GeorgiaÂ O'KeeffeÂ (Georgia Totto O'Keeffe,Â November 15, 1887, WIÂ -Â March 6, 1986, SantaÂ Fe,Â USA) -Â is an American artist. O'KeeffeÂ was bornÂ on a farmÂ nearÂ SunÂ Prairie, Wisconsin.Â HerÂ parents,Â FrancisÂ and IdaÂ O'KeeffeÂ CalyxtusÂ TottoÂ O'KeeffeÂ workedÂ on a farmÂ andÂ were engagedÂ inÂ cattle.Â Her fatherÂ wasÂ of Irish descent.Â IdaÂ Totto's father,Â GeorgeÂ VictorÂ Totto, afterÂ which GeorgiaÂ was named,Â was aÂ HungarianÂ immigrantÂ whoÂ cameÂ to AmericaÂ in 1848 fleeing from theÂ repression ofÂ theÂ uprisingÂ inÂ HungaryÂ against theÂ Austrians.Â In America,Â he metÂ IsabelÂ Wyckoff, with whomÂ he was married.Â In 1858Â they settledÂ in SunÂ Prairie.Â By mother's side,Â GeorgiaÂ wasÂ a descendantÂ of EdwardÂ Fuller, whoÂ was a MayflowerÂ passenger, andÂ oneÂ of theÂ signatories ofÂ the MayflowerÂ Compact. O'KeefeÂ grew upÂ inÂ Virginia,Â studiedÂ in Chicago andÂ New York.Â InÂ 1908Â she metÂ inÂ NewÂ YorkÂ with the photographer andÂ gallery ownerÂ Alfred Stieglitz, and later, in 1924,Â they wereÂ marriedÂ (StiglitzÂ had toÂ firstÂ get a divorce).
Stiglitz took a lot of pictures of O'Keeffe, brought her into the circle of friends, photographers modernist Paul Strand, Edward Steichen, and others under his influence, she returned to painting, which for family reasons, stoped in 1908-1912.Â Since 1923, landscapes and still lives O'Keefe (particularly known for the flowers) began with the support of Stiglitz numerous exhibitions, and she has become fashionable and highly paid artist.Â In 1929, O'Keeffe moved to New Mexico, whose desert landscapes have a long kind of paintings.Â In 1932-1934 the artist suffered severe nervous breakdown, which was treated.Â In 1943, a retrospective of her works was held at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1946 - in New York's Museum of Modern Art.Â
After a 15-year hiatus, the giant exhibition of works by O'Keeffe at the Whitney Museum in 1972 attracted the attention of the younger generation of intellectuals, including - of feminist circles.Â In 1970, O'Keeffe began to lose her sight, she began to work with ceramics, she has written an autobiographical book.Â After 1982, she was no longer making art, according to Georgia O'keeffe (2011).
2. Beginning: finding her own voice.
Georgia was the second of seven children, and the first girl in the family.Â Her mother, Ida, promoted education and intellectual development of their children.Â Education of girls has been a tradition in the family.Â Georgia's mother, Ida, was educated on the East Coast, and all her daughters, with one exception, were taken by a professional art.Â Georgia, aged about 12 years, along with her sisters, started to learn drawing. Because parents have noticed in her the abilities in this direction, they proposed to continue studies in art school.Â Georgia attended the Town Hall School in Wisconsin, where she was in a local class of Sara Mann.Â In the years 1901-1902 went to school, Sacred Heart Academy in Madison, Wisconsin.Â There she was subjected to fierce criticism of the discipline and nuns engaged in school.Â However, there she has received a medal for good performance in the class diagram, and other subjects such as history, algebra and English, she also has been receiving very good grades.Â
In 1902, Georgia lived with her aunt Lola in Madison and attended Madison High School.Â Her parents emigrated from Wisconsin to Peacock Hill in Williamsburg, Virginia, where she wanted to move there permanently with his family.Â Georgia spent much time examining the flowers for the drawing classes, studying their color and shapes.Â Later, this was reflected in her work.Â
At the age of 15 she moved to Williamsburg in 1905, bequeathed to the Chatham Episcopal Institute in Virginia (now Chatham Hall).Â Despite the differences in dress and behavior, they were well liked and accepted.Â She taught others to play poker, drew caricatures of teachers and was doing other pranks.Â The Chatham met Mrs.Â Willis, drawing lessons teacher, who studied at the Art Students League in New York, saw the talent and individuality of Georgia, according to Georgia O'keeffe biography (2009).Â
In 1905, Georgia, despite her father's financial difficulties, began to study painting at the Art Institute of Chicago.Â In 1907 she joined the Art Students League in New York, where she studied under William Merritt Chase.Â In 1908 she received the William Merritt Chase for the oil painting "A dead rabbit with a copper pot."Â This award was a scholarship allowing Georgia to take part in the open air over Lake George in upstate New York.Â In 1908, O'Keeffe was the Rodin exhibition of watercolors at the "291", which was owned by her future husband, photographer Alfred Stieglitz.Â
In the autumn of 1908, disappointed O'Keeffe did not return to study in the League, but moved to Chicago and began working for a commercial artist.Â At that time, did not create anything and even said that the smell of turpentine seasoned her sick.Â She worked as a drawing teacher in a primary school near Amarillo in the Texas Panhandle.Â
Only in 1912, under the influence of innovative theories of Arthur Wesley Dow'a, whom she met while teaching summer school, held at the University of Virginia, she began painting again.Â Dow encouraged artists to express themselves through harmonious compositions and contrasts of light and shadow.Â His theories and theories of his protege, Charles J. Martin's, had a major impact on the artist's creative process.Â At that time, she worked as an assistant Bement, who introduced her to Dow'em.Â Later, she returned to Texas, where he taught in the Faculty of Art Canyon West Texas A & M University (then known as West Texas State Normal College).Â Canyon was located on south of Amarillo.Â O'Keeffe was impressed of the located in that area Palo Duro Canyon. She had to write about it later: "It's angry, simmering cauldron, filled with dramatic light and color."
3. First oils: New York and her fascination with architecture.
At the beginning ofÂ 1916, AnitaÂ PollitzerÂ had a fewÂ drawingsÂ toÂ the GalleryÂ 291GeorgiaÂ Alfred Stieglitz.Â AnitaÂ hadÂ to sayÂ thatÂ these drawingsÂ wereÂ "the purest,Â finest, deepestÂ work,Â whichÂ hasÂ long sinceÂ beenÂ inÂ 291",Â andÂ that he would likeÂ them to leave.Â O'KeeffeÂ wasÂ in theÂ galleryÂ for the first timeÂ in 1908,Â butÂ did notÂ talkÂ at that time withÂ Stieglitz,Â althoughÂ highlyÂ valuedÂ hisÂ opinionsÂ asÂ aÂ critic.Â In April ofÂ 1916 yearsÂ in 1910Â StieglitzÂ exhibitedÂ herÂ drawings, which wereÂ notÂ reported.Â OnlyÂ when theÂ message reachedÂ Georgia, sheÂ contacted himÂ first.Â InÂ April of 1917Â there wasÂ the firstÂ exhibitionÂ at the GalleryÂ 291stÂ Georgia, andÂ these wereÂ mainlyÂ watercolorsÂ from Texas, according to Georgia O'keeffe (1887- 1986) (2009).
4. Lake George: art work.
Soon after his arrival to New York to Georgia, Stieglitz took her to his family home on Lake George in the Adirondack Mountains.Â They returned there many times each summer, which resulted in many paintings depicting the landscapes along the lake.Â Stieglitz arranged for Georgia, a place to live in the studio of his cousin and took care of her during her stay.Â Soon they fell in love.Â For Georgia, Stieglitz left his wife, Emmeline Obermeyer Stieglitz, and after a divorce in 1924, they got married.Â They spent the winter and spring in Manhattan, and summer and autumn on Lake George.Â Stieglitz began to photograph Georgia when she visited him in New York in 1917 in conjunction with his exhibition.Â In the years 1918 - 1937 she made over 300 portraits. Most of them were the erotic photos from the early years of their marriage.Â In February, 1921 Stieglitz photographs, including many images and acts of Georgia, presented a retrospective exhibition at Anderson Galleries.Â Photographs and Georgia have raised the overall sensation.Â In the first years of residence in New York, Georgia met many American modernist artists who belonged to the Stieglitz circle of friends, including Charles Demuth, Arthur Dove'a, Marsden Hartley, Paul Strand and Edward Steichen.Â Strand's photographic works and Stieglitz were the inspiration for Georgia.Â In New York she began to paint oil paintings and watercolors is not so far.Â In the twenties, O'Keeffe began to create paintings of floral forms in the high-magnification (as if seen through a magnifying glass.)Â
In 1924, he was her painting entitled "Petunia, No. 2," which is shown at an exhibition in 1925.Â Has done a lot of pictures of the buildings in New York, "City of Night and New York by Night", 1926, and "Radiator Building at Night", New York, 1927.Â
O'Keeffe work was associated with the movement of artists-feminists of the seventies.Â Judy Chicago O'Keeffee put up prominently in his work "The Dinner Party."Â
Since 1923, Stieglitz organized the annual exhibition of Georgia.Â In the twenties, has become one of the leading American artists.Â Her work has gained in price.Â In 1928 six of her paintings a series of "calla lily" sold for $ 25,000 U.S., which was the highest sum ever paid for a living for American artist's paintings.Â It attracted considerable media attention to O'Keeffe.Â
Around 1928 years Georgia O'Keeffe felt a desire to travel, to find creative inspiration.Â Influenced by the stories of friends who just returned from the western United States, Georgia, she wanted to learn and explore new places.Â In May 1929, along with Beck Strand she went by train to Taos, New Mexico. She went to Santa Fe and then to Albuquerque.Â Upon arrival, she as invited to spend their summers on the ranch Mabel Dodge Luhan in Taos area.Â O'Keeffe was then mounted many expeditions in the local mountains and deserts.Â During one of these expeditions arrived on the ranch, DHÂ Lawrence, where he spent a few weeks, and painted a famous oil painting "Lawrence Tree", which is currently in the collections of Wadsworth Athenaeum in Hartford, Connecticut.Â During his stay in Taos in 1929, O'Keeffe visited a church missionary in Ranchos de Taos.Â While many artists painted the church, the image of O'Keeffe, distinguishes itself from others.Â O'Keeffe presented a fragment of a wall of the church against the dark sky, according to Georgia O'keeffe biography (2009).Â
5. New Mexico: landscapes, still lives, flowers.
FromÂ 1929Â it passedÂ in New MexicoÂ severalÂ monthsÂ of the year,Â depictingÂ some ofÂ his most famous creationsÂ inÂ whichÂ synthesizesÂ abstractionÂ withÂ representationsÂ of flowers andÂ landscapesÂ typical ofÂ the area,Â mostlyÂ desertÂ hillsÂ filled withÂ rocks, shellsÂ andbonesÂ
animals.Â TheÂ edgesÂ areÂ ruffled,Â withÂ subtleÂ tonal transitionsÂ ofÂ varyingÂ colorsÂ to transformÂ the subjectÂ into powerfulÂ abstract images, sometimesÂ inÂ erotic sense transfigured. InÂ the thirtiesÂ and fortiesÂ O'KeeffeÂ receivedÂ numerous commissionsÂ andÂ honorary degreesÂ fromÂ several universities. InÂ 1946Â her husbandÂ died, andÂ in 1949Â O'KeeffeÂ movedÂ permanentlyÂ to New Mexico. DuringÂ theÂ fiftiesÂ she produced aÂ series ofÂ paintingsÂ inspiredÂ byÂ architectural formsÂ to his homeÂ inÂ NewÂ Mexico andÂ aÂ vastÂ series of paintingsÂ of cloudsÂ asÂ seenÂ fromÂ the windowsÂ of anÂ airplane.
6. Traveling and last years.
SinceÂ the beginningÂ of theÂ seventiesÂ she was hitÂ byÂ aÂ diseaseÂ to the eye,Â whichÂ eventually forced herÂ toÂ reduce the work. In 1962,Â O'KeefeÂ was electedÂ as a member of theÂ American AcademyÂ of Arts.Â InÂ 1977Â it wasÂ aboutÂ documentary film.Â In 2001,Â in SantaÂ FeÂ Georgia was opened O'KeeffeÂ Museum. OnÂ January 10, 1977Â PresidentÂ GeraldÂ FordÂ hasÂ been awardedÂ theÂ prestigiousÂ U.S. award,Â theÂ Presidential Medal of Freedom. She diedÂ inÂ 1986Â at the ageÂ ofÂ 98 years.