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In this chapter, the reader will find the methods, approaches and their functions used by the writer to create this research. The readers will also find and specification of the research stages and the research process.
It will also be explained from what principles and rules the approaches, methods and procedures were derived to solve and analyze all the objectives proposed in this thesis.
The reader will see all the practices and techniques that were used in this research in order to answer all the questions and to give an adequate answer to the hypothesis mentioned in the previous chapters of this work. The most important objective in this chapter is to have a clear methodology, and really emphasize the methods and procedures to give consistency to the thesis and to make it a work that can be used elsewhere to share the results in case that the questions are presented again.
3.1 Paradigm and method
In this section of the chapter, the author will explain the type of research paradigm or method that was used for this thesis.
A paradigm is a group of assumptions, concepts and values from which the researcher takes a perspective from, it is a pattern or model. A paradigm can describe the organizational framework and the group of theories, the term paradigm means example or model, however, in the scientific, religious or other fields, and a paradigm can mean a formal scheme of organization and it's a group of theories.
The philosopher and scientific Thomas Kuhn (1971) gave to the paradigm its contemporary meaning when he said that it was a group of practices that define a scientific discipline during a specific period. With all this said it can be said that a paradigm is a group of experiments with the capability of being copied and emulated, being themselves the base to create a scientific consensus. One of the most common uses of a paradigm can be in the social sciences that it is used to describe a union of experiences, believes and values that can affect the way in which somebody preserves the reality and how does he respond to that perception. A paradigm is basically a law until it is taken away by another one; however the current paradigm determines an individual
own perception of the reality, there is no neutral, objective, truthful perception of the phenomena, instead, the perception is modified by the current paradigm that controls and directs an individual. A paradigm not only can control an individual, it determines who he is and what does he perceives and believes is the truth, and the capability of perception its based in how open our conscious is and it is funded in the capability of use of our brains.
A paradigm is a guide for the professionals in a discipline that indicates what the problems are and questions that they have to face. It is oriented towards the development of models and theories that can place this questions and problems in a way in which the professionals will try to solve them.
It establishes the criteria for the use of the appropriate tools, methodologies, instruments and types and ways to collect data, in the solving of these disciplinarian enigmas. A paradigm gives the idea that the previous tasks can be considered as organizational principles for the realization of the normal work of the discipline, however not only allows a discipline to clear different kinds of phenomena but also provides a scheme in which these phenomena can be identified as existent.
For research purposes there are mainly three types of paradigms or methods, those are the qualitative paradigm, the quantitative paradigm and the mixed paradigm. The first paradigm to be used was the quantitative paradigm, after the 1980 decade the one that was mostly used was the qualitative one, and finally, the method that is being commonly used nowadays is the mixed paradigm.
The qualitative method is a research method that it is mostly used in the social sciences that is based on theoretical values such as social interaction using collection methods that are not quantitative, with the purpose of exploring the social relationships and describe the reality as how its correspondent protagonists feel it.
The qualitative research requires a deep understanding of the human behavior and the reasons that compound it. Unlike the quantitative research, the qualitative research explains the reasons of the different aspects of such behavior, in other words, researches the why and how a decision was made, meanwhile the quantitative research takes small samples, like observation of small groups such as classrooms.
The qualitative research can be defined as inductive, understands the context and the people as a whole. The researcher of a qualitative research tries to understand people in the reference that they have of themselves, also tries to take away his own believes and perspectives to focus on his point. The majority of the qualitative methods are humanists and gives emphasis to the research validation, for them the qualitative research is an art.
The qualitative research is more focused on what is similar than on what is different, it is used to explain, control and predict phenomenon.
It can be said that the methodology of the qualitative research is focused on the deep study to know in detail the problem unlike the quantitative that is based in the exploration through the experiment.
The quantitative method of research is the one that allows examining data in a scientific way, or even more specific, in a numerical way, generally with the help of tools from the field of statistic.
In order for the quantitative method exists it is required a relationship between the elements of the investigation problem, whose root has to be represented by a numeric model, whether is lineal, exponential or similar. This means clarity is required among the elements of the research that form the problem, it has to be possible to define it, delimit it and know exactly where the problem is started, which direction does it take and what kind of incidence exists among its elements. The nature of the quantitative method is descriptive, allows the researcher to predict the behavior of the target, the research methods could be experiments and interviews and the results can be generalized.
The quantitative research is more focused to the natural science and it is very positivistic. It is based on real facts.
The quantitative method tries to get together the study and analysis of great quantities of data through techniques and technology and the social disciplines towards the exact sciences, all this thanks to the conversion of social phenomena captured in data and numbers. In this way, these numbers can be studied through statistic techniques of determination of probabilities and allow not only explain social phenomena but also to predict possible future scenarios.
From the moment it starts to be used for the explanations of social phenomena, the quantitative method has gone through several critics like being incomprehensible due to the use of statistics and mathematical probabilities or computational programs; to give bad results where the use of weak data compromises the results of the research or the formulation of the interview and its questions is contaminated and confuses and in this way gives inconsistent explications and finally reduces the human to numbers.
The quantitative paradigm is more focused on the collection of quantitative data only, on the other side, the qualitative paradigm relies on the collection of qualitative data only. The quantitative research is more focused to the natural science and it is very positivistic. It is based on real facts.
The mixed paradigm or method is the one where is needed to use both, the qualitative and the quantitative methods for a research, for this thesis, the writer will use a qualitative and quantitative paradigm. The mixed paradigm was created in the 20th century when it was used to investigate archaeological or criminals works, however the first antecedents came from the 60's. A mixed paradigm tries to avoid concepts like "true" or "reality" that have caused conflicts among the qualitative and quantitative paradigms. The mixed process recollects, analyzes and puts together all qualitative and quantitative data in a same study or a series of researches to answer a problem statement.
This is why, qualitative and quantitative methods are used and qualitative and quantitative data intervene and vice versa. This type of approach can answer to different research questions of a problem statement. It is funded in the methods triangulation. This kind of investigation implies to mix the inductive and the deductive logic. Therefore its application should be visualized from the problem statement, the recollection of data and of course, the study inform.
For this thesis the writer will use a mixed paradigm to better analyze and explain all the objectives and to answer all the questions that this project may have. A combination of both is the more accurate way to cover the subject of the research, the analysis and the procedures and techniques used to complete this thesis.
3.2 Population and sample
A population is a collection of individuals that are the main focus of a research. Populations are the objects that have some similar characteristics that can be watched in a determined place and moment. Whenever a researcher wants to make a research must take into a count some essential characteristics when choosing the population, for example, the population needs to be homogeneous, all the members in the population have to have the same characteristics according to the variables that will be considered in the study or investigation. Another thing that the researcher must consider is the time, which means the period in which the population is located, determine if the study is something present or if it will be a study of a population five years ago or if different people from different generations will be interviewed. This is very important as well as the space that is the place where the population is settled, a study cannot be very comprehensive because of lack of time and resources, it has to be delimited in a specific area or community.
With all that in consideration, the quantity of the population can be considered, the size of the population is very important because it determines or affects the size of the sample that will be selected, besides the lack of time and resources can also limit the extension of the population to be researched.
A sample is the part of the population that is analyzed so other can draw conclusions, apply the results and compare investigations. It is the faithful representative subset of the population. The different types of simples will depend of the quality of the study of the population. The sample must be random, because when it is selected randomly every member has the opportunity to be included, it also needs to be stratified, when it is divided in subsets according to the variables or characteristics that can be researched; and a sample needs to be systematic, when a pattern or criteria is established when selecting the sample.
The sample is the group of people, events etc, from which data will be recollected, in the studies the sample size is not important from a probabilistic perspective because the interest is not to generalize the results to an even wider population, since what an investigation looks in deepness, motive from which is better quality than quantity in which the input of people, organizations, events and facts is fundamental that help us understand the study phenomena and to answer to the questions of the research.
The compound and size of the sample depends of the development of the inductive process of the investigation, in which exists a great diversity of studies that very with sample sizes.
The data obtained from a population can contain all the information that is wanted from it, the point is to get that information to the sample, which means get all the information of the population from the sample.
The sample must have all the desire information so that can be easy to get all that information, this can only be done with a good selection of the sample, which is a really careful job in the data collection. It is important to mention that a population can be a sample in a research and a sample can be a population, this due to the objective of the research, for example if a researcher wants to determine the high of the college students of a country a sample can be to choose some of the universities of that country and make the job, however if what the researcher wants to know is the average high of the students in a specific university in a country then the group formed by all the students of the university could be the population and the sample will be given by the selected groups to make the experiment.
For this research, the researcher will be working with the population of the texts to be translated: Extract of "Mutual Gains Approach" and "Análisis Histórico del Cantón de Mora".
For this project, the writer will make an analysis of the syntax mistakes found in the texts in their original languages and she will identify them in both texts, this will be reinforced by the Noam Chomsky's theory of the generative grammar. After that the mistakes will be leveled in a scale to see what kind is the more serious based on the aspects of the theory of syntax of Chomsky. After that, the writer will show what translation techniques were used to avoid these mistakes in the target language she will apply the translation procedures to resolve these mistakes in the target language and finally, she will evaluate the results of the analysis when translating the mistakes based on a theory that Peter Newmark gave that says that translations are even better than their originals.
3.3.1 Research Stages
Translation of documents
Introduction of course
General Instructions for research project
Translation of documents
Make questions and objectives for the research project
Presentation of Objectives and Research questions
Translation of documents
Elaboration of Introduction of chapter 1
Elaboration of questions and objectives in chapter 1
Submission Chapter 1 to the reader and tutor
Analysis of grammar mistakes on English text
Submission of Executive Summary Chapter 1
Academic Writing: Guidelines
Explanation Chapter 2
Analysis grammar mistakes English text
Submission Chapter 2 to reader and tutor
Submission of Executive Summary of Chapter 2
Explanation of Chapter 3: Methodology
Triangulation of data
Data collection Instruments
Analysis grammar mistakes English text
Explanation Chapter 3
Elaboration of Chapter 3
Oral Presentation: Literature Review
Analysis syntax mistakes Spanish
Submission Chapter 3: Methodology
Submission of Executive Summary Chapter 3
Explanation Chapters 4 and 5: Data analysis and Results and conclusions and recommendations
Analysis syntax mistakes Spanish
Elaboration Chapter 3
Analysis syntax mistakes Spanish
Power Point presentation: Explanation and Guidelines
Elaboration Chapter 4
Analysis syntax mistakes Spanish
Elaboration of charts, graphs, figures.
Introduction and discussion of graphics, charts and figures.
Submission Chapter 4-5
Submission of Executives Summary Chapter 4-5
Elaboration of charts, graphs, figures
Guidelines for Dissertation
Dissertation date assignments
Final Oral Presentation
Submission of Power Point Presentation
3.4 Data collection instruments
In this section of the chapter, the researcher will present all the instruments that she will use in this thesis. First, the researcher will use a text correction chart to identify every syntax mistake, then a scale of error level to classify every error to help understand the different mistakes found, after this she will make a graphic to match what procedure to use with every syntax mistake and finally a comparison chart to define what translation procedures were used the most to correct the mistakes.
Unity of Measurement
3.4 Data analysis
3.4.1 What is Triangulation?
Triangulation refers to the use of more than one approach to the investigation of a research question in order to enhance confidence to the reader. The objective of using different methods in triangulation is to analyze the same phenomenon through different points such as the population and sample, variables, instruments and procedures.
Triangulation not only guaranties the value of a study by showing that its conclusions does not depend on the utilized method to recollect and analyze the data, but also, tries to enrich the conclusions and give more reliability, great level of precision and contrast the intern consistency of the study.
The strategy of the triangulation was used with the purpose of contrast different data collection instruments and analyzes the material in a qualitative and quantitative way. The triangulation of the obtained results from the analysis of the material allows establishing a convergence in the conclusions that leave kind of a predominant conception.
3.4.2 What is Data Collection?
Data collection is how information is gathered in order to make a research and it refers to the use of a great diversity of techniques and tools that can be used by the analyst to develop the information systems, which could be interviews, questions, observation and a glossary.
All of these instruments will be apply in a particular moment with the purpose of look for information that is useful to a common research.
The use of techniques and instruments to collect information of a particular subject which is the research object is the main point of the data collection, and is one of the most important tasks in the analysis of information for a research because everything that wants to be developed depends on this.
Among the different recollection of data techniques there can be the observation, interviews, the applications and also there can be used the Internet and libraries.
3.4.2 Data collection chart
Specific Objective 1
Identify the syntax mistakes in the source language of both documents.
Subordinate Question 1
What are the syntax mistakes in the source language presented in both documents?
Text correction chart to identify every syntax mistake
Specific Objective 2
Design a scale to classify the error level in every syntax mistake for each document.
Subordinate Question 2
How can the level of error in every syntax mistake be classified in the source language?
A scale of error level to classify every error to help understand the different mistakes found
Specific Objective 3
Apply the translation procedures to resolve these mistakes in the target language
Subordinate Question 3
How can we apply the translation procedures and technique in the translation to the target language to solve the mistakes in the source language?
A graphic to match what procedure to use with every syntax mistake
Specific Objective 4
Evaluate the results of the analysis when translating the mistakes.
Subordinate Question 4
What results do we obtain after correcting the syntax mistakes in the target language?