Psychoanalytic is based on Sigmund Freud's theory, which is about conscious, preconscious and unconscious mind. According to Freud, He believes that this is buried in human's unconscious mind. (Sigmund Freud). That's mean human's emotion is out of control. Human's feeling, emotions, beliefs and impulses are reflected from their past event and experienced. The conscious mindÂ includes everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. Freud called this ordinary memory the preconscious. The unconscious mindÂ is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences. So base on my psychoanalytic observation, my thesis statement is in both of the novel Catch-22 & The Quiet American showed that the that the main character's Id has overcome their Superego. Human's desire is the strongest feeling that can overcome their moral value, however ego can overcome the Id, so it will balance their desire and moral value.
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Upon reading my two core novels The Quiet American by a British author, Graham Greene and Catch 22 by an American author, Joseph Heller. In the novel of The Quiet American, Phuong as the lover of both main characters Alden Pyle & Thomas Fowler. She is not a prostitute but she is more a conduct to look for her true love because her elder sister wants her to find a capable husband since she was young due to her beautiful and attractive appearance. This is also Phuong's eldest sister's desire to assist Phuong to find a great husband. Phuong has unconsciously fall for her sister's desire and got influence by the behavior and thoughts that her sister gave her. Therefore, Phuong has personally developed through a series of her childhood stages which the pleasure-seeker energies of her ID be focused on a certain part of mind. This psychoanalytic energy is described as a driving force behind behavior. Alden Pyle unconsciously jealous of Thomas Fowler because Pyle had fallen in love with Phuong when he saw her for the first time. Because of this, his Id has overcome his superego then he told Phuong that Thomas Fowler has a wife in his own country. Id is the only part of our personality and it is unconsciously controls our mind and behavior to lead us to our desire for what we wants. Therefore Alden Pyle had unconsciously betrayed Thomas Fowler for Phuong. This is more like he acts first before he thinks. If we were completely in a desperation mode and the needs cannot be satisfied, it will cause tension or nervousness. If this mode taking control our mind completely, we might find ourselves taking things of what we want out of other people's hand to satisfy our desire. Alden Pyle had encountered his problem due to his desperation on getting Phuong and he decided to take away from Thomas Fowler to satisfy his own desire. The Id tried to solve the tension from pleasure principle through theÂ primary process, which involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way of satisfying the need. After this incident, Thomas Fowler review Alden Pyle's true identity because he suspect that Alden Pyle is a spy but after that he found out that Pyle's activities which is importing military supplies such as weapons, bombs and ammunition which causes the bomb incident in a hotel. This shows that Alden Pyle's desire has overcome his moral value when he cares money more than anything else which he doesn't even care about sacrifice of innocent people out there. This event has causes Alden Pyle's behavior had already change and he doesn't know about it because his unconscious mind had taken control of his own behavior. Thomas Fowler tried to confront him but Alden Pyle want to admit. But Thomas Fowler wanted Alden Pyle to be eliminated so he took action himself but killing him with his own hand. This prove that nothing can stop Thomas Fowler's desire even if he overcome his own moral value due to this incident. His unconscious mind had lead him to kill Alden Pyle even if he knows that killing people is wrong.
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In the novel Catch-22, the author describe about Yossarian who is a soldier who has a strong desire to live and is determined to be immortal or die trying. Because of what is desire, he has phobia against war and he fake his illness to an Italian military hospital claiming to have a pain in his liver. The doctors seem unable to prove that he is well, so they let him stay. Due to the death of his friends and he experienced one of his friend dies in front of him with blood splashes around his body. This event has impressed him. This event has unconsciously become some sort of sickness called phobia. He is phobia toward war. This is the main reason why he giving all the excuses to avoid the war. Base on this situation, Yossarian believed that these drives were responsible for much of his behavior. Sooner, he came to believe that these life and death instinct could not explain his behavior because these drives involved throughout his life and what he did. But life and death instinct played an important role in our daily life because we wouldn't know when we're going to encounter death and this life and death instinct deals with survival. These instincts are also important in the sense for sustaining the life of the individual as well as persist their own species. It can be describe for Yossarian as he faked his own illness to avoid war. There drives also contain things such as thirst, hunger and pain avoidance. Yossarian stays in the hospital not only avoid death but also all from the above where the hospital provides medication and food. With these instinct was created, his Id has overcome his superego. Therefore, he has been controlled by his unconscious mind and due to his unconscious mind being controlled he was attempt for his immediate satisfaction of all his desires. This sort of behavior would be unacceptable and troublemaking because it will somehow make an individual gone crazy due to his desperation of satisfaction. From his phobia towards war observation, the theory is based on the theories of repression and displacement because it was believed that phobias are an unresolved conflict between Id and Superego from an individual. Therefore, Yossarian has a conflict between his ego and his superego during when he goes for war and killing a lot of innocent people. By doing that, it will cause a degree of state that reaches a maximum point in our mind that will make him go crazy if he continue doing it. During this stage of phobia, Yossarian will encounter fear towards a particular object or subjective which causes him phobia
As for Ego, in the novel The Quiet American, Phuong balance up her own desire and moral value by breaking up with Thomas after knowing him got a wife back in his home country. This is because Phuong's egos develops from her Id and ensure that the impulses from her Id can be expressed in a appropriate manner in the real world. The Ego functions in both of the preconscious, conscious and unconscious mind therefore Phuong is taking control of her mind and looking balance it up with her own moral value. After this incident occurred, Phuong made a decision that she would not return to Thomas Fowler even though he offered a divorce to his wife or Alden Pyle is dead. Her egos manage to applied on the reality principle which attempt her to satisfy her Id's desire in realistic and appropriate way. The reality principle considers the costs and benefits of her action before she decides to break up with Thomas Fowler. Eventually, the ego of her also discharges tension and nervousness through the secondary process of her own mind. This happens to calm herself and allow her behavior to act in an appropriate way. In the novel Catch-22, Yossarian was arrested in Rome but was offered a choice. The choice required all the men in the squadron to fly eighty missions. Although he was tempted by the offer but he realizes that many innocent men would be endangered. He realizes his life and death instinct knowing it would endanger innocent men although the offer was tempted. If he realizes, this prove that he is in a conscious state of mind. He encounter his life and death instinct that he believed he were responsible for much of his behavior towards the offered. He has also experienced a traumatic event before and it will often reform it throughout his experience. Eventually, he is taking control his own preconscious, unconscious and conscious mind which his desire are balanced with his ego. This behavior doesn't only take control of our own mind but it includes the approval by parental or other authority figures who Yossarian accepts opinion or advice by his friends to make his own decision from the offer but this behavior leads to the feeling of pride, accomplishment and moral value.
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For the novel Catch-22, Yossarian has experienced so many terrible things that he cannot believe in a God who would create such a wide array of options when it comes to pain and death. But the loss of faith in God does not mean a world without morals for the characters. Yossarian has encounter so much pain and death throughout the whole story of the novel and therefore he doesn't believe in god because before that he believe that god a guardian to all human kind. But after so much incident happens which includes his friends death cause him to denied the appearance of god which leads him to become an freethinker. His superego has lead him to deny the appearance of god because he consciously thinks that god as a guardian to our human kind would save someone but in reality, when someone is facing death there is nothing much they can do because their lifespan in this world has ended therefore they will no longer live in this world. For another past experience in my another novel which is The Quiet American shows that Thomas Fowler has experience a mess of his love life , hence causing him to be in love with a young and beautiful Vietnamese orphan girl named Phuong.Â As we know love is blind, for an individual who fall in love for another opposite sex individual will practically do everything for her and even unconsciously betray or even kill for the one he/she loves. This is because Thomas Fowler mind has taken by his own unconsciousness mind. Therefore it may cause him unconsciously done something which he didn't realize but in reality it is hurting or done something bad for another people who is his wife he betrayed.
"Someone who takes ethics to derive from God's commandments is unlikely to mean the same thing by 'morally ought' as someone who believes in morality but not in God" (Harman, 1981). This proves that if someone doesn't believe in god, they are believing in themselves as it is a must. If someone doesn't believe in god means they don't believe in religion. Why? It is because as I say from above, god is represent as guardian if we believe in god but in reality god does not exist in real world to save us. As for a novel Harry Potter written by J.K Rowling, Harry Potter as the main character shows in the book and in the movie has been control by his unconscious mind due to his death of his parents. This happens when he misses his parents very much that when he look at the mirror, the mirror reflected his parents image. It is proven that he misses his parents therefore his unconscious mind controls his sight, hearing, and everything else. It is just basically controlling him.
In conclusion, Human's desire is the strongest feeling that can overcome their moral value, however ego can overcome the Id, so it will balance their desire and moral value and this will affect our mind being control by unconscious mind and conscious mind.
Harman, Gilbert. Â«Critical Review: Richard B. Brandt, A Theory of the Good and the Right.Â» Philosophical Studies (1981): 120-138.
Heller, Joseph, and Brice Matthieussent.Â Catch 22. Paris: Grasset, 2006. Print
Greene, Graham.Â The Quiet American. New York: Viking, 1956. Print
Rowling, J. K.Â Harry Potter. London: Bloomsbury, 1997. Print.
Cherry, By Kendra. "Id, Ego and Superego - Learn About the Id, Ego and Superego."Â Psychology - Complete Guide to Psychology for Students, Educators & Enthusiasts. Web. 23 Nov. 2010.