Explication of the poem Daddy

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The elements of youth revolt of 60-s are very organically entered in psychoanalytic heuristic model under the name «Oedipus complex». The idea of opposition of fathers and children appears for this revolt by that semantic axis on which all other protest themes of that time are strung, - themes, by the way, extremely important and serious: a social inequality, Vietnam, nuclear war and a number of others. And Payments in this context - it is certainly organic and actual. - "nerve" of its poetics is all the same «an Oedipus complex» (more precisely, its updating - «Electra's complex »). Thus at Payments, as well as in poetics of 60s, this complex initially realizes itself in space imagination, - in elements of imagination, in game as a matter of fact life interpretations under a sign fanaticism. - When Silvia's father of the Payments has died, Silvia was only 10 years ,but the coexistence-with-father realized in the extremely negative forms , there are «main time» its existence. - Under the sign of this event all subsequent vital events are interpreted; the impression is created, that the symbolical figure of the Father for Payments appears that label-fixing of traumatic events in relation to which all subsequent life is only certain "post-childhood", - the period which does not have internal existential self-sufficiency. - each new fragment of such "post-childhood" noted on formally spent line of a life, is only returning and repeated experience of that once happens, and for limits of that it is impossible to leave.

In this context and suicide impulses of Payments appear the actions subordinated to "the cyclic logic» her personal Myth. Death is the protagonist of poetry of Plath is a symbolical permission of that psychological, internal pressure that there is in the course of ultra intensive experience of the conflict between individual I and a figure of the Father; the permission symbolical, but demanding real actions. - And since all real daily existence of Payments appears as a matter of fact cyclic, its same suicide attempts as appear programmed on repetition. - And if the second attempt of a suicide appears unsuccessful (as the first), that, apparently, behind this second attempt would follow the third … - A movement in a circle aspiring for limits of this circle to leave.

The manner, Plath writes about the personal, existential problems, also pulls together her discourse with poetics 60.

Comprehending problems of the personal vital space, Payments actively uses political metaphors and labels. - The same figure of the Father, for example, is identified with image of the fascist. - occurs original existalization the political; elements of a political discourse are actively integrated into sphere of personal, deeply subjective relations and experiences. As consequence, semantics of the political falls outside the limits natural, traditional borders, and starts to be enriched actively new, earlier not by senses peculiar to it. Political becomes a symbol, but a symbol inherent in personal relations, i.e. it extends on sphere which traditionally was considered free from its influence. - Before us Existential political; it characterizes the events which are carried out in sphere politicians «by a residual principle»: actually the policy appears a projection and continuation of the events developed in a private life. - The space of global processes appears a certain logic continuation (and reflexion) spaces of events individual. - the semantic, intrinsic centre Political changes the site: from sphere collective it moves to sphere of the individual; the print of the political proves, in a result, in all events of a private life. So, for example, he characterizes both relations between the father and the daughter. As a result there is certain «an exchange of senses» in which the space of individual relations and space of the big social events are involved. «The big world» existancializes, - overhuman incorporates lines of the personal; « The small world », on the contrary, being initially individual, absorbs in itself elements overindividual, - this world is formalized, arranged under standards of collective, purely rational norms. Henceforth any event occurring in this world, becomes event public: it finds public value and, in passing, becomes accessible to" the external observer »to whom duties of the control over an event and a moral estimation of an event, as a matter of fact, are assigned.

Certainly, Existential political deprives private space of that fundamental line which was considered as one of fundamental values of the western civilisation, - its closeness from an external, extraneous sight; now this space finds a transparency, turns to one more public sphere. - however, for the person publicly singing of death of the father, such metamorphosis is not a serious ethical and psychological problem.

At politicization personal (in Existential political) distinctly enough there is an idea of fault. - this idea, as a matter of fact, creates Existential political, and further actively it manipulates.

At external, most obvious level of display of this idea, the fault (and derivative of it is guilt) is that is addressed and it is offered to the senior generation. - The senior generation ("daddies") becomes responsible for all horrors and the troubles occurring in the world; thus the idea of an individual responsibility (after all concrete "daddy" has given the order on bombardment of Hiroshima, for example) is replaced with idea of responsibility general (all "daddies" are identical); and the idea of general responsibility is transformed here to idea of fault of everyone who lived at the moment of realization of these events. - Concrete names here are not so important: all figures guilty are certainly interchangeable, and replacement of Truman by Plath, Silvia's father, - in a case about all the same Hiroshima - changes nothing essentially: nuclear bombardment of this city in any case would take place. - As a result, first, it is given total, not subject to any audit, the characteristic to the senior generation as a whole, - here he, one of favourite motives of 60s, - and, secondly, is created a substantiation for desire of symbolical murder of the Father; under this desire the rational base, thus rationality here actively is brought uses ethical categories. - if the Father bears with itself angrily if he is, as a matter of fact, quintessence of harm murder of the Father appears good. - Presence of minuses assumes also presence of pluses.

But the idea of fault has also the second, hardly less visible level of display. - itself «investment with guilt» another is only symbolically carried out aspiration to be released from fault own. - The parental Super-ego has many possibilities to introduce in consciousness of the child sensation of own inferiority and when this sensation appears realised, it turns around feeling of fault of the child for own discrepancy to those norms which he, the child, should correspond. - In a family of Plath, judging by a number of signs, this parental pressure was especially rigid and, as consequence, - distinct comprehension of own fault is present at many poetic texts of Silvia Plath. In this context investment with guilt of the Father for Plath becomes «a psychological method» clearings of feeling of own guilt: if the Father both its requirements and laws, to it established, appear discredited is initially guilty; Accordingly , and disobedience to these laws cannot be treated as a crime, should not generate feeling of fault for this disobedience.

Probably, the main problem of this, in general rather simple psychological situation - investment with guilt of another for the sake of own clearing of feeling of fault, - that as a result the feeling of own guilt does not disappear but only amplifies. - symbolical condemnation of the Father gives to consciousness only short-term feeling catharsis, clearings, and in more long-term prospect it turns around a sign on a new crime and, as a result, «condemning the Father» one more feels made «a bad act». - As consequence, events find the form of one more circle: the more guilty there is a Father in consciousness of Silvia Plath, the more guilty there is also she; the new feeling of fault demands new condemnation and when it will take place - the feeling of own fault becomes stronger … - The life does a new coil, thus the prospect of a suicide way of the permission of such internal conflict only amplifies.

«The consciousness stream», showing in verses of Silvia Plath, can be identified as psychotic speech type. - this characteristic is applicable not only to poetry of Plath, but also to the majority of displays of "a consciousness stream» in modernist poetry in general. - The modernism loves psychoses; and if the general vector of formation new european classical tradition - nervous modernist negation "classical" - forcedly or easily - resorts to game of "psychological alternatives»: nervousness its direct opposite - psychotism is opposed. - Aesthetic "other", offered by a modernism as a counterbalance to the classic, leans against the same set of "possibilities" which existed and earlier, - during an epoch of domination "classical". But if the classical follows one of these possibilities the modernism - submitting to the logic of negation - chooses for the representations other possibility opposite to those which has chosen for itself classical. And, as a result, the neurotic "is replaced" with psychotic …

In limiting intensity of emotional experiences of Silvia Plath (in one of the best poems she defines this condition as "fever") with the sensuality there is a metamorphosis which at first sight can seem to the strange: sensuality loses depth, aspires to superficiality. - in this case relative loss of depth ("internal") is only "indemnification" for extremely staticized external display of emotion, - something, that is necessary first of all for sensuality AS STRUCTURES. -Silvia Plath's private world in its verses looks - I will risk here to resort to a metaphor - «turned inside out»: all that - initially and usually - is in depth, in Closeness, in invisibility, - in relation to what all classical poetic discourse can be identified only as technical operation of "extraction", «raisings from depths», - moves now "outside", «on a surface»; And - not simply "moves", and "is splashed out, thrown out", and, as consequence, inevitably sharply influences the one who has appeared at present nearby, i.e. on the reader. - Here there is an explosion situation: its epicentre (depth) promptly moves to the moment of explosion on borders, and further the centre is only the emptiness, all energy of explosion - in its most distant from epicentres points. - and this Plath's extatic , her superemotionality, is a consequence and event demonstration «consciousness explosion»; and "stream" as the aesthetic form - the mediated recognition of that in the course of explosion consciousness as INTEGRITY to exist ceases, from this integrity there are only splinters.