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Needs analysis could be drawn up as a main parts to design an ESP program whether the learning materials and the atmosphere of learning by finding the learners needs. In addition, need analysis is "focused with identifying general and specific language needs that can be drawn for developing goals, objectives and content in a language program" (Richards and Rodgers cited in Judy Yaoneka article, 2001). Also, Majid (2005) argues that the awareness of a need is what influences the content of a language course. According to Iwai et al. (1999), the term needs analysis basically refers to the activities that are involved in collecting information that will be served as the basis for developing a curriculum that will meet the needs of a particular group of learners. Brindley (1989) and Berwick (1989) offer definitions of different types of needs and accounts of various problems and limitations in making use of this concept, including ways in which we might usefully distinguish between needs identified by analysts and those expressed or experienced by learners. Therefore, what is meant by needs analysis is how we find out the needs of the students to help teachers and the curriculum planner design the goals and objective, conceptualize the content of the course, select teaching materials and course assessment and show what target situations the students use English for (Sysoyev, 2001)
Though needs analysis, as we know it today, has gone through many stages in every parts of knowledge, with the most popular publication of Munby's Communicative Syllabus Design in 1978, situations and functions were set within the frame of needs analysis. In his book, Munby introduced 'communication needs processor' (CNP) which is the basis of Munby's approaches to needs analysis. Mehdi (2008) draws up Munby's overall model of the following elements:
1. Participants: information about the identity and language of the learners: age, sex, nationality, present command of target language, other languages known and extent of command;
2. Communication Needs Processor: investigates the particular communication needs according to sociocultural and stylistic variables which interact to determine a profile of such needs;
3. Profile of Needs: is established through the processing of data in the CNP;
4. In the Meaning Processor "parts of the socioculturally determined profile of communication needs are converted into semantic subcategories of a predominantly pragmatic kind, and marked with attitudinal tone" (Munby, 1978: 42);
5. The Language Skills Selector: identifies "the specific language skills that are required to realize the events or activities that have been identified in the CNP" (Munby, 1978: 40);
6. The Linguistic Encoder: considers "the dimension of contextual appropriacy" (Munby, 1978: 49), one the encoding stage has been reached;
7. The Communicative Competence Specification: indicates the target communicative competence of the participant and is the translated profile of needs.
Besides the model, there are also some parameters specified by Munby (1987) cited in Mehdi (2008):
â€¢ Purposive domain: this category establishes the type of ESP, and then the purpose which the target language will be used for at the end of the course.
â€¢ Setting: the physical setting specifying the spatial and temporal aspects of the situation where English will be used, and the psychological setting specifying the different environment in which English will be used.
â€¢ Interaction: identifies the learner's interlocutors and predicts relationship between them.
â€¢ Instrumentality: specifies the medium, i.e., whether the language to be used is written, spoken, or both; mode, i.e., whether the language to be used is in the form of monologue, dialogue or any other; and channel of communication, i.e., whether it is face to face, radio, or any other.
Dialect: dialects learners will have to understand or produce in terms of their spatial, temporal, or social aspect.
â€¢ Communicative event: states what the participants will have to do productively or receptively.
â€¢ Communicative key: the manner in which the participants will have to do the activities comprising an event, e.g. politely or impolitely.
â€¢ Target level: level of linguistic proficiency at the end of the ESP course which might be different for different skills.
The aim of Munby's CNP is to find out the possible linguistic form for the perspective ESP learner in any kinds of working environment. The result of the data processed by conducting Munby's model is what the learner needs to know in order to be functioned effectively in the target situation (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987). Therefore, in their famous book, Hutchinson and Waters draw the table that very close to the Munby's, and can be summarized as the table below as drawn by Mehdi Haseli (2008):
Why is language needed?
For a combination of these;
For some other purposes, e.g. status, examination, promotion
cf. Munbian purposive domain
How will the language be used?
Medium: speaking, writing, reading, etc;
Channel: e.g. telephone, face to face;
Types of the text or discourse: e.g. academic text, lectures, catalogues, etc;
cf. Munbian instrumentality
What will the content areas be?
Subjects: e.g. medicine, biology, commerce, shipping, etc;
Level: technician, craftsman, postgraduate, etc
cf. Munbian communicative event
Where will the language be used?
Physical setting: e.g. office, lecture theatre, hotel, workshop, library;
Human context: alone, meetings, demonstrations, on telephone;
Linguistic context: e.g. in own country, abroad.
cf. Munbian setting (physical and psychological)
When will the language be used?
Concurrently with the ESP course or subsequently;
Frequently, seldom, in small amounts, in large chunks.
Based on Munby's work, Chambers (1980) introduced some terms in need analysis:
Target Situation Analysis; Chambers examined TSA as the communication in the target situation. This explanation is related with the publication of Munby's CNP (1978), needs analysis moved towards placing the learner's purposes in the central position within framework of need analysis.
Present Situation Analysis; the PSA can be carried out by means of established placement tests. However, the background information, e.g. years of learning English, level of education, etc. about learners can provide us with sufficient information about their present abilities and power which can thus be predicted to some extent. Needs analysis may be seen as a combination of TSA and PSA. As noted, within the realm of ESP, one cannot rely either on TSA or PSA as a reliable indicator of what is needed to enhance learning and teaching desired goals and objectives.
Pedagogic Needs Analysis; this term was proposed by West (1998) as an umbrella term to describe the following three elements of needs analysis. He elaborates the compensation of target needs analysis by collecting data about the learner and the learning environment. The three elements are:
Deficiency Analysis; it is another term of Lacks which was defined by Hutchinson and Waters. Also, Also, according to Allwright (1982, quoted in West, 1994), the approaches to needs analysis that have been developed to consider learners' present needs or wants may be called analysis of learners' deficiencies or lacks. From what has already been said, it is obvious that deficiency analysis is the route to cover from point A (present situation) to point B (target situation), always keeping the learning needs in mind. Thus, deficiency analysis can form the basis of the language syllabus (Jordan, 1997) as the consequence of providing data about both the gap between present and target extra linguistic knowledge, mastery of general English, language skills, and learning strategies.
Strategy Analysis or Learning Needs Analysis; is more concerned on the learners' view of learning. It is how the learners wish to learn rather than what they need to learn (West, 1998). TSA, PSA, and to some extent deficiency analysis, have not been concerned with the learners' views of learning. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) examined the term how to find the learning needs based on the learners using this following:
1. Why are the learners taking the course?
â€¢ compulsory or optional;
â€¢ apparent need or not;
â€¢ Are status, money, promotion involved?
â€¢ What do learners think they will achieve?
â€¢ What is their attitude towards the ESP course? Do they want to improve their English or do they resent the time they have to spend on it?
2. How do the learners learn?
â€¢ What is their learning background?
â€¢ What is their concept of teaching and learning?
â€¢ What methodology will appeal to them?
â€¢ What sort of techniques bore/alienate them?
3. What sources are available?
â€¢ number and professional competence of teachers;
â€¢ attitude of teachers to ESP;
â€¢ teachers' knowledge of and attitude to subject content;
â€¢ opportunities for out-of-class activities.
4. Who are the learners?
â€¢ What do they know already about English?
â€¢ What subject knowledge do they have?
â€¢ What are their interests?
â€¢ What is their socio-cultural background?
â€¢ What teaching styles are they used to?
â€¢What is their attitude to English or to the cultures of the English speaking world?
Means Analysis; is determined by providing the information about the environment in which the course will be run and thus efforts to adapt to ESP course to the cultural environment in which it will be run (Dudley-Evans and St. John, 1998). Jordan (1997) says it should provide us with a tool for designing an environmentally sensitive course as cited in Mehdi (2008). In addition, Swales (1989, quoted in West, 1994) lists five factors which relate to the learning environment and should be considered by curriculum experts if the course is to be successful. The considerations are: classroom culture, EAP staff, pilot target situation analysis, status of service operations, and study of change agents.
Register analysis; Swales (1988) had examined that register analysis is also called as "lexicostatistics" (quoted in Dudley-Evans and St. John, 1998) and "frequency analysis" by Robinson (1991) focused on the grammar and "structural and non-structural" vocabulary (Ewer and Latorre, 1967, quoted I West 1998). Dudley-Evans and St. John also described certain grammatical and lexical forms are used much more frequently than the grammar of scientific and technical writing of the general English. Mehdi (2008) made some criticisms on the register analysis, that are: It restrict the analysis of texts to the word and sentence level (West, 1998), it is only descriptive, not explanatory (Robinson, 1991), and most materials produced under the banner of register analysis follow a similar pattern, beginning with a long specialist reading passage which lacks authenticity (Dudley-Evans and St. John, 1998)
Discourse analysis; while register analysis more focuses on word and sentence level, next phase is that the analysis combined sentence into the discourse forms (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987). In addition, West (1998) says that the reaction against register analysis focused only on the communicative values of discourse rather than the lexical and grammatical properties register. It is considered to design the learning materials especially the course book.
and Genre Analysis; it goes two steps above the register analysis and one step ahead the discourse analysis. Dudley-Evans and John (1998) made the distinction between discourse analysis and genre analysis into two terms: genre analysis refers to the focus of text analysis on the regularities of structures that distinguish one type of text from another and the results always focus on the differences between text types, or genres. While, however, discourse analysis deals with the study of cohesive links between sentences, of paragraphs, or the structure of whole text. In addition, Bhatia as cited in Mehdi (2008) stated that It is also encouraged to make the relevant connection between the use of language on the one hand and the purpose of communication on the other, always aware of the question, why do members of the specialist discourse community use the language in this way? Also, as cited in Massouleh's and Jooneghani's paper (2012), Bhatia divided four sectors of competence that an ESP learner needs to develop so as to get over his/her lack of confidence in dealing with special discourse; Knowledge of the code (a pre-requisite for developing communicative expertise in specialist or even everyday discourse), Acquisition of genre knowledge (familiarity with and awareness of appropriate rhetorical prose), Sensitivity to cognitive structures (that is since certain lexical items have specialist meanings in specific professional genres, it is imperative that the specialist learner become aware of restricted aspects of linguistic code in addition to the general competence he or she requires in the language), and Exploitation of generic knowledge (that is, it is only after learners have developed some acquaintance or expertise at levels discussed above, that they can confidently interpret, use or even take liberties with specialist discourse).
On the other hand, Tony Duddley and Evans also determined the concept of needs analysis:
Professional information about the learners: the tasks and activities learners are/will be using English for (target situation analysis and objective needs)
Professional information about the learners: wants, means, subjective needs
English language information about the learners: what their current skills and language use are
The learners' lacks
Language learning information: effective ways of learning the skills and language in learners' lacks
Knowledge of how language and skills are used in the target situation: linguistic analysis, discourse analysis, genre analysis
What is wanted from the course
Information about the environment in which the course will be run: means analysis
In theory, need analysis is a first step carried out before a course so that a course outline, materials and other resources can be a place before teaching begins. For Johns (1991), needs analysis is the first step in course design and it provides validity and relevancy for all subsequent course design activities. Therefore, need analysis is one of the key stages in ESP besides syllabus and materials. These are not separated, literally-related activities, rather they represent phrases which overlap and interdependent.
According to Oxford advanced learner's dictionary, syllabus means a list of topics, books, etc. that students should study in a particular subject at school or college. It means that students have a criterion for their study in order to get standard of their ability in future. Brown (1995) said that ways of organizing the course and syllabus are called syllabus. While, According to Posner, Feez, Joyce in 2002, they stated that syllabus is a part of the curriculum concept which consist of explicit and coherent plan for an entire course of study. It means that syllabus is a tool that used by the teacher in order to achieve particular goals of the curriculum and takes place in the classroom.
Beside syllabus, material is also the important point of the learning process. Syllabus itself mean as any systematic description of the technique and exercises to be used in classroom learning. Syllabus can be taken from books, workbook, cassettes, videos, or even other valuable sources for learning (Brown 1995. p.139). Brown (1995) also said that ways of organizing the course and syllabus are called syllabus. So, we may assume that syllabus determine how the syllabus runs in an appropriate track. Kathleen Graves (2000) stated that organizing a course as deciding what the underlying systems will be that pull together the content and material in accordance with the goals and objectives and that give the course a shape and structure.
(Hedge & Whitney 1996) stated that course books are the most convenient means of providing the structure that reaching learning system requires. (Hedge & Whitney 1996) also stated that teaching is a partnership between teacher and material. The successful of this partnership will be achieved when the teacher can use the syllabus contained in course book systematically and flexibly. In fact, the teacher is difficult to choose the most appropriate books for the learning process. Because the publisher of the course book is less care of what have been written in syllabus.
II.3. Vocational School Majoring Tourism
According to the Wikipedia, it said that aÂ vocational schoolÂ (orÂ trade schoolÂ orÂ career school), providingÂ vocational education, is aÂ schoolÂ in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job. Traditionally, vocational schools have not existed to furtherÂ educationÂ in the sense ofÂ liberal arts, but rather to teach only job-specific skills, and as such have been better considered to be institutions devoted to training, not education while vocational education itself is an institution that prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade,Â occupation, orÂ vocation. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vocational_education). Vocational school is also offered training in careers that require practical expertise (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-vocational-school.htm). It means that Vocational school has the special position in creating the learners that ready to work with skills and plenty of training.
From (http://www.directoryofschools.com/Travel-and-Tourism-School.htm), Travel and Tourism meansÂ that tourism professionals the knowledge and skills to meet the requirements and demands of today's travel-savvy clients. As a Travel and Tourism student, you will learn about the history, geography, languages, cultures and currencies of various worldwide travel destinations. You will also examine travel trends and what motivates clients to travel. In addition, you will learn about various travel products and focus on customer service, sales and marketing techniques. I can conclude that tourism Vocational School requires the learners to have both of knowledge and skills of tourism.
The most indicators of basic competencies which tourism high school students should achieve (Institute for Tourism Studies, 2010) are:
To read, understand, digest, and utilize standard reference material to high level of sophistication;
To write, compose and originate substantial documents and correspondence relating to the tourism and hospitality industries;
To solve problems for customers, colleagues, and contacts;
To perform managerial tasks of organization through the medium of English;
To respond sensitively, both in writing and speech, to difficult situations;
to persuade and lead other through the medium of English, both written and spoken;
To converse easily with contacts and customers, using tact and initiative to overcome awkward situations or misunderstanding
To acquire and summarize information from other people's dialogue;
To speak with authority and clarity to an audience on topics related to tourism and hospitality
II.4. Learning Materials in Vocational School Majoring Tourism
To get the concept deeper, Buchanan, 1990 stated that a growing number of limited English proficient individuals are seeking courses in vocational English as a foreign language that combine language education with instruction in Job-specific class. The writer may assume that in vocational school, there should be better English learning than in senior high school.
Friedenberg stated that the successful vocational English program has three characteristics that mention:
Vocational English Instruction must be job specific
Vocational English Instruction and job training should occurs simultaneously and be closely coordinated by the instructors.
And when necessary, job training should use the student's native language.
Curriculum that should be in the Vocational School:
English Communication basic for Novice level (year 10th); novice is a person who is new to the circumstances and also has the lowest level of learning language. There are some basic competencies that proposed by the regulation number 23/2006 for level novice or first grade:
Understanding the basic expressions in social interaction for the sake of life
Mention things, people, characteristics, time, day, month, and year
Describe objects, people, characteristics, time, day, month, and year
Producing simple utterances enough for basic functions
Describes a simple activity that is happening
Understanding simple memos and menus, itineraries of public transport, and traffic signs
Understanding the words and foreign terms and simple sentences based on the formula
Writing a simple invitation
English Communication basic for Elementary level (year 11th); this level is quite similar with novice in some way. But in fact, the basic competencies of the regulation number 23/2006 proposed:
Understanding simple everyday conversation in the context of both professionally and personally with people rather than native speakers
Nothing simple messages either in direct interaction or through devices
Detailing job duties and educational background of its oral and written
Telling a job in the past and future work plan
Reveals a variety of purposes heart
Understand simple instructions
Make short messages, instructions and a list with the choice of words, spelling and grammar grateful write.
English Communication basic for Intermediate level (year 12th); this term is known as the highest level of the course. It means that a person who belongs to this level has more knowledge than the beginner but not yet an expert (http://www.learnersdictionary.com/search/intermediate). This level is also more focused on the competencies which are mostly required by the job provider. So that, Intermediate level has the further step ahead the elementary as the regulation number 23/2006 proposed:
Understanding the monologue that emerged in certain work situations
Understanding the limited conversations with native speakers
Understanding the use of manual equipment
Understanding simple business letter
Understanding the technical documents
Writing simple business letters and reports
II.5. Theoretical Framework
Based on the previous literature review, it can be concluded that vocational school is prepared students who are ready to work. So, as a perspective teacher, we have to care about the syllabus, learning materials and the most important of all is that the needs of student in order to produce the prepared students in the work life.
In my point of view, It is the moment to ride Vocational Schools back on the track which is produced students with knowledge and skills and also it is the time to change the negative stigma of vocational schools that alienated, being step stages in education, and did not qualified anymore become the schools that produce brilliant people that ready to have a job and skills.
The writer will focus on the analysis of the students' needs of vocational school majoring tourism to get the data in order to find the appropriate syllabus for vocational school students majoring tourism.