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Communication is something that we do in our everyday life something that we make, and something that we work on when we receive it from others. In this sense, communication is not just about speech, but about speaking and listening; Its is an instant connection made between one person and another in case of face to face communication , Sometimes it is delayed An increasingly critical aspect noted in this modern era is virtual collaboration, collaboration in various means by which people working together are interdependent in their tasks, share responsibility for outcomes, are geographically dispersed, and rely on computer mediated communication , rather than traditional face-to-face (FTF), communication. In this case, communication is defined in terms of the means by which it takes place. It seems that if we are talking about TV, or Art, for example, then we must be talking about communication. But this isn't good enough since it doesn't tell us why the communication is happening. In fact, it doesn't tell us a lot of things, all of which partly answer our main question, how has computer mediated communication altered the ways of traditional notion of interpersonal communication. Developments in computer networking over the last decade have provided language with a whole range of new spaces in which to work and play. The study is to investigate the ways in which computer mediated communication has altered the ways of traditional notion of communication .An analysis of the World Wide Web can shed light on the similarities and differences of communicating via internet rather than other media, over the resent years we have become accustomed to distance by the excessive use of computer mediated communication which it is frequently used to carry messages across the globe
One of the most widespread innovations in information technology is the use of computer networks to communicate with other people. Such services are known in the literature as computer-mediated communication (CMC), it's a process of one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many communicative discourse using a computer-based medium, which takes place in a text-based environment. In networking m the most commonly used CMC service is electronic mail (Carl Mitchell & Quarterman, 1993).
Computer and communication technologies are becoming more and more common form of interaction.
The way technology is progressing computer is becoming need of every day life. As Nichols argues that'' We are rapidly approaching the time when the computer will be as everywhere communications network as the phone today..(Kayla Hales 2009) Distribution of discussion groups in a computer environment, sending a message to many people as easily as with the transfer to one person, but now just as easy to communicate with someone on the other side of the world as it is with someone in another room.
About 25 years ago there was no concept of communication networks now they connect millions of computers worldwide. In 1992, about 1.2 million people in the United States regularly use e-mail and in accordance with the Internet community, its use is increasing (Perry & Adam, 1992). Previously, computer and internet users have been stereotyped as a "socially unskilled people" with virtually no social life and self-confidence. However, the production of cheaper and easier to use home computers has led to the fact that women, children and pensioners have also become regular users. (Nichols 2003)
The way technology is progressing computer is becoming need of every day life.
According to Culnan & Markssus the use of CMC has eliminated the physical and social interaction. where obviously the chances are that you cant see, touch, hear the person or see the gestures and this might create coordinating problems. As Walther & Burgoon argue that ''because computer-mediated interactants in a text-based medium the absence of regulating feedback (such as gestures, nods, and tone of voice) may cause coordination problems and deprive interactants of most important social cues.
In contrast to that there is theory that internet eliminate the physical distance establish linkage between people who shared the same sort of interest. Sometime internets even helps to rediscover distant families thus creating a virtual community for social exchange and support social networks like internet is very important to develop social interaction in face to face communication.
Thus, cues-filtered-out theories characterize CMC as less personal, lacking "social presence," and enabling very little socioemotional and relational communication. Social presence theory states that the fewer channels or codes available within a medium, the less attention will be paid by users to the presence of other social participants (Short William, &Christie)
The presumed lack of physical and social contextual cues results several further implications. Internet is a democratic space where every one can take part as their gender, race, status or even physical appearance is not been watched by anyone. (as they cannot be transmitted via computerized text).
The established social equality through computer mediation in a communicative discourse may create many problems too. In fact, under these conditions, sometimes it takes longer to reach a decision, complete a task, or arrive at a consensus. Furthermore, the anonymity and lack of socioemotional information is taken to erase established conventions and norms for interaction, they become more socially insensible and sometimes quite rude by using abusive language and by being apt to what in the jargon of the CMC communities is called "flaming"
Looking at some of the reasons why people chatting on the Internet, is whether the lack of face to face communication and trying to improve it or ultimately harm the social interaction and relationships. Some of the problems that arise in the process of forming relationships in this way could be that you might meet someone who is not telling you the truth or may be you find him entirely different when you meat him face to face
Using CMC might be in the favor that are shy and can not express themselves in front of some one face to face. However the amount of such people is not much.
The topic has always been a source of heated debate whether computer changes the lives of many people or does it harm the social lives.
Some people believe that the Internet is transforming the economic and social life, freeing people from the constraints of isolation caused by stigma, illness or graphics, while others, such as Stoll (1995), believe that the Internet is forcing people who were socially isolated, and they just sit at their computer terminals for anonymous strangers to talk.
In contrast to that one group of researchers conclude that the internet leads to more and better social relationships by creating an additional medium of communication with friends and family and enables the creation of even more relationships by interacting on the internet.
Technological change may play a very important role although the disintegration of the family.
(Cristea ,2003) argues that while television can be used to reduce the social interaction of people who are not leaving the house to see the set, it would seem that more and more people owning home computers, the Internet is being used to enhance social interaction between people.
When in real life we first meet someone, we tend to use a number of non-verbal signals - especially the eye contact and smile. We can also see another person's sex and age groups. While chatting with someone on the Internet, it is not possible. One look into the background, and its disclosure, under the control of another person, who can choose when and how to open it. In contrast to the meetings with people in the real world, meeting people online is very limiting experience. (Santally 2004) On the Internet, the only thing you think of the people that they write. You can not touch them neither see them nor can say if they laugh or cry. Thus, in the absence of physical contact, our first impressions of individuals can be very different from those made important for the distribution of this information in face to face situations. Nevertheless, the importance of physical attraction to the development of the relations being undermined by computer networks and the lack of face to face participation implies more fundamental opportunities for development than simply changing the timing and content of self-disclosure. (Santally 2004)
Moreover, there is another very interesting debate by Frenzen who argues that internet has made everything even socializing more efficiently. According to him internet helps
coordinating social interaction and coordinating social activities. For instance an individual can shop online and this may free up time for him to spend with friends and family. The alternative theory to that is there are only 24 hrs and thus online is a social activity that competes with rather than complements, social time.
A very interesting study conducted in Mauritius in regard to how learning through CMC could affect students. Most students were able to adapt to the new style, although some were facing problems, during the survey it was found out that majority of the students who took part in the distance learning had serious problems communicating through internet Sometimes, they did not communicate at all, and this silence made the assessment of their work, of course, very difficult, if not impossible. This pattern gives indication that that learning process via CMC is gradual and my be smooth but at the same time because it is not through the direct face to face process it doesn't help much to those who are not very good in computers or computer-mediated communication tools. They suffer from a lack of knowledge in Internet technology and applications. Technical problems , Computer system failures affect student learning, and, therefore, they must come to the university premises to do research and complete their assignments. Sometimes these problems are minor, but because the students did not have the experience and exposure to computers, they were not able to develop further work on their own. .(Veerman,A., & Veldhuis-Diermanse 2001)
The problem lies in the fact that the user has very little time to go and look at the traditional ways of interpersonal communication. Many people do not have the time and opportunity to meet with other traditional methods. Attractiveness of the Internet is that it allows people to use their vast resources to find new friends and find potential love interests, without leaving the comfort of their home CMC provides with the advantage not to rely on physical attraction it gives people the opportunity to know each other without the weight of all stereotypes of physical appearance. (Boud, D., & Prosser 2002)
When you talk to someone on the internet one of the drawbacks of that you can not see facial expressions of the other person you talking to, though it is true that face to face communication does give you that sense of feel.
According to Cristea When you connect to a network, you may feel that your needs for friendship, however because the Internet is limited to text, your needs are only partially and temporarily met. There are many needs that the Internet can not meet, such as the need for physical proximity. (Cristea 2003)
It is very obvious that many people start chatting because they get boarded or may be they just wanted to get rid of the monotonous routine they are in.
For many people, it would seem, boredom and loneliness, is the basis for their initial chat on the Internet (boredom was the answer most people with whom I made a review). As Santally argues Many people feel alone, they feel lonely, because of where they work, where they live and how they live, internet is used to overcome these limitations by combining hundreds of other people around the world. In the cyber-world, "Boy Next Door" can be just as easily as in Scotland in Singapore. (Santally 2003)
Secondly, monotony comes in many forms. For instance, people who were previously in their relationship, they may be willing to share their day with others - is an attempt to replace the communication aspect of relationships. (Nichols 2003)
But if you were in a relationship where communication has broken down, you're going to be very careful to talk to anyone. Thus, with the added bonus anonymity of the Internet will seem very attractive. (Cristea 2003)
The Internet is a mean by which people around the world are connected who share the same attitudes and the same interests. Internet not only allows people to move geographical barriers, it also allows people to go to race, ethnic origin, gender, education, socio-economic and age barriers, as well. With the ability to remain anonymous in the network, people gain a sense of confidence and security, say and do things they would never do in public places. Regardless of how different people in real life are they the same on the Internet, or in the virtual community. For instance, people chat with strangers without knowing their real names and where they live, but they are as much a presence, as if they were right in the room (Kerr, 1982).
In connection with the thoughtful way that these people say, many of the relationships and friendships are formed through the Internet, have the same meaning as in the "real world". (Marjanovic, O. & Orlowska 2000)
Many people say they feel happy on the Internet than they do in real life. In real life, they feel isolated, ignored, unloved, and alone. On the Internet, people feel that they are part of the extended family or the global community. They play all kinds of interactive games, have intimate conversations in chat rooms, and participate in role-playing activities with people they never met before. Being a stranger online does not last long. , even if it is the name of one you have created.
Although the Internet through the development of relations, relations that form may not be as vulnerable because of the way, people, and the Internet. People may reveal too much and too fast, and they may idealize fantasise in unrealistic ways. It is said that the roles of men and women pumping and deceptions that the people involved can make the Internet a little bit risky for the development of the relationship, although we all at some point to present various aspects of our personalities to others that we meet - or offline. In addition, there are rare cases when the person you have that any conversation for a while and start to like - whether as friend or romantic partner, simply vanish in the air. But, again, it could happen in real life (Santally 2003)
When two people meet online and begin to communicate , their perception of another person based more on their own set of needs and expectations than on the characteristics of others (whom they had never seen),. Distinction between perception and reality is revealed only after people meet and get to know each other in the face. Some are lucky that these differences are insignificant. In Otherwise, the differences can vary from a few disappointing, at worst, over the Internet Stalker (shadow), very dangerous. (Cristea 2003)
There is no doubt that CMC has made so many changes in social lives of so many people but at the same time there are some draw back as well a very interesting but frightening article on BBc about how CMC could affect the health of people.
According to health expert Dr Aric Sigman it has been described that using computers communication can affect the health of people because they just sit in front of their computers and don not meet any one any more. When interaction between people is less then it does have biological affects on human beings. Lack of face to face communication could alter the body function such as it could upset the immune system, hormonal levels and affects performance of the mental functions as well. Though the idea of technology is to enhance the social lives of human beings but not to set them apart.
This is true since 1987 face to face communications has dramatically fallen since people spend more time on the new technology such as Internet.
Using internet or electronic media does affect the human's ability to read body language of other human beings.
It is a general practice now the amount of time people spend on internet is more than they meet someone face to face .However it is very upsetting for those who does not use internet and can not find anyone to discuss their personal matters with.
Its human nature to talk or to share his/her matters and have some one who he/she could rely on but since the technology has improved so much that has influenced the face to face communication significantly, this is quite true that internet has played an important role to keep people apart.
When people are busy using internet and watching movies/TV on internet they are so busy that it becomes rather impossible to find time out for family and friends.
As Veerman, A., & Veldhuis-Diermanse state that the amount time spent on the Internet, typically include physical inactivity and limited face-to-face social interactions. Some studies have shown that using a home computer and the Internet can lead to increased skills and confidence with computers. However, when people use these technologies of intensive training on new software, playing computer games, or get information, they consume time and may find themselves spending more time alone. (Veerman, A., & Veldhuis-Diermanse 2001)
A survey study was conducted through the Stanford institute which describe that the heavy internet users report spending less time on with friends, family ,shopping in store or reading news paper and more time working for their employers at home without cutting back hours in the office.
Such arguments seem to disprove the populist notion of computers as the promotion of effective, progressive, 'the completion of the rationalization of' tasks. Computer and communication technologies, in accordance with the above, leads to the opposite, where the agents quickly lose traditional social norms and restrictions, as well as participate in an irrational, inefficient communication. (Marjanovic, O. & Orlowska 2000)
Even in the organizations face to face communication is more effective and help in decision making even more effectively if the agents are familiar with each other, face to face situations, individuating effect more likely .Carnegie Mellon, argues, that group norms may indeed influence group decisions, even in non-traditional areas of computer communications - provided that the group value. (Cristea 2003)
It's also noted in various Organizations that many people who struggles with computer difficulties, for instance senior managers, who are high in interpersonal skills - valuable for the meetings , but relatively unskilled in complex computing environments. It has no reason of their adoption of computer and communication technologies group decision-making level, where the traditional meeting apparently very effective. (Santally, M., & Senteni 2004)
The method which has been used to conduct the interview is Qualitative method, Firstly, the questions asked were open ended, in order to remain as adaptable as possible to the interviewee and cater to the nature and priorities during the interview, the interviewer goes with the flow. Secondly in open ended question it gives more chance to the participants to answer the question in detail to satisfy the interviewee, a guided approach was used since it ensured that the same general areas of information were collected from each interviewee this provides more focus than the conversational approach, but still allows a degree of freedom and adaptability in getting the information from the interviewee's (Brace, Ian, 2008 )
There were three participants with different cultural and ethnic background because they were not willing to give their names so they were named as A, B, C. to make it easy to differentiate. A and B were male whereas C was a female. When asked the 1st question that what is the first thing come in their mind when talk about Computer mediated Communication the answer of A and B was Internet .As A is a student who is studying at university level where as B is an employer so they both use internet according to the need of their work. When the same question was asked from C who is a female her answer was different as she was a housewife and she also had kids. Normally she prefers using phone than computer and also prefers meeting friends and family. From her answer one could have come up with the idea that she was in the favour of traditional notion of face to face communication and did not like communication through internet. Though she did insist that she was not backward and did like improvements, such improvements which enhanced the human lives.
But using internet as a method of communication to your relations and not to see them was bit upsetting. When asked another question about how often do they used the internet again A answered that as he was a student and he had to use computer every 6day for quite a long time and the fact that his family was abroad he preferred to communicate to them everyday via email or skyp.
On the other hand B answered that he used internet to check his company emails and also any updates regarding the company.
Interesting thing to notice was that A,B were not willing to accept the fact the CMC has affected the traditional notion of Face to Face communication the reason they gave to support this because they were connected to their families still the same way as they would be without using CMC. Rather CMC plays an important role to keep the relations together as for example someone living in U.K wants to talk to someone for example in Pakistan they could do it via email, skype video conferencing ,even video call or msn messenger. So CMC has made it quite possible in a way to be in touch with any one around the world with just one click provided the person you want to talk to has got the same facility
But C answer was again bit different she agreed that with CMC communicating to any one around the world with just one click had become so easy but what about those who were not very young or energetic who did want to talk to someone and share their feelings happiness or may be grieves. Because as you grew older you want even more attention. She argued that there were still parts of the worlds where these technologies were not as popular as in western countries. In that case what sort of source of communication apart from face communication could be used?
Another very interesting point made by C that as internet is a democratic space anyone has got access to it you don't know who you talking to. In her opinion talking to someone who is not familiar to you or you are not familiar to him/her how could you share secretes with that stranger?
When asked another question about how cost effective CMC could be. Again A and B answered positively as for them it was quite cost effective as calling home every day is quite expensive while using internet is quite cheap and does not matter how long you talk to your friends or family.
Surprisingly C agreed to that and made a point she either visited family or call them up which did work out to be expensive.
On asking how does CMC affected building strong relationships?
A and B agreed to the fact that CMC did help in forming relationships not only within the family but outside the family as well.
As A been studying in different countries he made so many good friends through internet.
Though B was in professional life but he still kept in touch with his old mattes.
So they both agreed to the fact that CMC was a good source of developing strong relationships.
However, C did not seem quite agreed to that as she was inclined towards more face to face communications than CMC.
To sum up what has been discussion above by different theorist and after conducting the interview one can come up with the conclusion that computer is a need of the present time.
In the future may hold an interesting variation on this theme. 'Virtual Reality' is Buzz-word too easily bandied about, but it certainly creates an interesting answer to the problem of lack of social cues. For the graphics are sophisticated enough to allow a high degree of user interaction, but within one or two decades may be significant to improve its uptake - such that many social signals, which are currently not enough computer information and communication technologies will be present. (Santally, M., & Senteni 2004)
There is no doubt about it that Technology has defeated the idea of time and space, the ethnicity or the borders but at the same time the importance of face to face communication can not be ignored. At the end of the day imaginations are a good source of enjoyment but human being does want to live in a real world where they could feel the sense of belongings and be more realistic where they could see the person opposite to them and share their feelings with them and when it comes to decided something get a better idea before making any decision about their lives which is not the quite possible in virtual reality
A very interesting study reports that 76% of email users check their emails at least once every day. About 49% reported that they would miss a lot if they no longer had internet
Available to them as changing greetings and ideas is much easier with the time differences around the world and also it is much synchronous and cost effective as well.
We can see a common theme in these studies is the importance of communication and understanding on a human level is vital .Technology are made by human beings to make humans lives easy and not to make them isolated or keep them a part. Some findings seem contrary to common intuitive notion of why computer-mediated communication technologies will or will not contribute to the positive direction of making decisions. But it is clear that to provide effective assistance in the meetings that we have learned about interactive communication and the semantic and practical importance of context should be implemented in a computer system. .
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