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There are two main motivational theories being displayed. The first of which is McGregor's Theory that there are two types of people's attitude towards motivation in the work place (type X and type Y). The other is Herzburg's two factor theory. McGregor's theory is obvious from the start when Matt and Kirsten have different views on how their respective jobs are going at the moment. In box 4 you can see that Kirsten is not enjoying her job because she feels that her boss dislikes her effort in the workplace this is an example of a theory X person in McGregor's theory. Whereas Matt is really enjoying his work and he can't wait to get up and go to it, this is shown in box 3; Matt is a typical example of a theory Y person in McGregor's theory. In boxes 4 and 7 we see the differences in the styles of work that Matt and Kirsten are doing; Kirsten is doing the same repetitive tasks all day every day which shows that her boss is not using any of the motivational factors discussed by Herzburg's two factor theory. But in Matt's work he is being constantly switched around tasks and being given constant feedback on his performance which allows him to keep fresh and motivated. It is also true throughout this story that even though Matt told Kirsten that she could come and get a better job with him and that she doesn't want to leave her current job even if she has a chance of getting a promotion. This again shows that she has a dislike towards work. Maslow's needs of hierarchy can also be seen through out as Matt and Kirsten have different views on what their critical needs are.
McGregor's theory discusses the idea that there are two types of attitude towards the motivation of working in a workforce; they are Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X assumes that all of the employees that are hired have a natural laziness and have a dislike towards work. Because of these two factors the management of these types of people is generally done by punishment and very close monitoring because they will all show a severe lack of ambition and an unwillingness to have any sort of responsibility put on them. Theory Y believes that employees will have an ambition and a self-motivation if they are given the right surroundings to work in. This is due to their inner belief that work should be as fun as play, and the managers that manage these sorts of people will be more likely to promote and enjoy working with these people rather than theory X types. The trouble for management is managing to get a balance so that the theory X employees will not be discarded and the theory Y employees will be able to flourish. Both of Maslow's needs hierarchy and Herzburg's two factor theory are content-type theories in motivation. This means that all the employees have already got the required set of skills to fulfil the potential. They also assume that if the human needs are acquired around the workplace then the staff will become more motivated and reach their potential quicker. Maslow's needs of hierarchy said that we as human being prioritise certain thing when it comes to being motivated. The lowest of the hierarchy is our psychological needs, such as food, a home and drink, in well developed areas such as Europe and the USA this is done by means of having a minimum wages and taxes to the government that mean we can all have a decent standard of living, but this is not the case in other less well developed areas of the world. The next step is the safety factor which is done by companies having insurance for workers; this tends to cover things like sick pay and redundancy payments. The top three needs of hierarchy are the one which give management the biggest ability to manipulate. They all allow management to motivate their employees to function better; these can include such things as introducing a "employee of the month award" to boost esteem and make employees feel more wanted or running social event where all the management and employees have a chance to chat any get to know each other better. Positive feedback will also help the esteem and self esteem of the employees. Herzburg's two factor theory also shows us that managers need to vary the rewards they give out to the employees for good work to make sure that both the intrinsic and extrinsic needs are met. This can be done by spreading important tasks out between employees and rewarding the best achieving ones with promotions and pay rises. Also constant feedback on an employees work through a weekly meeting would allow the employee to become more motivated if they knew that they were highly respected in the business. Both Maslow's hierarchy and Herzburg's theory confirm that McGregor's theory is correct that if you can motivate the theory Y people then the can fulfil their potential.
Cartoon Strip 2
Cartoon Strip: Chapter 7 Perception
Theories: Thorndyke, Lippman
Textbook: Huczynski and Buchanan (2007) p.223
Management and Organizational Behaviour by Mullins
Situation: Two board members - Phil and Ben - Discussing which out of two candidates to employ
Learning Task: Using the theories of perception discuss which of the two candidates would be best suited for the job
Ben, which of the two candidates do you think should get the job?
Well, I liked Tim he presented himself well and I think he would do a great job for the company.
I'm not sure I think Carl would be a better person for the job because what he said he would do could greatly benefit us.
But he turned up to the interview in jeans and a polo shirt, whereas Tim wore a suit.
I still think that Carl would do the better job.
I don't think he would. I think he is a lazy person that could actually damage the company.
But Tim didn't have any real ideas and interests of how the company could move forward and progress. He just seemed like he would happy to continue the way it is now.
He did seem more confident and comfortable in the interview, whereas Carl was a nervous wreck. He was shaking and stuttering on his words.
But doesn't mean that he cares more about the job, than Tim does? We need to make a decision now so honestly who do you think would make the better person for the job?
Honestly, I think that Tim would be the better candidate because it is obvious can handle himself under pressure than Carl can. So we should hire Tim.
Ok I see your points, and you are right Tim would be the best overall candidate for the job.
The Halo effect and stereotyping are the two main theories shown in this story. In box 2 Ben immediately shows his preference for one of the candidates by showing that he was stereotyping the other candidate due to the way he dressed in the interview (box 4). Whereas Phil believes that the other candidate Carl is the best for the job because of what he said in the interview, so he has ignored the other signs in the interview, this is an example of the Halo Effect (box 5). These effects the cause friction between the pair as they try and work out which candidate is best for the job with each one so convinced that their choice is the correct one (box 6 and 7). Then Ben starts to tell Phil other factors of how the two candidates behaved in the interview and shows the halo effect are he focuses on the good factors of Tim's interview and the bad points of Carl's interview. But this does allow Phil to understand how to make the choice and the he realises that the Halo Effect has stopped him from making that decision and it can be finally made.
To fully understand the ideas of a perceptual set, there are two features that need to be understood before it can all be correctly worked out. These features are the Halo Effect and Stereotyping. Both of them apply to the way in which we perceive peoples actions and personalities. The Halo effect is part of selective attention towards the way people behave. It is where we make a judgement about a person due to a feature of their appearance or personality on the first viewing of them. This can cause problem for management in company if an employee makes a poor first impression because it may cause friction and diversity between the two groups. It can also cause a divide in a group of employees working in a project if one of the party seems to bet getting more praise and acceptance just because the manager or leader likes then more. But it can also work in the opposite direction for a single employee so that if they make a good first impression then they might get rewarded with a greater chance of promotion through the company. So the Halo effect is an error in the selective attention stage because our decision can be made on one single obvious feature of a person rather than listening and finding out what the person is actually like. Stereotyping is where you group people into a perceived category due to a trait of their personality, these can be such things as; gender, age or disability. An example of one main event where both of these factors are very prominent is a job interview. The Halo effect can be clearly seen in this process by the fact that if a candidate arrives smartly dressed then some of the panel that have to make the decision will focus out of what the candidate is actually saying and already believe that this candidate is the right person for the job. This can have a very negative effect on the company due to the fact that they may cost the company money because of incorrect decision made by him. Also the management may have to put more effort into making sure that that part of the company is being run properly, so they might have to redesign his reasonability's cause problems with the other members of that department. Stereotyping is also a major factor during a job interview because it will be linked with the Halo effect in a negative way because if a candidate turns up looking scruffy then the interviewing panel will put him in a stereotypical group so might not employ him because they believe that he will late for work and unreliable for certain situations instead of actually giving they candidate a chance to show them that he is capable of doing the job. In conclusion the Halo effect can have both positive and negative effects on the way the management threat their employees and the success of the company in the future.