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Oral presentation is synonyms with public speaking or speechmaking. Its may describe as a public speaking which is mean as delivering an address to a public audience. Public speaking also is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence or entertain the listeners. Oral presentation also means as a verbal presentation to a lecturer and possibly other students by an individual student. It may be on a topic researched by the student in the published literature or summary of project work undertaken. Oral presentations mostly deliver in English language. This is show how important to dominate the English language.
Outline academics contexts where English is important
Firstly, it is agreed that English are importance because English are the worldwide languages. English are the only language that truly links the whole world together. If not for English, the whole world may not be as united as it is today. The other languages may be important for their local values and culture. English can be used as a language in any part of the world. This is because at least a few people in each locality would know the language. Though these people might not have the same accent as others, the language at least will be understandable.
When a person travels to another part of the world either for the sake of business or even as a tourist, the languages may differ. In these conditions, English is the language that helps people to deal with the situation. It is like a universal language. In countries like India, where the land is so vast with people of various cultures live, the languages of each part of the country also differ. Under the circumstances, English can be the only link as people in each place will not be able to learn all the other languages to communicate with the people. English bridges this gap and connects the people.
The presence of English as a universal language assumes importance in the fact that more and more people leave their countries not only for the sake of business and pleasure, but also for studying. Education has increased the role of English. People who go to another country to study can only have English as their medium of study. This is because the individual will not be able to learn a subject in the local language of the country. This again reinforces the fact that English language is very important.
All correspondences between offices in different countries and also between political leaders of various countries are in English. This linking factor also tells of the importance of English language.
In spite of the growth of Internet in various languages, English is the mainstay of the Internet users. This is the language in which most of the information and websites are available. It is very difficult to translate each and every relevant webpage into the language of various countries. With Internet becoming very important in E-commerce and also in education, English language is bound to grow. Thus the importance of English as a language is emphasized.
Speech in academic context
In academic context speech has been very important. This is because when the teachers want to deliver their syllabus to the student they had to give speech to the student. In this situation of communication is same as transactional model. When student not understand they had to ask a question to the teacher and the teacher answer the question. This shows the process of transactional model communication use in academic.
Need for speech training in English
There is important to do speech training before doing an oral presentation. It is important to make sure that the pronunciation is correct so that the audience could understand the speech. Speech training also important because can make the speaker ready during the speech this is because when the speaker not ready they can lose their concentration during the speech. This can make the speaker feel nervous when they are not 100% ready. It is said that the voice projection also important during speech. This is because our audience can hear very clearly otherwise they feel sleepy and boring during our speeches. It is need to train our voice projection before speech. Speech training can avoid long pause and to prevent of using fillers such as 'um' or 'er'.
Academic and professional public speaking skills and strategies
Content of presentation
Firstly what it is said is to have the content of presentation before start our speech. Choose a topic and know what to say during then speeches. Write down the content or scratch it to fit the content within the time limit. Think carefully about how much information that can reasonably present in the time allowed and select the most important point. The content must need to hold the interest and attention of the audience. Many people lose interest towards the end of presentations that contain too much information. Think carefully about the key points that us want to get across and build our presentation around them. Some kinds of information, such as technical explanations and tables of figures, are difficult for listeners to absorb during a presentation. Think about summarizing this kind of information or referring the listeners to a document they can read after the presentation. It is agreed that need to prepare the content of a presentation and think carefully about the key points to make it easy to the audience to understand.
Structure of presentation
Most presentations will consist of an introduction, the body of the talk and a conclusion. Good presentations raise questions in the listeners mind. Good speakers encourage questions both during and after the presentation and are prepared to answer them.
Introduction of presentation
A good introduction can attracts and focuses the attention of the audience. It is also puts the speaker and audience at ease. It can explain the purpose of the talk and what the speaker would like to archive. It also gives an overview of the key points of the talk. It is often a good idea to begin a talk with a question, a short story, an interesting fact about your topic or an unusual visual aid. Many speakers follow this with an overhead transparency that shows the title, aim and outline of the talk. It is often a good idea to begin a talk with a question, a short story, an interesting fact about your topic or an unusual visual aid. Many speakers follow this with an overhead transparency that shows the title, aim and outline of the talk.
The body of presentation
The body of a presentation must be presented in a logical order that is easy for the audience to follow and natural of the topic. Divide the content into sections and make sure that the audience knows where they are at any time during the speeches. It is often a good idea to pause between main sections of the speeches. It is agreed to ask for questions, sum up the point or explain what the next point will be. It good to has an OHT with an outline of the talk on it, and can put this on the projector briefly and point to the next section. Examples, details and visual aids add interest to a presentation and help to get the message through.
Conclusion of presentation
It is important to have a good conclusion. This can reminds the audience of the key points and can reinforces the message. The conclusion should end the presentation on a positive note and make the audience feel that have used their time well listening to our speech.
Questions of presentation
Many speakers worry about questions from the audience. However, questions show that the audience is interested in the speeches and can make the talk more lively and interactive.
Delivery of presentation
Voice is your main channel of communication to the audience, so make sure use it to its best effect.
Voice volume need to be loud and clear. Adjust the volume to the size of the room and make sure the people at the back can hear. In a big room take deep breaths and try to project the voice rather than shout.
Speed and fluency
Speak at a rate so the audience can understand the points. Do not speed up because have too much material to fit into the time available. Try not to leave long pauses while looking at the notes or use fillers such as 'um' or 'er'. Use pauses to allow the audience to digest an important point. Repeat or rephrase difficult or important points to make sure the audience understands.
Speak clearly. Face the audience and hold the head up. Look directly at the members of the audience while deliver speeches to make the speeches clearly hear. Keep away notes and keep in eyes on the audience when are talking about overhead transparencies. When looking at the whiteboard or the overhead projector, stop a little bit and continue speech when ready to face the audience again.
Before making the speech it is important to improve the pronunciation. Try to know how to pronounce names and difficult words. This is because to make audience understand the speech.
Engaging the audience
One of the secrets of a good presentation is to involve the audience.
Maintain eye contact
Try to look to audience in the eyes. Spread the eye contact around the audience including those at the back and sides of the room. Avoid looking at anyone too long because this can be intimidating.
Ask for feedback
Try to involve the audience by asking occasional questions. Try to ask genuine questions to which are not know the answer and show interest in any replies. Leave time for the audience to think and try to avoid answering the questions by ourselves or telling members of the audience that their answers are wrong. Questions to the audience work well when manage to make those who answer them feel that they have contributed to the presentation.
Try to pause occasionally to ask if anyone has any questions. If a question disrupts the flow of the speech too much, try to answer it later (but don't forget to do it). Before asking for questions, make sure the speaker are ready to pick up their presentation again when the Q & A session has finished.
It is natural to feel nervous in front of an audience. Experienced speakers avoid looking nervous by breathing deeply, speaking slowly and avoiding unnecessary gestures or movements. Smiling and focusing attention on members of the audience who show interest can also help the speaker feel more confident when deliver speeches.
Preparing overhead transparencies (OHTs) of presentation
The aim of using transparencies is to support the points when making the speech. The audience will be able to follow better if they can see the key points and examples as well as hearing them. OHTs can
Reinforce a point that have made
Show what something looks like
Show information patterns
Present figures or graphs
Summarize key points
Help the audience follow passages or quotations
OHTs are not the only form of visual aid available to the speaker. For example, if the speaker want to show what something looks like, it may be better to show the audience the thing itself rather than a picture of it.
To be effective, OHTs must be attractive and easy to read. Some basic rules are:
Use large fonts and images
Present one key point or example per OHT
Use headings and bullet points in preference to lines of text
Use strong colors and don't use too many
Use simple graphs in preference to tables of figures
Pay attention to layout. Use the centre of the OHT rather than the edges
Using overhead projectors
Overhead projectors are designed to allow the speaker to project an image while facing the audience. The image may be a picture or graphic, notes indicating the points related to the speech. Whenever use an OHT, the attention of the audience will be divided between then speaker and the image, so there are a few basic rules to follow:
Make sure the image can be seen. If possible go to the room in advance and check that everything on the OHTs can be read easily from the back of the room.
If possible, make sure the projector is in a convenient position. Decide where the speakers want to stand when speaking and then position the projector where the speakers can get to it easily. This will usually be on the side of the body that normally use for writing (i.e. left side if left-handed)
Keep the slides in order in a pile next to the projector and put them back in order in another pile as the speaker take them off the projector.
If possible, control the lighting in the room so that there is always a light shining on the speaker. If the OHTs are easy to read, there is no need to turn off the lights.
During the presenting, avoid looking at the projected image and the transparency on the projector. It is a good idea to print out the slides on paper to keep with the notes so that can refer to them while deliver the speech.
If want to draw attention to a point on an OHT, put a pen on top of it and leave it pointing at the point that the speaker want to draw attention to. Don't point with the finger because this will have to look at the projector while do so.
If want the audience to read longer texts on OHTs (e.g. quotations or tables of figures) give them time to do so. There is no point in putting an OHT on the projector if the audience does not have time to read it.
Make sure explain the content and purpose of each OHT.
The main rule is to use OHTs to support the point during presentation. Don't let them dominate it.
OHTs and handouts
Some speakers give handouts for the audience to read while they are talking. The advantage of OHTs over handouts is that they focus attention on the presentation. It is often a good idea to wait until the end of the presentation before distributing the handout. Often members of the audience want to note down points from the OHTs. This can distract them from following the presentation, so it is a good idea to distribute information that the audience will want to note down on handout. As soon as someone starts taking notes, tell the audience that they do not need to do so because they will get the information on the handout.
Using notes during the speech
One of the decisions before giving a presentation is how to remember what are the speakers going to say. Experienced presenters use a variety of methods. On this page we outline the advantages and disadvantages of each. It is up to the speaker to decide which is best for the speech.
Speaking without notes
Some presenters do not use notes at all. They just remember the outline of what they are going to say and talk.
Advantages: If the speaker does it well, they will seem natural, knowledgeable and confident of the topic. They will also find it easier to establish rapport with the audience because they can give them a full attention.
Disadvantages: It is easy to lose the thread, miss out whole sections of the talk or to go over the time limit. People who speak without notes often fail to convey a clear idea of the structure of their ideas to the audience.
This is a high-risk strategy. A few people can present effectively without notes.
Reading from a script
Some experienced presenters write down every word they intend to say. They may read the whole script aloud or they may just use it as a back-up.
Advantages: It is easier to keep within the time limit if there is likely to less nervous and make fewer mistakes.
Disadvantages: It is difficult to establish rapport with the audience. This may sound like reading aloud rather than speaking to an audience. Listeners often lose interest in a presentation that is read aloud.
This is a low-risk strategy employed by many experienced non-native speaker presenters. If the speakers use it, they will need to develop the skill of reading aloud while still sounding natural. Few people can do this effectively.
Many presenters write down headings and key points on cards or paper. They use them as reminders of what they are going to say.
Advantages: It is easier to establish rapport with the audience. The presentation will be structured but the speaker will sound natural.
Disadvantages: It is difficult to keep within the time limit. If the notes are too brief, there is possibility to forget what are intended to say.
This is a medium-risk strategy used by many experienced presenters and the one most often recommended. The disadvantages of note cards can be overcome if practice before the speech.
There is important for us to know what oral presentation is because someday we are going to deliver the speech. We must prepare our knowledge on oral presentation so when time is come we can handle speech very well. We also need to improve our English Language and learn more about grammar and pronunciation because English are important to use in oral presentation.