PlagiarismÂ is defined in dictionaries as "the wrongful appropriation, close imitation, or purloining and publication, of another authors language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions, and the representation of them as ones ownÂ original word. It is safe to assume that you already know that its unethical for you to pay another student to write a paper that & then you claim as your work and turn in for a project. When a person represents work done by someone else as her own, that person has committed an act ofÂ plagiarism. A penalty would be to fail the student, with the more severe penalty of dismissal from the college a strong possibility. Intentionally and unintentionally remaking adapting, rewording, paraphrasing, the work which is done by someone else. Plagiarism word originated from the Latin word plagiaries, which actually means 'kidnapper'. In 1600, Ben Jonson introduces this word in English. But actually concept of plagiarism used in 18th century.
There are many reasons some lazy students plagiarize. Sometimes deadlines come around more quickly beyond expected. Many times it happens that assignments feel over hectic, and sometimes the limitations of plagiarism and research methodologies led to confusion. Many of such situations result in getting caught in plagiarism. More importantly, one must be able to avoid such critical situations. One must learn to identify that the factors that make plagiarism an attractive alternative is the best way to stop it before it gets start.
Different Types of Plagiarism:
Academic plagiarism is a very old practice. However internet plagiarism is now very easy operation with the growth of the Internet and different new forms of plagiarism has established. Plagiarism is all about cut, copying and pasting, and rephrasing.
Full Plagiarism:Â This refers to data that has been produced as one's own content, without making any changes made to the word, thoughts or ideas of the writer or the author.
Partial Plagiarism:Â This type refers to a combination of different sources, and the use of various rephrases is common. This is known as partial plagiarism.
Minimalistic Plagiarism:Â In this type, there is a use of someone else's concept, ideas and opinions in their own words. Even though many do not consider this as plagiarism especially the one who does it, it is only considered as stealing someone's study. Minimalistic plagiarism involves high level of paraphrasing.
Source Citation:Â When complete source information including quotes is provided, generally it is not considered into plagiarism. However, lot of variations seem to occur in the definition of a complete source citation. Name of source is also mentioned. Most of the writers don not provide else information. While few freely provide false references, some just mention their information accompanied with an original piece of writing. The concept of ghost writer came into existence where the writer freely mentions the source information and then reproduce it showing as own work.
Self-plagiarism:Â This form of plagiarism is mostly contented as "it is" and "is not". Using one's own work, either complete work or partially, or even the same thought and re-writing it, is known as self-plagiarism.
According to Professor Paul Brian's opinion as per posted on the Internet Humanist Forum, "self-plagiarism, or the reusing of an old work in a new guideline is also considered a theft since the author leads the book-buyer to think that there is a new book of his on the market. The author is misleading his/her readers." "Self-plagiarism is fraud if not outright theft". (Internet Humanist Forum)
Plagiarism is a personal ethical issue and is a serious concern for most international universities worldwide. Universities today are taking more actions and advice students, especially international students to take extra care of not to plagiarise.
With international students coming from different countries and different educational backgrounds, there is a difference in understanding among them about what work is plagiarised and what isn't. Thus, plagiarism has become an important issue and is taken up universities and colleges to prevent students from doing it. This is done to prevent authenticity and originality.
One of the most widely used referencing system used world widely is the Harvard Referencing system.
The automobile revolutionized the American way of life. The earliest significant change was for farming families, who were no longer isolated. The automobile enabled them to drive to towns and cities comfortably and conveniently. Another important change was that people had the freedom to live and work wherever they wanted. In fact, people could work in a busy metropolitan city and drive home to the quiet suburbs. The final major change brought about by the automobile was the building of superhighways, suburbs, huge shopping centres, and many theme parks such as Disney World in Florida.
Properly referenced example:
The automobile has changed the way of life in America. One of the changes was for farming families, who were no longer isolated. It has enabled them to drive to towns and cities much more conveniently.
Another change was the freedom to live and work where one wanted be it a metropolitan city or suburbs. However, one of the final major changes introduced by the automobile were the superhighways, suburbs, huge shopping centres, and many theme parks such as Disney World in Florida. (University of Portsmouth, 2008, Academic Writing Skills, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth - page 19.)
The accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activities will change the climate by enhancing the natural greenhouse effect, leading to an increase in the Earth's average surface temperature. This warming may be partially offset in certain regions where air pollution leads to high concentrations of small particles in the atmosphere that block sunlight.
We might face an increase in the Earth's surface temperature due to the increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as a result of human activites. This will also change the climate by enhancing the greenhouse effect. However this maybe affected partially in certain regions only were air pollution leds to high concentration of particles which may block the sun light.(United Nations Environment Programme in Slaght, J. and Pallant, A. (2004).
Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism
1. One needs to ensure to put into 'quotations', everything that is directly taken from text or books.
2.Â In order to avoid plagiarism it may be useful to paraphrase properly and not just rearrange or replace a few words.
Another helpful tip may be to read over once that data that needs to be paraphrase and understand it and then put it into your own words as per your understanding of that content.
3.Â Check your paraphraseÂ against the original text to be sure you have not accidentally used the same phrases or words, and that the information is accurate.
The following factors states steps in preventing plagiarism.
become aware of the reasons plagiarism occurs
identify the different forms of plagiarism
integrate plagiarism prevention techniques into your courses
Quotation:Â using someone's words. When you quote, place the passage you are using in quotation marks, and document the source according to a standard documentation style.
The following example uses the Modern Language Association's style:
Example: According to Peter S. Pritchard in USA Today, "Public schools need reform but they're irreplaceable in teaching the entire nation's young" (14).
Paraphrase:Â using someone's ideas, but putting them in your own words. This is probably the skill you will use most when incorporating sources into your writing. Although you use your own words to paraphrase, you must still acknowledge the source of the information
Techniques used by colleges and universities to detect plagiarism:
These days administrators and literary security personnel try hard to promote the honest and legal usage of information by students. There are numerous sources on internet for informational documents and assessments which are easily accessible by students and use the complete work as their own. TURNITIN Check helps encouraging students to work on originality work in assignments rather than cut-copying-pasting thus reducing plagiarism. Various studies reveal usage of Turnitin in various universities and colleges. Turnitin check aids one's intellectual knowledge and assist his/her reading and studying skills.
students become better writers and researchers:
Students are encouraged to do their own work by their original research and study and thus are able to cite appropriately.
Teachers save time:
Following Turnitin easy process of check reports, teachers find it an easy task to analysis student's studies and thus use the opportunity to provide feedback.
Institutions improve their overall levels of learning:
Proper usage of Turnitin Check enhances the credentials or ratings of university and thus achieves mission and goals.
As years pass by, Students academic progress reports states the success of Turnitin Check implementation. The combine growing emphasis of assessment and performance, has shown prolong use of original writing content in students assignments and research papers.
Thus because of the above mentioned problems, most of the universities worldwide are using the Harvard referencing system (is also known as Parenthetical referencing), it is aÂ citationÂ style format in which partial citations (Smith 2010, p.1) are enclosed withinÂ round brackets and written in the text, either within or after a sentence, as footnote style. They are accompanied by a list of full citations in alphabetical order in an end section, which is called as "References," "Reference list", "Works cited" or "end-text citations".
The issue of plagiarism is not new to college and libraries. The introduction of new information technologies accompanied with increasingly computer- literate student's magnified scope of problems.
Society, security officers and policies must not be overlooked as this issue grows on time, enforcement of expulsion or actions will also grow as well. The need to educate students in the appropriate and ethical use of information is set forth in the ACRL information literacy standards. If task of prevention is taken seriously then the necessity of detection should decrease exponentially.