This chapter attempts to explain what have been studied on Harry Potter series home and abroad. This author also presents a brief interpretation of the thesis' theory basis, including the background of the theory which tells the emergence and development of Jung's psychoanalysis theory; and content of the shadow theory, which includes the concepts as well as the characteristics of the shadow and individuation of the shadow.
2.1 Previous study
Not long after the publication of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in 1997, British literary consultant Lindsey Fraser (1997) has stated in The Scotsman that, "Rowling uses classic narrative devices with flair and originality and delivers a complex and demanding plot in the form of a hugely entertaining thriller". He also explained in the article why the book fascinated not only children but also adults. Later on, the book won a large outpouring of favorable comments when published in American. It was regarded as a succession from those classic fantasy literatures such as: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, the Chronicles of Narnia, and the Lord of the Rings. In a word, the earlier remarks about Harry Potter series were mainly positive, and they defined the books as an outstanding children's literature.
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On March 1999, Charles Taylor (1999) established an article entitled 'This Sorcery Isn't Just for Children' on the online magazine Salon.com. In the article, he stated that "I don't think you can read 100 pages of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone before you start feeling that unmistakable shiver that tells you you're reading a classic." He believed the book was "one of those rare books that crosses over to adult readers" and he didn't "want to condescend to J. K. Rowling by saying she's written a wonderful children's novel. She's written a wonderful novel" (ibid.). It was true that the novel Rowling wrote was not just an amusing one, but "a diversion that offers a way back to life" (ibid.). Except the complicated plot described in the novel, there were also a large amount of detail depiction and psychological description. With the publication of the following books of the series whose plot became more and more intriguing and length became longer and longer, the readership of adult grew. As a result, more people became to accept Harry Potter as a heroic adventurous literature as well as a literature that reflected social reality in the form of magic.
However, at the time when the fourth book of the Harry Potter series was released on 2000, some people began to call into question these increasingly influential novels and the "Harry Potter Phenomenon". They thought that the books did not bear the trait of classic and people should be on guard against commercial speculation. William Safire (2003), an editor of New York Times, claimed that Harry Potter series were children's books and its creator Ms. Rowling, "deserved the lesser award she received". He also believed that it was a waste of time for adult to read such a kind of books. Besides, the American writer and literary critic Harold Bloom (2000) also criticized Potter books as "be heavy on cliché" and he felt that the novel may lead to a cultural dumbing-down. What's more, the famous critic Philip Hensher (2000) even pointed out his concern about "the infantilisation of adult culture" in The Independent. He felt that it was time to worry since the adult have lost their sense of what a classic really is.
Along with this rising tide against "Harry Potter mania", there also appeared some staunch supporter of Potter books. They stated that those who criticized the novels have never really completed their reading of Harry Potter series. They commented on "Harry Potter Phenomenon" with their contempt and scare of commercialization and popular texts.
In a word, during the earlier period, remarks on Harry Potter books were mainly those short reviews that were written by critics or writers on newspapers or magazines. Most of them were lacking of proof and evidence and they did not touch the essence of the novels. However, shortly after this blind dispute period, more and more people began to realize that the Potter series need to be analyzed in a solemn way and thus literary critiques of various aspects poured in.
2.1.1 Literary sources
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Since J. K. Rowling has read extensively and was deeply influenced by European traditional literature, her Harry Potter series were endowed with the essence of modern era as well as the pick of traditional literature. People could find traces of various literary themes of those long-standing European literatures gleaming in the novels, such as ancient Greek myths, Biblical story, medieval stories, stories of adventure, etc.
In the first collection of theses on Potter books-The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter: Perspectives on a Literary Phenomenon, Mary Pharr, Jann Lacos and M. Katherine Grimes discuss respectively in their essays about Harry Potter books' roots in epic, myth and folklore.
Among them, Mary Pharr stated in her theses 'In Medias Res: Harry potter as Hero-in-progress' that "humanity has always had a boundless interest in heroes" (Whited, 2002: 53), and heroes represented "human struggle for power and wisdom, recognition and introspection, grandeur and honor" (ibid.: 54). According to her, the reason why Harry Potter was popular was that the novels talked about a story of the development of hero and the protagonist in the novels was a representative of heroic monomyth. In the story, first, Harry came from strong roots, being the scion of earlier heroes, just like the famous king Arthur who was the son of the Britain's king Uther Pendragon; second, like many other heroes that were unvalued at first, Harry was not respected during his early days; third, Harry has his mother's love which is often significant to heroes; what's more, Harry faced many choices and this was just the greatest of those questions raised in Paradise Lost. In a word, Mary believed that the story J. K. Rowling writes contained some heroic element and the hero she created could "encourage people to enhance their sense of awe, to think about the nature of the universe, to ponder the possibility of moral actions, and to read of their own free will" (ibid.: 66).
While in the paper 'Of Magicals and Maggles: Reversals and Revulsions at Hogwarts' written by Jann Lacos, the Potter books were regarded as contained with "several folkloric elements and devices which help make the series extraordinarily popular: folk groups, rites of passage, reversals, boundary crossing, and taboo themes play significant roles in helping children deal with changes in life and prepare them for appropriate social roles" (ibid.: 67).
Then in the essay 'Harry Potter: Fairy Tale Prince, Real Boy, and Archetypal Hero', M. Katherine Grimes thought that Harry Potter series "served as a fairy tales for young children; played as some means for young adolescents to come to terms with the real world, and functioned as an archetypal hero for adults" (ibid.: 91).
Apart from these theses in the collection, there were also some other papers remarked on Harry Potter series in terms of literary resources. For example, in China, Duan Bo, Hao Shanli and Zhang Yuhui have all published theses in CNKI to illustrate that Harry Potter series have epitomized the numerous literary traditions and absorbed the essence of literary classics. According to them, the two roots of European civilization-ancient Greek and Roman mythologies, were also the sources for Rowling's literary creation. In old mythologies, there were many half-man-half-animal creatures and monsters, while in Harry Potter, one can also easily find some similar animals, such as the dog with three head called Fluffy, the basilisk that can kill people by looking at its eye, the hippogriff Buckbeak, the unicorn, the werewolf, the centaur and so on. Besides, Hao also found that Harry's story could remind people of those heroic stories in old times, especially the legend of King Arthur. The two protagonists had a similar background and they both recognized themselves through the process of pursuing. Zhang and Duan discussed in their essays that the Potter books also reflected some Biblical and fantasy literature elements.
In a word, the Harry Potter series have integrated the quintessence of various traditional classics and cultures which made the novels having a more colorful content and a more complicated plot. And it was these rich cultural deposits that helped draw attention to not only children, but also adults of various ages. In addition, Rowling has successfully combined the modern and tradition as well as the real and magical world to inject vigor into this old theme, enabling the traditional literature to transmit and develop enduringly.
2.1.2 Social factors
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Besides literary resources, many scholars and writers also analyzed the Harry Potter books from the aspect of social factors. Up to 2009, five collections of essays for the study of Harry Potter books have been published and the subject of social perspective in the novels was included almost in every collection. Briefly, this point of view was unfolded from two aspects: gender issues and race issues.
Firstly, it was the gender issue that has been discussed extensively.
Andrea R. Power, Ruthann Elizabeth Mayes-Elamla, Xiao Dongbo and Tang Jun all analyzed this question in their papers and their viewpoints varied.
Ruthann Elizabeth Mayes-Elamla stated in her thesis entitled 'A Feminist Literary Criticism Approach to Representations of Women's Agency in Harry Potter' that the story in the novel was highlighted through active male characters, while passive female characters appear only as bodies in the background or pushers of male action. Then in the paper 'Magical Triumph or Miserable Illusion?: Gender and Race Constructions in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone and Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets', Andrea R. Power thought that both male and female characters in the novels fell into traditional gender stereotypes, with little room for nonconforming. On the whole, both Ruthann and Andrea believed that Rowling has created a world where man was valued more than woman and woman acted a foil to man.
Be contrary to them, Xiao Dongbo and Tang Jun stated in their essay that Rowling's novels not only gained her with fame and wealth, but also showed to the whole world her personal glamour. It's known that at the time when Rowling was going to publish her first book of the series, the publisher feared that Rowling's female identity might be disadvantageous to the sales and thus persuaded her to use a neuter name. However, with the publication of Harry Potter series, Rowling became one of the five self-made female billionaires and the first billion-dollar author (Watson & Kellner, 2004). Besides, in her novels, the appeal of feminist ideas manifested here and there. On one hand, Hermione Granger, being the only heroine of the novel, was regarded as the epitome of Rowling herself. She loved study and was anxious for knowledge, and unlike those typical girls who were always silent, passive and shallow, she played an indispensable and reliable role during the main character's adventures. On the other hand, Rowling has created two different worlds-the Muggle world and the magical world. The former represented the masculine world and sexism while the latter represented the female world and feminist thought. By making some Muggles to learn magic in the wizarding world, Rowling linked the two worlds. And such a kind of connection was rightly the reflection of Rowling's feminist thought. In a word, Xiao and Tan's essays stated that Harry Potter series expressed the thought of feminism, and Rowling has called for equalism in her novels.
In addition to the above papers that analyzed Potter books from the aspect of gender, there were also some studies from the angle of racial issues.
Overseas, Simone Hule used the New Historical approach, taking from the postcolonial perspective to study Harry Potter series in his thesis for the master's degree. He analyzed the race relations existed in the novels and dissertated that the wizarding world was not a Utopia. On the contrary, like the anthropocentrism in real world, the magic world created by Rowling was in fact white-wizard-centered, and there were many races, such as the werewolves, the giants, and the House-elves in the magic world that suffered discrimination.
In addition, Brycchan Carey analyzed in his paper Hermione and the House-Elves: Literary and Historical Contexts of J. K. Rowling's Antislavery Campaign the literary and historical contexts of Rowling's antislavery campaign. According to him, the house-elves exemplified some traits that owned by the blacks during and immediately after the slavery in America.
2.1.3 Narrative technique
As for the narrative technique in Harry Potter, it was also worthwhile studying. Firstly, the content included in Potter books was all-embracing. Secondly, from names to theme and then to plot, it was easy to find that the novels were full of metaphor. Besides, though the length of novel became longer and longer, no reader felt the books were boring at all. So, how did the author make this achievement?
Abroad, Kate Behr stated in 'Same-As-Difference: Narrative Transformations and Intersecting Cultures in Harry Potter' that, to attract readers, Rowling has used the narrative transformation skill to create the same-as-difference effect; then in Aesthetic Organizationï¼šThe Structural Beauty of Jï¼ŽKï¼ŽRowling's Harry Potter Series written by Kathleen McEvoy, a analysis of the relations among the seven novels of the series was given. In the paper, the author spoke highly of the foreshadowing Rowling has created, at the same time, he also appraised the coherence of the integral structure for the series.
At home, many scholars also have conducted a deep analysis of the Harry Potter series with its narrative technique as the breakthrough point.
Among them, first, Wang Hengxia has written several papers to study the narrative techniques in Harry Potter books, taking from the perspective of narrating discourse, narrating incidents, narrating structure and narrating mode respectively. In her opinion, the superficial feature of the narrating discourse in Harry Potter was that, through discourse, the figures of the novels were endowed with independent thoughts, and thus they could speak for themselves. Meanwhile, the story could also develop by itself and the novels were filled with various sounds and various values. In addition, on the structure of narration in Harry Potter, Wang (2004: 131) believed that "the whole series developed in spiral type on the basis of narrating structure of single copies repeating constantly. This kind of structure made readers of teenagers and children grasp the development of the story easily because it was full of level sense, the sense of rhythm and artistic appeal". As for narrating incidents, Wang (2004) thought: Harry Potter was a modern fantasy that with a strong narrative feature. And its narration was made up of a special combination which contained a kernel incident and a series of satellite incident. These incidents were not put at will but with the author's ingenious arrangement. By two important art media medium-surprise and suspense, Rowling has created a reading atmosphere which corresponded to the readers' psychology and thus made them to have an aesthetic feeling. At last, in terms of narrating mode, Wang (2006) said: Harry Potter's heroic adventure narrating mode was in fact the result of collective unconscious. It fell in with the readers' admiration of heroes, and also provided a compensation for the author's lacing of those experiences. This narrating mode made the Potter books gain a general acceptance and welcome. In a word, Wang's series of analysis has provided people with lots of ideas and methods to appreciate and study Harry Potter books.
In addition to Wang, other scholars like Yan Yumin, Zhu Baitong, and Cai Bixia also studied Harry Potter series from the aspect of narrative technique. The first two analyzed the symbolic meaning of people, material, number and time in the books and held that the application of symbolism had a long tradition in the British fantasy novels (Yan & Zhu, 2004). The latter stated that Rowling had applied metaphor artfully in her novels, and she even took metaphor as the basis for the logic of her story (Cai, 2004).
Potter books are a series of novels that contain the rich elements of various cultures. For example, the Phoenix Forx in Dumbledore's office is a kind of Chinese mystical bird; the Sphinx is rooted from Egypt; in addition, the dog with three head called Fluffy, the basilisk that can kill people by looking at its eye, the hippogriff Buckbeak, the unicorn, the werewolf and the centaur could all be found in western mythologies. In fact, these phenomena have already been mentioned in the former part of this chapter. So in here, this author just intends to introduce some scholars' opinions from other aspects in terms of culture.
To define the Harry Potter books, maybe the first feature of it should be described as: a fantasy novel or a story about magic. So, it is naturally that many scholars studied the witchcraft in the novels. And Professor Ye Shuxian could be regarded as the most authoritative scholar for analyzing in this region. He had written a series of papers to discuss the cultural phenomena reflected in Harry Potter. First, he held that the Potter books' best-selling fact was a challenge and irony to the critical cycles. Though many scholars were ashamed of reading and analyzing this children's literature, it was no denying that this work has brought the almost dead literary world to life. Second, Ye said, Rowling built up two contradictive worlds in the story, namely: the muggle world and the magic world. And these two worlds were connected through some muggle people's studying magic in the wizarding world. From a skinny boy lived in the cupboard to the famous wizard known by most wizards and witches, Harry has suffered two totally different fate in the two worlds. Ye stated that, by making this contrast, Rowling was just intending to show people her detestation to the real world represented by the Christianity and the modernity, and expressed her yearn for the mysterious primitive world. Third, according to Ye, Rowling's books has endowed the witchcraft with some virtuous characteristics. This was a representation of the revival of the Celtic culture. Meanwhile, the success of the Potter books was not only a success in literary art, but also a signal for the cultural conflict and cultural tendency. At last, Ye also stated that, the unprecedented magic storm raised by Harry Potter series was a comprehensive deconstruction and betrayal of the capitalism under which people were crazy about market and infatuated with science. In the modern world, people seemed to take too much of their attention on material, therefore, they lost gradually their awestruck and mysterious feeling toward the nature and the universe, becoming the foolish and dissimilative animals in the zoo of city. Now, the seemed absurd magic world in Harry Potter could rightly arouse people's deep reflection on problems about reality.
In addition to Professor Ye, other scholars like Liu Zhangcai, Jia Guojing, Huang Yunting, and Liang Hongyan also carried out some studies on the witchcraft culture in Harry Potter. The first two stated that the witchcraft culture has influenced the European's social life for a long time, and it hasn't been marginalized until the early modern times. However, the disadvantages of modern society unveiled gradually in the 20th century, and the European culture was under some significant changes. Harry Potter books just used the witchcraft culture which has been marginalized by reason and science to carry out a subversion of the modern society. As for the other two scholars, they held that in the novels, there were four marked features in terms of cultural aspect. Firstly, the novels revived the ancient magic world and the witchcraft culture; secondly, the novels had a cultural tendency of anti-modernity. They criticized the destruction on environment and human nature made by industrialization and scientific development; thirdly, the novels expressed the idea of saving people from their sins, and they called on people to go after virtue; fourthly, the novels proclaimed the heroism demonstrated by some pipsqueaks when they were confronting the evil forces.
2.2 Theory interpretation
After analyzing the various scholars' views on Harry Potter, in the following part, the theory basis for this thesis will be given.
Shadowy archetype theory is a branch of C. G. Jung's archetypical theory, which itself, to some extent, rooted from psychoanalysis. So, to get a comprehensive and deep understanding of the shadowy archetype theory, at first, a brief introduction of the theory background and several relevant concepts are quite necessary.
2.2.1 Theory background
The 20th century is always regarded by western scholars as the psychoanalytic era. And Sigmund Freud, the Austrian physician and neurologist, is the founder of psychoanalysis. It is him that first divides our system of the psyche into three parts: the unconscious, the preconscious and the conscious.
"The unconscious is the sum of all thoughts, memories, impulses, desires, feelings, etc. of which the individual is not conscious, influences his emotions and behavior; the preconscious includes anything on which attention is not currently focused-forgotten memories and thoughts that can be easily recalled; the conscious is the part of the mental activity of an individual of which he is fully aware at any given time" (Lv, 2006: 174).
C. G. Jung, as a Swiss psychologist and a follower of Freud, accepted the idea of a structured unconscious mind, but in him, the concept of unconscious defined by Freud should be termed as "personal unconscious" since Freud focused only on the perspective of individual personality; it was but "a relatively thin layer immediately below the threshold of consciousness" (Jung, 1917: 817). Freud studied humans' unconsciousness basically in terms of individual and in his opinion all things in the world should be composed of some simple elements. That was to say even the superficially complicated thing may have a simple rule behind its back. Therefore, Freud couldn't explore people's mind in terms of those complicated elements like social factors. On the contrary, Jung not only analyzed the unconsciousness from the view of biology but also attached a great importance to social factors. And it was rightly the investigation of social factors that resulted to the discrepancy between Freud and Jung. Meanwhile, this also became a significant factor for the generation of "collective unconsciousness".
In fact, Jung was quite a knowledgeable scholar. To touch the inmost soul of mankind, he had made a series of broad and deep researches on primitives, modernists, easterners, westerners and various forms of cultural, social, normal and abnormal phenomena. From 1912 to 1913, Jung visited several countries including France, Italian and America to make some surveys. In 1920, he went to Africa for two times and even entered into the Sahara to investigate the aborigines as well as probe the primitive people's mentality. It was just this trip that made him discovered that, apart from the personal unconsciousness, there existed, in the dreams and rituals of the natives, another kind of universal and common symbols and images that cannot be directly conscious of. To prove this phenomenon, he then went to some Asian countries like China, Indian and Sri Lanka to do some relevant surveys and this Asian trip aroused his deep reflection on Chinese traditional wisdom and oriental religions. Meanwhile, Jung also made a comparison of the occident and oriental alchemy and thus found that in the eastern and western traditions there were many common cultural symbols and images. He believed that this commonness was the universal structure of human psyche, i.e., the projection of collective unconsciousness.
In a word, these experiences not only let Jung have the chance to personally contact with the primitive spirit and the collective unconsciousness, but also help him to test the idea of collective unconsciousness in the vast extend of cultural background. Therefore, the collective unconsciousness theory was produced by him on the basis of a multinational and multicultural research which involved of various areas such as biology, sociology, culturology, philosophy, religious, literature, art and others like alchemy, astrology, divination, telepathy. And it is natural to say that, Jung's theory of unconsciousness went a step further than Freud's. It sketched the original features of the human spirit and built up a bridge of psychology which could link the past and present as well as the east and west.
Have taking so many of collective unconsciousness, so, what on earth is collective unconsciousness? According to C. G. Jung, in contrast with the individual-experience based personal unconscious, collective unconscious "rests upon a deeper layer, which does not derive from personal experience and is not a personal acquisition but is inbornâ€¦this part of the unconscious is not individual but universal" (Herbert, Fordharn & Adler, 1968ï¼š3). Besides, what forms the personal unconsciousness is something that people has once been aware of but then disappears due to suppression or oblivion. However, the content of collective unconsciousness has never appeared in the consciousness. Therefore, collective unconsciousness is never acquired by individual. It is gained completely through heredity. Jung has once made a cogent metaphor to describe human mind, he believed that: the whole human mind is just like an island that can be divided into three parts, and firstly the consciousness is the part that is above the surface of the water. So it is known by people directly. And in the conscious part of mind, people could think, feel, sense and intuit and it is the part of mind that people live in for most of the time. Then with the movement of the wave, part of the island hided beneath the water emerges and this is the part of personal unconsciousness. In this layer, people will find it hard to bring thoughts, feelings, urges and other information into the consciousness. Finally, as for the foundation of the whole island-the seabed, it plays a similar role as human's collective unconscious does. In fact, collective unconscious is a repository that contains the various latent memories inherits from the past experiences of our ancestors. So it makes people to treat the same thing by a basically similar method.
Here, the purpose for Jung's differentiating of personal unconscious and collective unconscious is not to illustrate the feature of individuality or collectivity of the unconsciousness but to explain the issue of mental structure, and to uncover the wider and deeper psychological layer behind the personal unconsciousness. Therefore, the word "collective" here is not related with quantity but aims to stress the congenital characteristic of spirit. And since the unconsciousness is owned by collectivity and it is the memory of the whole species instead of individual experience, it is unavoidable.
Besides, though it is never be aware of by individual, collective unconsciousness restrict people's spirit, mind and behavior. It is the psychological accumulation of social, environmental, cultural and historical factors during the biological evolution and it is a common root beyond all cultures and senses. For instance, most people seem to have an instinctive fear of darkness and such a kind of fear needs not to be experienced personally. People are in fear of it just due to the ancestor's potential memory about the darkness.
To sum up, firstly, collective unconsciousness is a kind of archetype image that is analogous with myth and religion. It is the shared and common psychological form hides in human deep mind; secondly, collective unconsciousness has the trait of racial and historical accumulation. It is the depositional pattern of human ancestor's fantasy and life. In Jung's view, primitive myth is human being's collective dream. Our ancestor's past fantasies can be found in the myth, at the same time, their residual force hides in the deep heart of modern people. Thirdly, the collective unconsciousness lurks in the abyss of human mind, and it is a common foundation that surpasses all cultures and senses.
Compared with Freud's unconscious theory, Jung's collective unconsciousness has some new explanation: first, unconsciousness is not confined to individual, beneath the personal unconsciousness, there is the collective unconsciousness; second, unconscious is not the unrecognized consciousness or the repressed instinct, but the constituent of human nature, and it is similar to spiritual instinct and behavioral pattern; third, collective unconsciousness is a congenital existence instead of a post-natal nurturing thing, and it is the spiritual remnants of human progenitor.
All in all, Jung's investigation of collective unconsciousness is intended to explore the irrational nature of human being. It stresses the unconscious mind of human being as well as uncovered people's congenital instinct and behavior pattern. In additionï¼ŒJung believes that collective unconsciousness plays a decisive role in all the human conscious activities. On the whole, Jung's discovering and exploring of collective unconsciousness have widely opened people's horizon for the psychology and personality study.
In the book The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Jung pointed that "the personal unconscious consists for the most part of complexesï¼›the content of the collective unconscious is made up essentially of archetypes" (Herbert, Fordharn & Adler, 1968: 42). "The archetype is a tendency to form such representations of a motif-representations that can vary a great deal in detail without losing their basic patternâ€¦They are indeed an instinctive trend."(Jung, 1978: 58)
In fact, the word "archetype" appeared firstly in the Greek language which was composed of two Greek words "arche" (means primordial) and "typo" (means form). It is referred to as the original form of a mold or artifact. Diachronically, the concept of archetype has changed a lot over the past two thousand years, with the most basic meaning being used repeatedly. Synchronically, the concept of archetype has its corresponding concrete referential sense in every areas and subjects.
For Jung, archetype is the content of collective unconscious and its image exists since the ancient time. Moreover, it can be widely seen in theology, religion, art, philosophy, science and all other human cultural fields. Therefore, people can analyze it from various angles and layers.
As for the aspect of psychology, Jung believes that archetype is the universal pattern for psychological structure. And it is also a typical insight model. Whenever we see a general consistent insight model that happens repeatedly, we are dealing with archetype, even if it has no easily discernible mythic nature or feature. Thus, archetype could be imagined as a memory reservoir, an imprint or a memory trace which derives from the condensation of the various processes of an experience, or from the depositing of psychological experiences.
In life it is quite hard for a people to sense the archetype. Though through heredity, every person can carry on the archetype from his ancestor, this does not mean that he can recall or possess the images once owned by his ancestor. The archetype is in fact some congenital dispositions or latent possibilities which make people to adopt a similar method to understand the world and make corresponding responses. In the book A Primer of Jungian Psychology, Jung pointed that: "There are as many archetypes as there are typical situations in life. Endless repetition has engraved these experiences into our psychic constitution, not in the forms of images filled with content, but at first only as forms without content, representing merely the possibility of a certain type of perception and action". (Hall & Nordby, 1973: 42)
However, the development and manifestation of those congenital tendencies depend completely on the individual's postnatal experiences. "Archetype could only be aware of by some postnatal ways and it endows certain spiritual content with the specific forms."(Jung, 1997: 84) The chance for the demonstration of a person's archetype increases as his postnatal experiences increase. Moreover, the images showed by the same archetype may vary more or less. For example, the Mother archetype is not one particular mother or woman's picture. In fact, archetype is more like a photograph plate waiting to be developed by experience.
In real world, only under some particular situation can archetype be perceived by people. And it needs a person to use some concrete emotions or experiences in the real world to activate certain primordial images, and thus forge a special relation for the linking of the past and the present. Therefore, the process for activating archetype is in fact accompanied with the process of making collective unconscious become concrete and substantial.
To sum up, archetype is an irrational psychical existence which hides in the bottom of human mind beyond time and nation. Though it could never be aware of by people directly, it plays a decisive role. As a hollow pure form, it has the congenital ability to present possibility. And it is the universally priori form of all psycho reactions which is inherited through the human brain. During its inheriting process, the concept of archetype has greatly changed in terms of denotation and connotation. As for connotation, not only the collective unconscious but also the human sense and rationality can be exemplified in the form of archetype. And archetype is not a congenital physical distinct but a culture psychology which is similar to congenital distinct. That's to say, archetype is not only the content of collective unconscious, but also the displaying form of common human mental emotion. As for denotation, the carrier and displaying form of archetype are not only those archetype images. Things like myth, ritual, symbol, imago, dream, motif, custom and image all possess the characteristics of archetype.
In a word, Jung attached a great importance on the analysis of archetype, and he also tried to uncover the secret beneath the unconscious, especially the collective unconscious. He spent the remainder of his life in studying archetype and provided the archetype theory with a new explanation.
2.2.2 The shadow theory
126.96.36.199 The shadow
In life, there are quite a lot of archetypes; however, Jung took four of them as of the most significant meaning, they are: the persona, the shadow, the anima and the animus. The persona is the mask people put on when facing the outside world and it represents people's public image. The shadow, to the contrary, is the part of psyche that people want to hide or repress. The anima is the feminine side of a man while the animus is the masculine side of a woman. Here in this paper, the archetype of shadow will be the subject for analysis.
The shadow refers to "the darker side of our unconscious self, the inferior and less pleasing aspects of the personality, which we wish to suppress" (Guerin et al. 2004: 181). Or we can say that, it is a demonic image of evil that represents the side of the self that we reject (Lv, 2006:183). Be derived from human ancestors and rooted deeply in the history of biological evaluation, the shadow represents the unwelcome part of one's inner self, it is the negative value on morality, and it may make people have the trend of being intense, aggressive and mad. Generally, the shadow is believed to be the darkest and deepest part of people's heart which contains more of the animal nature than other archetypes do.
Due to these evil features, people manage to ignore the shadow for much of the time, and to a certain extent, people turn a blind eye to it as an act of an inner authority rather than as an act of will. Jung called this inner authority as the moral complex which "forms on the basis of an archetypal imperative to learn and maintain the values of the culture into which we happen to have been born. If no such imperative existed, anarchy would be the natural human condition: we should all be psychopaths, incapable of cooperation or mutual trust, and the species could not conceivably exist" (Anthony Stevens, 2007:65-66). Besides, people's ways for defending the threat of the shadow are of various kinds, such as: repression, denial and projection. Not only do people repress the shadow in the personal unconscious, but they also deny its existence and project it on to others. People do these things without knowing what they are doing, and they just deny their own badness and attribute it to other people at the mercy of the inner authority.
However, even by sever suppression, the shadow still remains in a latent state preparing to exert power over people, especially when they are facing difficult situations or in a weak state. This is because, for one thing, the acquisition of moral complex is not that simple; for another, the archetype is persistent and it doesn't yield to suppressions easily. What' more, when the shadow is stringently repressed or when the outlets for the shadow are inadequate, disaster may rise consequently. Jung remarked at the end of the First World War that the "animal in us only becomes more beastlike" when it is repressed. He also said that "no doubt the reason why no religion is so defiled with the spilling of innocent blood as Christianity and why the world has never seen a bloodier war than the war of the Christian nations"(Hall & Nordly,1973: 50). These words implicated that the Christian teachings are quite repressive of the shadow. Similar remarks could be made for the World War II for the reason that it is bloodier. On the whole, we can see from the history that the repressed shadow may strike back and cause even more severe consequences.
So how on earth should people treat the shadow? Be fear, ashamed and guilt of it and thus suppress it, or, on the contrary, to take a laisses-faire attitude toward it. Jung gives out an answer in the following paragraph:
"The whole shadow complex is tinged with feelings of guilt and unworthiness, and with fears of rejection should its true nature be discovered or exposed. However, we still need to stick to the process of analyzing one's own shadow in spite of the pain because much Self potential and instinctive energy is locked away in the shadow and therefore unavailable to the total personality. To own one's own shadow is to become responsible for it, so that one's morality is less blind and less compulsive, and ethical choices become possible. Shadow consciousness is important not only for personal development, therefore, but as a basis for greater social harmony and international understanding". (Anthony Stevens, 2007: 67)
In a word, the shadow is the evil part of a person's unconscious, and it is inherited from the human ancestor which has the feature of universality. People should not let the animal nature to grow freely in one's mind, and thus make the shadow to conquer oneself; however, people should also not suppress the shadow too much in case that it may strike back and cause more bad consequences.
188.8.131.52 The individuation of the shadow
According to the above interpretation of the shadow's concept and features, it is clearly to find that the shadow needs people to deal with in a cautious and proper way. And to Jung, maybe the best method for handling with the shadow is to realize the individuation of the shadow.
What on earth is individuation? According to Jung, just as the inevitable growing up of people's body, people's personality will grow up as well. And during this growing up process his conscious will become personalized. This is just process of individuation. Individuation should be seen as a process of integrating the unconscious contents of the psyche to our conscious. Or more specifically, individuation is "a psychological growing up, the process of discovering those aspects of one's self that make one an individual different from other members of the species. It is essentially a process of recognition-that is, as one matures, the individual must consciously recognize the various aspects, unfavorable as well as favorable, of one's total self". (Guerin et al., 2004: 180).
For that matter, the achievement of the individuation means the human psyche is in its fullest possible development. However, just as no mother can hope to embody the totality of the mother archetype, no individual can hope to incorporate the whole potential of the collective unconscious. Circumstances inevitably impose constraints on personal development (Anthony Stevens, 2007: 83). And in fact, to realize that self-recognition process, extraordinary courage, honesty and persistent efforts are also required. Of course, though painful and arduous, this process is quite essential and worthwhile, because if one fails to make explicit what implicitly one already is, his personality will become unbalanced.
Since the individuation is an integrating process for one's various self, it is inevitably related closely with the various archetypes mentioned above, namely, the persona, the shadow, the anima, and the animus. And the shadow, as the most powerful and danger archetype, is confronted firstly during people's process of individuation. Just as Jung has once mentioned:
"But since the shadow is the figure nearest his consciousness and the least explosive one, it is also the first component of personality to come up in an analysis of the unconscious. A minatory and ridiculous figure, he stands at the very beginning of the way of individuation, posing the deceptively easy riddle of the Sphinx, or grimly demanding answer to a 'quaestio crocodilian'."(Jung, 271)
In a word, the individuation process is closely associated with the recognition of one's darker aspect of psyche-the shadow. And the individuation of the shadow means the process that a person first recognizes his evil side of the psyche and then tries to accept its existence and finally understands the feature of the shadow and manages to integrate it with the conscious so as to come into a new self, a person with fully developed personality.