In most of the world countries, there is a freedom of expression especially in the democratic countries, most of the writers, editors, journalists, poets and actors have the immunity to publish the facts and opinions; however there are some specific responsibilities which are very important and sensitive.
In my essay I will discuss and compare between the media in the United Kingdom and Jordan, then I want to analyse the main features of the media in both countries.
In fact, Media in the United Kingdom has a major interest; there are more than 30 radio stations, 80 magazines, and 27 newspapers besides almost 50 miscellaneous television channels, the most popular channel is the BBC, and it has eight channels two of them are free and available on analogue, in addition to seven radio channels. The BBC is funded by public money from the licence fees, and the fee could change from a year to another by the government, that's why the BBC doesn't rely on advertising such as the commercial channels.
Newspapers is divided into two sections, the first one is serious minded newspapers, for instance, the Daily telegraph and the Sunday times, the second type is less serious newspapers, for instance, The Daily Express, The people and Sunday Express, and there are many kinds of magazines in the UK, covering the interest of adult, children and elderly people, also there are some of them for girls, boys, fashion, travel, politics, technology and many interesting topics, for example, The Spectator, Hello and Private Eyes.
Nowadays, media plays a significant role in politics, for example, in the UK there are many kinds of readers, liberals, conservatives and non biased reader. The liberals encourage the liberal newspapers and channels, and so the conservatives and the democratic and republican in the USA, and the same in Europe and Middle east, as a result, the media is connected directly to politics, and sometimes the government tries to affect the media, maybe in positive or negative way.
Besides that, the writers in the UK have the absolute freedom to say or write anything they want, and that reflects how the democracy is respected in the UK, even if there are some obstacles but the situation in the UK is much better than other countries around the world.
On the other hand, media in Jordan and in most Arab countries tended to be more flexible especially after the event of September 11, 2001.
Most Arab and Muslim countries tried to defend their opinions, and prove to the world that Islam is a peaceful religion, and the Arab people are peaceful. From this point the media in the Middle East became stronger than before, and the media tended to be explicit and bold. For instance, Al-Jazeera now becomes the best News channel in the world, "The Arabic-language Al-Jazeera satellite television, based in Qatar and styled after CNN, came under intense security and political pressure as its policy of airing after voices that had already vexed Arab government became an issue for policymakers everywhere. For the first time British Prime Minister Tony Blair used Al-Jazeera rather than the BBC to make an original policy statement, and Al-Jazeera became a sought-out venue for U.S. government spokesperson, including the president's national security advisor" (Dale F. Eickelman, Jon W. Anderson/2003), as well as Al-Arabia channel, al-Horra and many news channels established after that in the Arab countries and Middle East.
In Jordan we have a number of newspapers, magazines, radios, and TV channels, according to William A. Rugh 'some of the newspapers are owned by individuals and some of them owned by the government, others owned by political parties' (William A. Rugh/ 2004), moreover there are many laws and legal rules giving the government the power to control the press, and 'requires that the owners be Jordanian nationals' (William A. Rugh/2004).
In theory, the media in Jordan is independent, and everybody can write and say anything about the government as well as the royal family ???, but in practice, there are some restrictions and there are some penalties for those who trying to threaten the security of the state and touch the high authorities unlawfully.
Generally, the media in Jordan is independent to some extent, writers can speak and complain, usually, complaints are on the first and last pages of the newspaper, using the bold font to emphasise the target of the articles, and between the pages there are the less important articles, advertisements and the obituaries pages.
All adverts and obituaries are prepaid; also the newspaper coasts approximately 40 pence, because all of the newspapers in Jordan are commercial.
As I mentioned before, we have in Jordan three kinds of newspaper, private newspapers, public newspapers and political parties' newspapers. People in Jordan prefer reading the private newspapers, because Jordanians believe that the government always lies ???. There are five private newspapers in Jordan, and most of their readers are well educated, and the public newspapers are for the ministers and statesmen usually.
The problem we have in Jordan is that the government always tries to press the press by the regulations. The highest court in Jordan made a decision recently regarding virtual copyrights, websites were subject to the law of press and publication, because they believe that websites are part of media, and they need to control the suspicious movement in the kingdom. Furthermore, the state is obliged to maintain security and stability in the state, but without an attempt to confuse the media.
In other words, most of the journalists in Jordan still need more independence; the appealing voices need the media to be better than before, because they believe that we are a democratic country and they want Jordan to be one of the best countries in the world.
In conclusion, media in this age is divided into many sections, entertaining media, political media and influence media. All people, including me, believe that media affects our life in many ways, for this we should understand what we read and what we hear, and not be quick to judge the others, and we need to understand the political environment, and try not to be influenced by media negatively.
Impressive ma3en!!! I enjoyed reading, well done :D
What referencing style is your university using? This is not Harvard referencing.
This guide is divided into two sections. The first explains what referencing and citing are, and tells you when and how to reference and cite. The second section provides explanations and examples of the way references should be formatted/laid out.
Section One - Referencing and Citing in the Text
When preparing a piece of written work, you will inevitably come across other peoples' ideas, theories or data, and you will want to make reference to these in your own work.
Making reference to other authors in your own written work is called citing. The names of the authors who are cited in your text are gathered together, and supplied as an alphabetical list at the end of your written work. This is a reference list.
The process of citing authors (and the associated reference list) can be done in one of two main styles - the Harvard or the Numeric. This guide describes the Harvard Referencing System, as it is the system generally used in management research.
WHY BOTHER TO REFERENCE?
To show evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading
To acknowledge other peoples' ideas correctly
To allow the reader of your work to locate the cited references easily, and so evaluate your interpretation of those ideas
To avoid plagiarism (i.e. taking other peoples' thoughts, ideas or writings and using them as though they are your own)
To avoid losing marks!
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE REFERENCE LIST AND THE BIBLIOGRAPHY
Within your piece of written work, you will have cited a number of books, journals, newspaper articles (or whatever), using the author's name and the date of publication. At the end of the piece, you provide a list of all those authors, giving full details of what their work is called, and where it was published. This reference list is headed References, and provides all the information about the published works you have mentioned in your text, ALPHABETICALLY by the names of the authors (or originators). This list can be subdivided by year and letter if necessary. (More about this later.)
Also, during the course of your preparatory reading, you may use material that has been helpful for reading around the subject, but which you do not make specific reference to in your own work. It is important to acknowledge this material. Under the heading Bibliography, list all these items, again alphabetically by author, regardless of whether it is a book or journal, and include this list separately after the reference list.
Everything you cite (i.e. mention) in your piece of written work will be listed once alphabetically by author and subdivided by year and letter, if necessary, in your References.
The Bibliography would look the same as this. See Section 2: Formats for conventions that apply to all the different types of media - books, journals, newspapers, conferences etc.
Some people mix the list of references from within the text (References) and the references to wider reading (Bibliography) together in one list, which they then call the Bibliography. This is not recommended, because it creates difficulties for your examiner, who has to sort out which is which, in order to be clear about the accuracy of your referencing.
CITING IN YOUR TEXT
The Harvard System (sometimes called the Name and Date System) uses the name of the author of the work you wish to cite and the date it was published. These are incorporated into the text of your work each time you make reference to that person's ideas.
Citing a single author
The author and the date of publication are provided.
Jones (1993) has suggested that body image is related to self-esteem.
Some commentators suggest that body image is related to self-esteem (Jones, 1993), while others believe a more complex relationship exists.
Note the comma after Jones.
Citing more than one author
If there are two authors, the names of both should be given in the text and in the reference list. If there are more than two authors, the name of the first author only should be given, followed by the abbreviation et al. (meaning 'and others' in Latin).
Knowles et al. (1991) showed that motivation ...
Note that et al is in italics and is followed by a full stop.
In your reference list, however, you will list all the authors who compose the et al.
Knowles, R., Jones. T. and Hammond. L. (1989) Social Psychology. (7th ed.) London: Routledge.
THE REQUIRED INFORMATION
You will find all the information that you need to build up the reference from the title page of the book or document you are citing. Remember to
Keep the order of authors' names
Cite the first named place of publication
And note that edition dates are not reprint dates (new editions will have new text and must be cited as such). The copyright sign will often indicate the date of production.
If your material - for example, papers presented at conferences, but not published - has not originated from a commercial publisher and lacks obvious title page data, then the appropriate information should be obtained from any part of the publication.
An book's editor is referenced exactly as an author.
Smith, L. (ed.) (1987) Statistics for Business Students. London: Heinemann.
Smith, L. and Pearson, D.T. (eds.) (1991) Solving Problems with Algebra. Aberdeen: Falmer.
Sometimes it is impossible to find a named individual as an author. What has usually happened is that there has been a shared or 'corporate' responsibility for the production of the material. Therefore the 'corporate name' becomes the author (often called the 'corporate author'.
Corporate authors can be government bodies, companies, professional bodies, clubs or societies, international organisations.
Institute of Waste Management (1995) Ways to Improve Recycling. Northampton: Institute of Waste Management.
The 'corporate author' appears in the text in the usual alphabetical way.
For journal articles without authors the journal title becomes both author and cited journal title.
Chapters in edited books
An edited book will often have a number of authors for different chapters (on different topics). To refer to a specific author's ideas (from a chapter), cite him or her in the text, not the editors. Then, in your reference list, indicate the chapter details and the book details from which it was published.
Whitehead, C. (1991) 'Charismatic Leadership'. In: W. Harrison and D. Cole (eds.) Recent Advances in Leadership Theory. London: Waverley. pp. 73-89.
Note the use of 'in' to link the chapter to the book and the use of page numbers. Whitehead would appear as the author in your text, and in the reference list. The year of publication is given once.
A journal article or book someone else cites that you have not seen is called a secondary source.
You should try and find this source for yourself and cite it in the normal way. It is important if you are criticising ideas that you do it 'first hand'.
If you cannot locate the secondary source, you may cite it in your text using the reference that is provided in your primary source.
In your text and reference list, you must link these two items with the term 'cited in'. The format is:
Author of original work's surname, initials. (Year of original publication) Title of original work. Place of publication: Publisher. Cited in Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
A change in family circumstances can affect a child's emotional stability (Pollock, 1995) cited in Jones (1996).
Pollock, T. (1995) Children in Contemporary Society. Cambridge: Macmillan. Cited in Jones, P. (1996) A Family Affair. London: Butterworth.
Note that only the primary source title is italicised and both years are included.
(a) Short quotations
If you quote from the publication directly, then you must place the page number within the citation. Quotations within the text use single quotation marks and should only be about one line long. In the reference list, however, it is not necessary to indicate the page number, as it is already in your text.
Whilst it is possible that poor parenting has little effect on primary educational development, 'it more profoundly affects secondary or higher educational achievement' (Healey, 1993, p. 22).
(b) Longer quotations
Quotes that are more than one line or so long should be distinguished from the rest of the text. Thus, indent quotations on both sides and format them in single spacing, while the rest of your text will be in double or 1.5 spacing. You could use a smaller typeface if you like to further distinguish the quote. Unlike the short quotations, indented longer quotes do not use quotation marks.
It was just a fragment, no more than 30 seconds: The Euston Road, hansoms, horse drawn trams, passers-by glancing at the camera ,but hurrying by without the fascination or recognition that came later. It looked like a still photograph, and had the superb picture quality found in expert work of the period, but this photograph moved! (Walkley, 1995, p. 83).
In your text, never split a quotation. If it doesn't fit on a page, then start a new page, so the whole quotation is kept together.
Distinguishing an author's several publications in the same year
Occasionally, authors publish two or more book or journal articles in any given year. This would make the text citation identical for both. To distinguish between different publications, letters (a,b,c etc.) are used with the date in the text:
Johnson (1991a) has progressed both experimental and practical aspects of software technology to the point where they provide a serious challenge to Pacific Belt dominance (Johnson, 1991b).
Within the reference list, the articles are presented alphabetically: 1991a, then 1991b, etc..
Johnson, C. (1991a) Software: The way ahead ....
Johnson, C. (1991b) Changing Global Markets in IT ...
No publication details given
Occasionally, you will come across documents that lack basic publication details. In these cases, it is necessary to indicate to your reader that these are not available. A series of abbreviations can be used and are generally accepted for this purpose:
author/corporate author not given use (Anon.)
no date use (n.d.)
no place (sine loco) use (s.l.)
no publisher (sine nomine) use (s.n.)
not known use (n.k.)
Section Two - Formats for Printed Material
There are many different types of material that you may use that will need referencing. Each different type has an accepted 'style' for presentation within the reference list and/or bibliography.
The following examples give the format style and are followed by an example. They are broadly separated into 'printed' and 'electronic' material.
Take special note of the way that punctuation has been used, as well as quotation marks, italics and upper and lower case. While the examples below are only one of many accepted styles, if you follow these examples exactly, you need have no worries that your referencing is in error.
Author/editor surname, initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Orem, D. E. (1991) Nursing: Concepts of Practice. (4th ed.) St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.
The title of the book uses capital letters for each word, and there is a full stop at the end of the title.
The title is in italics.
The date is the year of publication not printing.
The edition is only mentioned if other than the first.
The place of publication is the City not the Country (normally the first stated).
Author surname, initials. (Year) 'Title of article', Journal name, Volume number, Issue or Part number, first and last page numbers.
Johns, C. (1993) 'Professional supervision', Journal of Nursing Management, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 9-18.
The title of the paper is between single quotation marks and in lower case, with a comma following.
Journal name is italicised, not the article title.
You could have used the form 21(1), 9-18 (note with this method the vol. no. is in bold) for the above example, but the format using the terms 'vol.', no.', and 'pp. is the easiest way for the reader to absorb the information.
p. indicates only one page and pp. indicates a range of pages.
Format is the same as for a book, but uses the 'corporate' (company, business, organisation) author in place of a named author.
Royal College of Nursing. (1983) Guidance on the Handling of Patients in the Hospital and Community. London: RCN.
Available data may vary for these, but where possible include the following:
Government Department/Institute. Subdivision of department/institute (if known). (Year) Title of document. (Name of chairperson, if it is a committee). Place of publication: Publisher.
Department of Health and Social Services. (1980) Inequalities in Health: Report of a research working group. (Chairman: Sir Douglas Black). London: DHSS.
Conference papers are often in manuscript form, distributed at the conference. Thus it is necessary to include the name, place and date of the conference.
Author, Initial. (Year) 'Title of conference paper'. Paper presented at name of conference, place of conference, month of conference.
Webb, N. L. (1991) 'Management education reform in California'. Paper presented at the 3rd annual conference of the British Academy of Management, University of Essex, July.
Conference papers are often published in book form or as a special issue of a journal. In this case, treat the reference as you would a normal book or journal paper, but include the fact that it is the publication of conference proceedings, if this is mentioned in the publication information.
Author, Initial. (Year) Title of conference paper. In: conference proceedings title, including date. Place of publication: Publisher.
Webb, N. L. (1993) Management education reform in California In: Management Education in the United States: Eight innovations. Proceedings of a conference, Colchester, 1991. London: Routledge.
Journalist name, initial. (Year) Title of news item. Name of newspaper. Date. Page number.
Peters, R. (1992) 'Picking up Maxwell's bills'. Independent. 4 June, p. 28.
Note that the name of newspaper is italicised.
If it is a news article and does not attribute an author, the newspaper name is used in the text and instead of the author in the reference list
The Guardian (1995) 'Lottery for breast cancer help'. The Guardian. 21 March, p. 10.
Names of parties involved in case. [Year] Volume number/Abbreviated name of law report/ Page number on which report starts.
Dates are given in square brackets, not round.
Holgate v Duke  2 All ER 660
The usual method of citing an Act of Parliament is to cite its title in your text. (Normally the country of origin is regarded as the 'author', but this is not always stated if you are discussing the law of the land you are actually in). The format is therefore:
Title of statute, year of statute. Place of publication: publisher.
Data Protection Act 1984. London: HMSO.
It is not necessary to put the country of origin if it is the UK. The format would be in this form:
Short title of the statutory instrument. Year (SI year: number). Place of publication: Publisher.
Lobster pots (size regulations). 1989 (SI 1989: 1201). London: HMSO.
Author, initials. (Year) Thesis title. Level of theses. Awarding Institution.
Kirkland, J. (1988) Lay Pressure Groups in the Local Education System: A study of two English boroughs. PhD. Thesis, Brunel University.
This format starts with the patent applicant and should include the country, patent number and full date.
Patent applicant. (Year) Title of patent. Name of author/inventor. Country of patent, serial number. Date of application.
Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals Inc. Dyeing by Acid Dyes. Author: F. Fujii. Japan patent application 6988, 3951969. 2 October 1972.
Corporate author. (Year) Title of standard. Number of standard. Place: Publisher.
British Standards Institute. (1989) References to Published Materials. BS1629. London: BSI.
Some printed materials are not produced by recognisable publishers, and may not be widely available. In this case, it is necessary to indicate this, and if the document is archival in nature - for example, a manuscript or personal letter - its location should also be included.
Lawler, C. (1987) Childhood Vaccinations. Health promotion leaflet, Chester Group Practice, unpublished.
Electronic and other material types
For off-air recordings use:
Broadcast company (Year) Title of programme. off-air recording. Transmission date. Format.
Channel Four (1992) J'Accuse: Sigmund Freud. Off-air recording. 10th June, 1992. Videotape.
Note that in your text, you refer to (Channel Four, 1992).
For an off-air recording of a film use this format:
Title (Year) Person or body responsible for production. Off-air recording. Format.
The Graduate (1969) Directed by Mike Nichols. Off-air recording. Videotape.
Note that in your text, you refer to (The Graduate, 1969).
Title. (Year). Person or body responsible for production. Running time. Production company. Place of production or publication (if known). Format.
The Apartment (1960) Directed by Billy Wilder. 124 mins. United Artists. Videotape.
Note that in the text of your written work, refer to (The Apartment, 1960)
It is permissible to list films separately under a 'filmography list'.
World Wide Web
Author/editor, initials. (Year) Title [online]. (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher (if ascertainable). Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Holland, M. (1996) Harvard System [online]. Poole: Bournemouth University.
Available from: http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/service_depts/lis/LIS_Pub/ harvardsyst.html [Accessed 15 November 2000].
The "Accessed date" is the date on which you viewed or downloaded the document. It may be subject to changes or updating and this allows for this possibility. Keeping a record of the document as you used it (if permissible) is recommended.
Often organisations put information on the Internet without citing a specific author. In these cases, ascribe authorship to the smallest identifiable organizational unit (in the way that you would cite material by a corporate author).
Electronic Journal on the WWW
Author, initials. (Year) 'Title', Journal title [online], volume (issue), location within host. Available from: URL [Accessed Date].
McArthur, D. N. and Griffin, T. (1997) 'A marketing management view of integrated marketing communications', Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 37, No. 5, p.19. Available from: http://web3.searchbank.com/infotrac/session/66/850/10267118w3/15!xrn_12&bkm [Accessed 1st March 1998].
'Location within host' may have to be used to indicate where the item can be found within the cited address. For example, the page, paragraph, or line number (when these are fixed within the document) - 'pp.19-29' or 'lines 120-249'. Other locations could be a specific labelled part, section or table, or any host-specific designation.
CD-Rom (Full Text)
Author/editor, initials (Year) Title. Title of full text database. [CD-ROM], volume, date, page.
Lascalles, D. (1995) Oil's troubled waters. Financial Times [CD-ROM], 11th January, p. 18.
Note that this format is for full-text CD-ROM. If your reference is a bibliographic reference only, you should try to find the full version of the article, and refer to that.
Other electronic sources
There are a variety of other electronic sources that can be cited, for example:
Mailbase/Listserve e-mail lists
Personal electronic communications (e-mail)
British Standards Institute. (1989) British Standard Recommendations for References to Published Materials. BS1629. London: BSI.
British Standards Institute. (1990) Recommendations for Citing and Referencing Published Material. BS5605. London: BSI.