other methods unacceptable (Pullum, 1986).
Jones (1969) postulated that, broad phonetic transcriptions may confine themselves to simply heard details or details pertinent to discussion at hand. This kind of transcriptions may differ very slightly from other phonetic transcription and make no theoretical claims for distinctions. Fortunately, the IPA makes considerations of these features thus making it relatively viable. The level of precision is high compared to other forms of transcription thus making it potential of producing correct analysis. It should be considered that, all the distinctive features should be fully addressed so as to ensure a genuine distinction between the IPA and other forms of transcription (Jones, 1969).
In the process of analysis, linguists and poets and grammar teachers should be fully utilized. This is based on their broad knowledge on speech and the carious symbols involved. In this regard, these experts will act as reinforcement in the process of making analysis of the research. Additionally, caution should be taken in ensuring that modern technology is used in reinforcing the analysis method. For instance, equipments for recording and replaying speech should be used. In this aspect, precision will be facilitated since the piece of speech can be replayed so as to ensure concrete analysis and scrutiny (Cruz-Ferreira, 1995).
As outlined by Cruz-Ferreira (1995), the IPA is a broad method of phonetic transcriptions and doesn't confine itself to heard details only. In this phenomenon, a varied number of details are catered for thus making it more precise. This is as contrasted to other forms of speech transcription which confine themselves to simply heard details or details pertinent to discussion at hand. This kind of transcriptions may differ very slightly from other phonetic transcription and make no theoretical claims for distinctions. Fortunately, the IPA makes considerations of these features this making it relatively viable. The level of precision is high compared to other forms of transcription thus making it potential of producing correct analysis (Cruz-Ferreira, 1995).
Importantly, it should be observed that, the IPA is very accommodative in detecting features of all languages. In this case, English as well as other languages are adequately catered for thus making the IPA to be flexible in dealing with all other languages. The Standard orthographies and capital variants for incorporating all languages has been established by the IPA. For instance the Sub-Saharan Africa and other regions of the globe have fully been catered for. This aspect makes the IPA a globally acceptable measure for conversation and speech analysis (Ladefoged, 1996).
Ultimately, the analysis and literature review of different scholars strongly show the effectiveness of the IPA as a viable method of speech analysis. This has been attributed by its rich structure and methodology thus making it to produce the most precise analysis. In relation with this, further research needs to be carried out on the topic so as to help in coming up with a better method as well as reinforcing the IPA.
From a personal point of view, the process of deciphering Shazias interview has impacted a lot in the manner of conducting speech and conversation analysis. the process has been very educative in the structures of executing a successful speech analysis; whereby the aspects and distinctive features of language to be addressed has been highlighted. After completing the six week research on conversation analysis using the IPA, similarity with the Shazias process have been observed. Nevertheless, some differences have been highlighted though to a small magnitude. The ideas borrowed from Shazias interview were very inspirational in that they gave the green light on carrying out a successful speech analysis.
A great enlightenment has also been attained from Shazias interview which will help in carrying out a conversation or speech analysis. This ideas and skills are very beneficial for the research team since it gives them a chance to exercise the privileges of being consultants or interviewers. A point worth of consideration is that, Shazias module has given a true picture of what a successful speech analysis should be and thus a good basis for improvement of the research study.
Various themes have been learnt from the process of Shazias interview. Firstly, the theme of bravery and confidence has been highlighted in the Shazias interview. The execution of provocative interview has enabled in learning about the real traits of the individuals test.