Theory Of Invention And Technology Forecast English Language Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Preface: The team was asked to come up with a conceptual design for a "Sudden-Need" Bed by applying all the techniques adopted in TRIZ-based Innovations. It involves a step-by-step adaption of the TRIZ technique to conventional bed system and it's evolution in a bid to meet the criteria where Sudden-Needs will be met.

It involved a five-day process where each aspect of TRIZ was looked and a line-by line application to the Concept bed. The Group was split and we worked individually in the fine-tuning of the invention.

Table of Content:

SYSTEM DEFINITION

IDEAL FINAL RESULT

RESOURCE LIST

MAIN FUNCTION DEFINITION

KEY FUNCTIONAL RELATIONS

CONFLICT ANALYSIS

CONTRADICTIONS/CONTRADICTION MATRIX

SYSTEM TRIMMING

PRODUCT EVOLUTION TREND

MARKET STRATEGIES

DEFINITION

The Sudden-Need bed, an evolution of standard beds, is used for providing dry, warm, comfortable, sleeping condition at short notice (to appear and disappear) for the User in the outdoor environment.

It is expected to give the User optimum sleeping experience in any standard outdoor environment without necessary placing a "load" burden to the User. It has the in-built appearing function when needed and disappearing abilities after the sleeping period. This removes the responsibility of having to create space or protecting the "property" at the location where it is needed after use.

BED HISTORY

The bed concept predates the medieval area. It is a well-known fact that terrestrial mammals always look for comfortable abodes when they need to rest or sleep. Before man had thought of the modern beds, we have had caves carved up to comfortable smooth surfaces. All the while, these were always made, away from extreme heat or sunlight and away from rain also. The birds had nets. Even horse and other four-footed animals stumped on the ground to aid a bit of comfort.

As time went all, majority of structural designs for the human bed evolved to the standard four footed bedframe, supported by the soft cushion-mattress. Now we have several alternation of this design to fit special situation and challenges (this may be medical, environment, social, personal taste, etc.).

IDEAL FINAL RESULT:

Applying the TRIZ principle to this project, the Ideal Final Result (IFR) would be to "create the indoor sleeping experience to the outdoor User at the shortest notice.

It would entail using available resources in the super-system (outdoor environment), system (Subject and Objects) and its associated sub-system to keep the function of ordinary bed but make it more convenient.

The Condition under which this IFR would be satisfied includes the following:

Impact on User (TIME): Subject (User) should be able to move around at anytime without having to carry a physical bed at the time when he is not going to sleep. It should remove the burden of having to carry a heavy, large structure which may prevent him from carrying out his activities for the day. E.g. going to work, in elevators, entering the bus with people, going on a plane, visiting a friend, etc.

Impact of Environment (SPACE): This is very general as the problem to the environment can vary. We look at the space it will occupy e.g. before and after sleeping and the enormous cost and resources it would entail to deploy a bed at "ALL SUSPECTED" locations User may want to sleep. We also note how it would affect out "People". This includes all his co-travellers also moving between locations. It will definitely pose security and safety issues. This is because of the size and weight. User will not be granted access to certain locations based on this.

Redefining this system, I would say the "Sudden-Need" bed is a system, which provides warm, comfortable sleeping conditions to the user at instance request regardless of location. We have however, for the purpose of this exercise restricted the environment to normal stable outdoor environment.

On reviewing available online resources, I discovered that no one has particularly addressed and solved the challenges listed. The closest to a solution that meets these criteria is the camping bed. However, this would be insufficient as it required premeditated action- the User must plan to sleep outside his home environment and must carry addition luggage. This could be quite uncomfortable and inconveniencing.

RESOURCES LIST:

This includes all resources that can be extracted from super-system, system to form the sub-system. This resource would form the integral part of what would be available to create the "Sudden-Need" bed.

Super system

System

Sub system

The available resource may vary depending on the specific outdoor location. However, generally, we have the following

Super System: This consists of the entire outdoor environment and all the forces acting in it. The Sun, Moon, Air, Gravity, Trees, Plants, Rivers (or Water Bodies), Parks (And it's resources like the bench, the grasses, the swing, the fountains), the People, Train Stations, Airports etc. We would classify any outdoor environment where the User may suddenly find himself wanting to sleep without having the necessary facilities for such, as part of the Super-system.

System: By carefully defining the system, we understand what forms part of the "Sudden Need" function. Applying the definition of a system which states that…………………………………………., I would say the system in this writeup refers to the User, with all he usually carries in his daily activities and his need to sleep comfortably on the "structure that provides this comfort" at that particular place and time. It consists of all elements of the mobile user and all elements of the "functional sleeping structure". It is generally known that the structure that performs this function is the BED. However to make sure we done miss the objections of the Sudden Need structure, we would examine the elements of the BED and would break down their functions. This will help in knowing exactly what is required in the build-up of the Sudden-Need components.

For the User, the sub-elements on him(or her as the case may be) include, possibly, his briefcase or Work tools, his basic clothing which generally would be his undergarment, Clothe, Jacket, footwear.

However, another major sub-element that is part of the user are his body parts. This includes his head, hands, legs, internal organs, chest and stomach e.t.c. These are useful elements also and if anyone is having problems, they could disturb the comfortable sleep experience.

As we advance further in this, we would add more elements to the "User" Sub-system.

For the present, we would use the 9 Windows system analysis table to break this down as a function of time and space.

"9" WINDOW ANALYSIS

Outdoor Environment

 

Function of Space

Super System

 

Parks, Walkways, Mountain, Bustops, Fields

Park, Walkways, Field, Sleeping Environment

Parks, Walkways, Mountain, Bustops, Fields

Subject

 

 

Warm User and other People Strolling, Walking through Park/Location

Traveler

Warm and Dry Sleeps

in Sudden-Need Bed

Bed

Warm User and other People Strolling, Walking through Park

Sub-System

 

 

 

 

 

FUNCTION OF THESE IN FISST MODE

Grass, Bench, Clothes, Zipped Jacket, Water, Air,

Stones, Pavement,

Gravity, Air,

Sunlight

User (self-produced warmth)

Soft Water-Resistant Bed (Polyester)

Floor Mat (Tough Leather)

Miniature pump, Water, Air,

Gravity, Pillow, Cover Blanket

Velcro, Clothing, Streetlights.

Grass, Bench, Clothes,

Zipped Jacket, Water, Air,

Stones, Pavement, Sunlight

 

 

 

Past

Present

Future

 

 

 

Function of Time

 

Subject

 

Action

 

Object

 

MAIN FUNCTION DEFINITION

The Main function of the "Bed" is to provide comfortable sleeping support acceptable to the User. The Sub-System "BED" differs as different cultures accept different conditions as comfortable.g. Hard bed, soft beds, etc. All the parts of the bed work together to provide "support". However, the key sub-element closest to the User is the "Mattress" hence; we label it as the major "element"

KEY FUNCTIONAL RELATIONS:

The components of the BED include the

Mattress: We have accepted that this is the Major element as it provides direct comfortable support and is the main component that interacts with the user. It's internal structure varies and could be water, springs, foam, air, clothe, etc. It main feature is that it should make the user comfortable.

Frame: The major function of the frame is to support the mattress. It tries to hold the mattress structure in place while the user is sleeping. This firm flat surface prevents the mattress from collapsing at the centre due to the weight of the user.

Legs: The main function of the leg is to lift the frame off the ground. This has duplicated effects as it carries not only the frame, but in essence, the mattress and invariable, the User. It thus, should be able to carry the weight of the above.

Duvet: The duvet plays the part of keeping warm. It stops the air-circumvention process between air outside the sleeping space (Cooler) and that within the sleeping space (Warmer). This it does by preventing loss of internally generated heat (Body) from slipping out and vice-versa.

Pillow: The pillow acts as a head-cushion. It holds the head in a comfortable position and eliminates problem of head and neck pains. It also can be tagged a main function because it plays a direct role of the user in making the user comfortable

Net: The Net plays a protective role. The initiate concept played a lot of functions in ancient times. Some included protection from heavily winds and rains, protection from insect and bugs, protection from reptiles and snakes. It was even used as early warning signals in case of pending physical harm from enemies and assassins. However, much of its functions have evolved and the major is for insects and bugs. However, this function shouldn't be dismissed, especially in the outdoor environment.

Head/Foot Frame: The Head frame / Foot frame function holds the mattress in place. It helps to align the mattress of the bed frame. Although a secondary function could be that, it serves ornamental functions where it beautifies the sleeping space. Newer beds head frames play recent function of being able to control electrical and mechanical devices directly without having the User stand up from his sleeping position.

FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP

FRAME

LEGS

NET

USERS

PILLOW

DUVET

MATTRESS

HEAD/FOOT BOARD

Align

Support

Comfort

Comfort

Keep Warm

Support

Protect

Lift

Comfort

8

Above is a summary of the functional relationship of the elements.

For the purpose of the "Sudden Need" system, we will apply the TRIMMING principle and note those that have a direct influence of the "comfortable sleep" process and those that don't into categories. This will help us to ascertain the functions that are important in our invention.

Element

Action

Object

Functional Type

Functional Rank

Mattress

Support

User

Main function

SATISFACTORY

Frame

Support

Mattress

Working function

USEFUL EXCESSIVE

Legs

Support

Frame

Working function

USEFUL EXCESSIVE

Lift

Frame

Working function

USEFUL INSUFFICIENT

Duvet

Comfort

User

Working function

USEFUL INSUFFICIENT

Keep warm

User

Working function

SATISFACTORY

Pillow

Comfort

User

Working function

SATISFACTORY

Net

Protect

User

Working function

SATISFACTORY

Head/Foot Board

Align

Frame

Working function

USEFUL EXCESSIVE

Summary of the Functional Relationship analysis

FUNCTIONAL RELATIONS

FRAME

LEGS

NET

USERS

PILLOW

DUVET

MATTRESS

HEAD/FOOT BOARD

Useful Normal Action

Useful Excessive Action

Useful Insufficient Action

Align

Support

Comfort

Comfort

Keep Warm

Support

Protect

Lift

Comfort

THE SUDDEN NEED BED

1

Conflict Analysis

To make this easier, we begin the conflict analysis where we look closely at the elements, tjthe function to find out the pros and cons of each.

Substance:

While we want a general reduction of size to the standard bed (Loss of substance), We risk having a reduction in the number of people or weight of the person it can carry (Stress).

We are better satisfied with a reduction in weight of the conventional bed (Mass of Stationary Object) but this would affect manufacture as we need to alter the materials to be used (Ease of Manufacture)

Also, We want a bed that is all the above and also water resistant (Dry on the inside even if there is moisture on the outside)

Space:

Mobility of the bed will be considered. The physical structure should appear and disappear. This means it should occupy space when needed and vice versa. This forms for bases for it's need.

Time:

The Sudden-Need bed is expected for just the duration of sleep (Action duration of stationary object), however this would affect the stability of the structure (Stability of Object composition) as any material would have to "increase and decrease" i.e. be flexible

Another factor we look into is the time for "appearing and disappearing". This should be as short as possible

Energy/Field:

Warmth is another factor that raises challenges. We expect the user to be warm. This poses a challenge in the physical structure of the Sudden Need bed.

Structure:

The different part, playing different functions, may cause difficulties in production (Device complexity). This affects the ease of Manufacture negatively and needs to be sorted.

Information/Regulation:

While we want to improve on the security we enjoy from the technology of the bed in the outdoor environment, e.g bugs, snakes, mugger (Object affected Harmful factor), we are hampered because we do not necessary want to draw up a very long checklist against every possible treat. This will really effect the ease for the bed manufacture (Ease of Manufacture)

The final piece to the puzzle for the Sudden-Need bed, is the ease of use regardless of person's technical knowledge or background (Convenience of Use), However we may experience reduction in the complexity and ingenuity of the Bed (Device complexity). Technical, this limits the amount of known groundbreaking technology to be used.

And as we make the device more adaptable to many terrains and environments(Adaptibilty or Versatility), we risk over engineering, which is bad (Device Complexity) as the cost may escalate

Contradiction Matrix:

TECHNICAL CONFLICTS

ADVANTAGE

DISADVANTAGE

INVENTIVE PRINCIPLES/SOLUTIONS

Mass of Stationary Object (2)

Ease of Manufacture (32)

28, 1, 9

Loss of Substance (3)

Pressure (22)

3, 36, 37, 10

Action duration of Stationary Object (17)

Stability of Object Composition (30)

39, 3, 35, 23

Object Affected Harmful factors (38)

Ease of Manufacture (32)

24, 35, 2

Adaptibility (42)

Device complexity (33)

15, 29, 37, 28

Conveneience of Use (40)

Device complexity (33)

32, 26, 12, 17

INVENTIVE PRINCIPLES OF TRIZ FOR SOLUTION

Number

Principle

Application to Sudden-Need

1

Segmentation

a: Divide the bed into several parts

c: Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation

2

Taking out or Extracting

a: Extract the disturbing parts or property from the object

b: Extract only the necessary parts (or Property) of an object

3

Local quality

a: Change object structure from uniform to non-uniform

c: Make each part of an object to function in conditions most suitable for its operation

d: Make each part of the object to play a different and/or complimentary useful function

9

Preliminary Anti-action

Not Needed??

10

Preliminary Action

a: Perform the required change of an object in advance

b: Pre-arrange objects in such a way that they will come into action from the most convenient place and without losing time for delivery

12

Equipotentiality

If an object can be raised or lowered, redesign the object environment so the need to raise or lower is eliminated or performed by environment

15

Dynamics

Not yet applied

17

Another Dimension

b: Go from single layer to multilayer

d: Use the other side of the object

23

Feedback

a: Introduce feedback to improve the process of action

24

Intermediary/Mediator

a: Use an intermediary carrier article or intermediary process

26

Copying, Operating with Substitude

Not yet applied

28

Mechanical Substitution

Replace a mechanical action with a field one.

29

Pneumatics and Hydraulics

Use gas and/or liquid part of an object instead of solid parts (e.g. inflatable, filled with liquid, air cushion, hydraulics, hydro-reactive, pneumatic)

32

Colour Change

Not yet applied

35

Parameter change

f: Change any parameter

36

Phase Transition

Not yet applied

37

Thermal expansion

Not yet applied

39

Inert or Vacuum

Not yet applied

APPLYING SEPARATION PRINCIPLES TO "SUDDEN-NEED" BED

Time Principle: We apply the time principle to the problem of Availability and Size. Bed is unpacked when needed and must be folded when not needed. Where it can be folded, it must be compressed to small movable part

Space Principle: We need to make use of space. Where ever possible in the bed structure, we need to replace substance with "space" or vacumn. This means using an available resource (Air, or even water) to replace substance. Bed is inflated with water or air when needed and deflated when not needed. This will reduce the weight and solves the problem of Mobility.

Use of Mediator: Separating conflicting elements, e.g. moisture and jacket, at the time of repacking the jacket, we apply this principle. We need a mediator material. Use of dry alternate cloth is used to dry "Mattress" before re-packing will help resolve this. Also issue of safety Or protection from bugs can be resolved by separating the conflicting elements using a mediatot. This must be able to allow air but prevent bugs.

APPLYING CONTRADICTION PRINCIPLES TO "SUDDEN-NEED" BED

Applying contradiction principles to bed

1: Size: Reduce the volume of stationary object - Mattress

2: Mobility: Reduce mass of stationary object - Weight of Mattress

3: MATERIAL TYPE: Use of Water- resistant material

4: DURABILITY: Material used to be durable and must be re-usable

Useof water-tight material to prevent moisture from sipping through but allow air

(This is a technical conflict)

As a first step in the trimming process, we will

SYSTEM TRIMMING: FUNCTION TRIMMING

We begina systematic trimming of the functions to be retained and the functions to let go. This would then give us a good idea of what we need to provide for the User to ensure that he is comfortable. It will then enable us to apply the Inventive principle to the Sudden-Need bed for those particular functions.

Headboard/Footboard: to align and position mattress and retain the pillow (not needed)

Net: to protect the User in outdoor environment (function needed)

Pillow: to comfort the User (function needed)

Duvet:to keep the User warm (function needed)

Mattress: to support the User. It lifts and provides comfort from the ground surface (main function)

Frame: to support the mattress in lifting from the ground (Function not needed)

Legs: to support the frame (not needed)

legs

Frame (jacket sleeve)

Mattress (jacket body)

User

net

Duvet (jacket sleeve)

Pillow (jacket hood)

foot board

head board

support

support

position

protect

Product evolution and description (EVOLUTION OF THE BED)

- use of small hand pump

PROTOTYPE SUDDEN-NEED BED

After considering the super-system, the system and the sub-system, we artrived at the following. The most ideal element to use as the foundation for building the sudden need bed is the Jacket. We observed that there must be a Pre-mediated action(Inventive Principle No: 10b) for this solution to be feasible. Hence we have to use an element which the user carries about consciously, but with little or no impact on his daily activities. This is a widely used element and it has several features which can be manipulated. Also, we would need to use as many elements of the super-system as possible (Inventive principle No: 12 and 29). Equipotentiality is a powerful tool. Considering that we are informed to make use of parameter change (Inventive Principle No:35), we would be modifying the several parts and functions of the regular jacket. We have the benefit of Local quality (Inventive principle No: 3) so we can make each part perform different functions relative to each other. Also, design would have to elvolve over time to make perfect as feedback in Important (Inventive Principle No: 23) Using Physical separation principles, we would do step by step breakdown.

Detachable hood

Warm inner material

(Goose down)

Water-resistant

material

Detachable

sleeve

Polythene store

Zipper

Foot pump

Zipper

Velcro

TYPICAL JACKET:

PRODUCT EVOLUTION TREND

Evolution for Sturcture:

Mono-Bi-Poly: Use of same material at some at some areas and different material at some areas.

Dynamisation: Rigid Bed altered to a flexible mattress that can fit into small space

Trimming: Removal of irrelevant functions and structures to reduce weight and cost.

Evolution of Substance:

Increase in Emptiness: Increase in th e use of the Ideal Resource "Vacumn"

Segmentation: Breaking of the system into parts which breakup when Sudden Need" Bed is needed and combine when not needed

GOOSE DOWN AND ZIPPER

Evolution of Space:

Reduction in the volume of everyday bed to one where bed meets specific size of User.

Removal of traditional legs and replacing with flat mat. Use of available resource in super-system to provide function e.g Park chairs, Airport Tables e.t.c.

Evolution of energy:

Use of internal Body energy of user to generate heat which is retained.

Evolution of time:

Sudden Need Bed supplies sleeping conditions not only at night but in the day time, any way (24 Hours AVAILABLE BED)

Evolution of Information Tchnology: Discarded during trimming

Use of automatic, voice or thermal control temperature regulators to control bed heat.

Use of Intelligence sensor to control automatic pump pressure

SYSTEM TRIMMING: COST REDUCTION AND PRODUCT SIMPLIFICATION

Product percent of ideality

This Sudden-Need Bed which we can refer to as the JACKET Bed, is a new innovation. There is presently no successful design (Based on a Google search) that meets the criteria listed. It gives us a new application for the Jacket and it has solved most of the physical contradictions associated with the "Sudden Need" Bed. IT solves both the technical contradictions and the physical contradictions listed. Although more work can be done on it's final design baesd on test poles, it just follows that the TRIZ inventive principle(No:23; Feedback) is valid.

INVENTION LEVEL

LEVELS

CHANGE

INNOVATION

DESIGN CONFLICTS

MARKET

RATE OF RETURN

LEVEL 4

NEW APPLICATION

BREAKTHROUGH TECHNOLOGY

PHYSICAL CONTRADICTION IS RESOLVED

NEW MARKET

15%

MARKET STRATEGIES:

The advantages of this breakthrough "Sudden Need" bed are too numerous. The mobility feature makes it especially attractive to

People who believe that mobility is key to their business strategy.

Youths who do a lot of hitch hiking/mounteering or spend a lot of time outdoor and may find themselves in this position

Also, it could be useful to groups involved in:

International donor organisations

Relief agencies staffs

Relief materials for war-torn zones: The real advantage here is that, w provide them with warm clothing's and dry beds. This makes it invaluable to them.

Homeless shelter charities

It is useful to traveller who may get stuck at airport. Because of it's low metallic use, it would conveniently pass through metal detectors and border securities.

All these present large potential markets and have wholesale sales opportunities.

REVIEW OF IFR AND RELATION TO SOLUTION.

Recall the IRF: The Sudden-Need bed, an evolution of standard beds, is used for providing dry, warm, comfortable, sleeping condition at short notice (to appear and disappear) for the User in the outdoor environment.

IT is apparent that the Jacket Bed fits this description totally. There are however, limitations. Bed requires solid ground/floor as it cant be placed on unstable ground e.g, larva (in places of volcanic eruption), water (as it may not be able to hold the weight of the user).

Also, it is expected that as User feedback come in, modifications will be made for specific markets. E.g. People in the polar regions vs people people in themperate areas. Also for business executives, additional comfort facilties can be added, like electric air or water pumps as against manual pumping. Also, we have not applied all the inventive principles given. It may be possible to improve this with proper scientific research. Most of the knowledge applied in this were based on known availalable technologies and current applications. Breakthrough scientific research may have properties that can help to improve the various functions that the Jacket Bed presents.

Bed cant be usBed cant be used under extreme heat i.e. locations of volcanic eruption where

Polyurethane Coating: This is coating applied on the tent fabric to make it more durable and waterproof. Multiple number of coatings or 'passes' determine the added protection but at the cost of extra weight.

Waterproof/breathable laminates: Tent cover uses a layering system of different materials to form a strong and waterproof but breathable fabric. Common laminates are GoreTex, ToddText, Klimate, and MemBrain.

Ripstop: This is a polyester taffeta with thicker threads weaved into the material at regular intervals. Thicker threads will prevent small rips in the Tent to get worse

The Softie 3 Merlin Sleeping Bag utilises space-age technology in the form of a highly breathable, metallised barrier called Reflectatherm to give a temperature rating that adds at least 15% additional warmth.

Fill: Softie Premier Reflectatherm

Materials: Paratex Xtreme, Paratex Light

mat·tress    (mtrs) KEY 

NOUN:

A usually rectangular pad of heavy cloth filled with soft material or an arrangement of coiled springs, used as or on a bed.

An airtight inflatable pad used as or on a bed or as a cushion.

A closely woven mat of brush and poles used to protect an embankment, a dike, or a dam from erosion.

ETYMOLOGY:

Middle English mattresse, from Old French materas, from Old Italian materasso, and from Medieval Latin matracium both from Arabic mara, place where something is thrown, mat, cushion, from araa, to throw; see in Semitic roots

WORD HISTORY:

The history of the word mattress is a small lesson in the way amenities have come to Europe from the Middle East. During the earlier part of the Middle Ages, Arabic culture was more advanced than that of Europe. One of the amenities of life enjoyed by the Arabs was sleeping on cushions thrown on the floor. Derived from the Arabic word araa, "to throw," the word mara meant "place where something is thrown" and "mat, cushion." This kind of sleeping surface was adopted by the Europeans during the Crusades, and the Arabic word was taken into Old Italian (materasso) and then into Old French (materas), from which comes the Middle English word materas, first recorded in a work written around 1300. The Arabic word also became Medieval Latin matracium, another source of our word.

Another discovery of Altshuller was that every breakthrough inventive solution

is a result of elimination of a contradiction. A contradiction arises when two

mutually exclusive demands or requirements are put on the same object or a

system.((Source: Accelerate Innovation with

TRIZ

Valeri Souchkov, ICG T&C, 2007

valeri@xtriz.com

it is important to learn how to stay awake in the toughest of situations by reducing fatigue and increasing energy. This page will offer tips and strategies on how to stay awake and keep energized and productive throughout the day

Although the exact amount varies based on the individual, the average adult needs about 7-9 hours of sleep each night. Teenagers need more, about 8 1/2-9 1/2 hours each night.http://www.sleepfoundation.org/site/c.huIXKjM0IxF/b.2419131/k.6C23/How_Much_Sleep_is_Enough.htm10

Take a 15 to 20-minute power nap when feeling drowsy. Sleeping longer than 20 minutes can leave you sleepier than before because you enter your regular sleep cycle.[http://www.drowsydriving.org/site/c.lqLPIROCKtF/b.3338887/k.57A3/Detection_and_Prevention.htm11

Take a caffeine nap. A caffeine nap is a 15-minute nap that is taken after drinking a cup of coffee or other source of caffeine. By the time you are finished napping, the caffeine will be working.http://www.sleepdex.org/caffeine-nap.htm12

Step 3: Consume the Proper Amount of Caffeine

Caffeine is a central nervous stimulant found in most soft drinks, coffees, teas and energy drinks. It is also available in tablet and chewing gum formats. Caffeine effects everyone differently and affects people who regularly consumes it less than others.

Caffeine can be more effective than napping in making you more alert.http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/04/for-sleepy-drivers-coffee-vs-napping/13

Caffeine can be addicting and cause withdrawal symptoms such as headaches, anxiety, fatigue and depression.http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=444514

Caffeine levels vary depending on the brand and drink. For example, a cup of brewed coffee can have any where from 80-135 mg of caffeine.[http://www.energyfiend.com/caffeine-content/coffee-brewed.15 Here are the caffeine levels in 8 ounces of some other popular drinks:http://www.ific.org/publications/brochures/caffeinebroch.cfm16

Instant Coffee: 60-85 mg

Decaffeinated Coffee: 2-4 mg

Brewed Tea (U.S. brands): 20-90 mg

Brewed Tea (imported): 25-110 mg

Instant Tea: 24-31 mg

Iced Tea: 9-50 mg

Cocoa Beverage: 3-32 mg

Chocolate Milk beverage: 2-7 mg

Mountain Dew: 36 mg

Pepsi: 25 mg

Diet Pepsi: 24 mg

Lipton Iced Tea with Lemon: 20 mg

Mello Yello: 31 mg

Coca-Cola Classic: 25 mg

Diet Coke: 31 mg

Nestea Sweetened Iced Tea 11 mg

http://www.ific.org/publications/brochures/caffeinebroch.cfm17 http://www.pepsiproductfacts.com/caffeine.php#chart18 http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/mail/goodanswer/us_fountain_beverages.pdf 19

Step 5: Use and Drink Water

Water can help keep you awake in two different ways: externally and internally.

Splashing cold water on your face and pulse areas can help refresh you. For better results, consider taking a cold shower.http://www.marcandangel.com/2008/05/15/17-drug-free-ways-to-stay-awake/ 22

Drink plenty of water. Dehydration will reduce your blood volume, which can make you feel tired. Dehydration can reduce blood volume, which leads to feelings of fatigue. Drinking plenty of water will also increase your need to go to the restroom, a feeling that will also help you stay awake.http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/fatigue.jsp23

Step 6: Increase Your Movement

Movement is one of the best ways to energize yourself and stay awake because sitting in the same position for a long time can cause fatigue.

Take frequent breaks at least every two hours or 100 miles (if you are driving). Exercise during these breaks to help energize your body.http://www.sleepdex.org/ddcounter.htm24

Exercise at your desk to keep your blood moving. Avoid sitting in the same position for extended periods of time. Move your head, arms, legs and body.

Take notes. Not only will you have a record of what occurred, but it will help you stay focused.http://www.marcandangel.com/2008/05/15/17-drug-free-ways-to-stay-awake/25

Chewing gum can create enough movement to help you stay awake.http://www.marcandangel.com/2008/05/15/17-drug-free-ways-to-stay-awake/26

Certain yoga exercises, including the warrior poses, have been known to reduce fatigue and increase energy levels.http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NAH/is_8_31/ai_8012049727 http://www.yogajournal.com/poses/170828

Step 7: Control Your Breathing

Deep breathing helps reduce stress, a source of fatigue, and increases the level of oxygen in the blood. Techniques can be as simple as inhaling for five seconds, holding your breath for four seconds and exhaling for four seconds.http://www.selfpersonal.com/7_strategies_to_reduce_fatigue_boost_energy.htm29 You can also try more elaborate techniques which require different positions.http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/fatigue.jsp30

Step 8: Optimize Your Environment

A dark, quiet, warm room can make you feel sleepy. Counteract this by adjusting your environment to help you stay awake.

Turn up the air conditioning. Cool air naturally stimulates the body.http://www.marcandangel.com/2008/05/15/17-drug-free-ways-to-stay-awake/31

Turn on the radio or play music. Listening to music that has a fast beat (think rock or pop) or a controversial talk radio program will help you stay awake.http://www.sleepdex.org/ddcounter.htm32 http://www.marcandangel.com/2008/05/15/17-drug-free-ways-to-stay-awake/33

The brighter your room is, the more awake you will feel.http://www.sleepdex.org/ddcounter.htm34

Find a friend to join you. Not only will the company keep you awake, but the friend will be able to prod you if you start falling asleep.http://www.drowsydriving.org/site/c.lqLPIROCKtF/b.3338887/k.57A3/Detection_and_Prevention.htm35

Step 9: Use Accupressure

Acupressure is a method where pressure is applied to various points of the body. It is similar to acupuncture, but does not use needles.

You may think that we're pulling your leg, but pulling down or rubbing your earlobes has been know to keep people alert. http://www.webexpressguide.com/sheffield/article.php?id=84536

Rub the roof of your mouth with your tongue.http://www.marcandangel.com/2008/05/15/17-drug-free-ways-to-stay-awake/37

Five acupressure points that are known to energize are:

Top of the head

Top of the back of the neck on both sides

Between the thumb and forefinger on the back of the hands

About one hand width, or four fingers, below the knees

Bottom of the feet, in the center below the balls of the heelhttp://psychologytoday.com/articles/pto-20051207-000002.html38

Step 10: Use Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy uses essential oils from plants to stimulate the brain through the nerves in the nasal passages. Oils can be added to bathwater, massage oil, a steam bath or vaporizer for inhalation. Essential oils that can help you stay alert and reduce fatigue include bergamot, cinnamon, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, fir, ginger, lemon, lime, lemongrass, peppermint, pine, rosemary, basil and black pepper.

http://health.howstuffworks.com/how-to-treat-fatigue-with-aromatherapy.htm39

Step 11: Eat Properly

When trying to stay awake, what you eat and how much you eat are two factors that can either make you tired or rejuvenate you.

Digestion consumes a great deal of energy and will make you feel tired.http://www.marcandangel.com/2008/05/15/17-drug-free-ways-to-stay-awake/ 40

One way to counteract this is by eating smaller meals every few hours. http://www.reliableplant.com/article.asp?articleid=263141

Foods that are higher in fat take longer to digest.http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/fatigue.jsp42

Some of the best high energy foods include sunflower seeds, beans, [[|fruit]] or fruit juices, eggs, yogurt, nuts and vegetables.http://www.clean-energy-ideas.com/natural_detox/high_energy_foods.html43

Carbohydrates will not make you feel more energetic] but will help keep your body fueled.http://ifitandhealthy.com/high-energy-foods/44

Make sure you get the proper amount of vitamins, especially vitamin D, selenium, riboflavin, niacin and the B-vitamins such as pantothenic acid, folic acid, thiamine and vitamin B12.http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/fatigue.jsp45 http://www.fit4fitness.com/Increase-Your-Energy-Levels-By-Eating-High-Energy-Foods.php46

Step 4: Consider Energy Drinks

Energy drinks, such as Red Bull, Venom, Adrenaline Rush, 180, ISO Sprint and Whoopass contain large doses of caffeine along with other stimulating substances such as B vitamins, ephedrine, guarana, taurine, ginkgo biloba, and ginseng.

Caffeine levels within energy drinks vary greatly. Some have almost no caffeine, while others have almost 200 mg of caffeine. Most average between 70 to 80 mg of caffeine.

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=672000020

The energy drink Red Bull has been banned in France, Denmark and Norway because of concern over health risks.http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/5753.php21

A TRIZ general solution formula is "The problem should solve itself." One of the patterns of evolution of technology is that energy (fields) replaces objects (mechanical devices). For example, consider using a laser instead of a scalpel for eye surgery.

Some of these are analytic methods such as:

The Ideal Final Result and Ideality,

Functional Modeling, Analysis and Trimming and

Locating the Zones of Conflict. (This is more familiar to Six Sigma problem solvers as "Root Cause Analysis.")

Some are more prescriptive such as:

The 40 Inventive Principles of Problem Solving,

The Separation Principles,

Laws of Technical Evolution and Technology Forecasting and

76 Standard Solutions

Sudden Need Births??

http://www.motherearthnews.com/Do-It-Yourself/1982-03-01/Chameleon-Clothing.aspx

TRIZ - What Is TRIZ?

By Katie Barry, Ellen Domb and Michael S. Slocum

bfdgvfbhjfbvfjbvfb#

10,000 years ago, in the Neolithic period, people began sleeping on primitive "beds."

3400 BCE. Egyptian pharaohs discover the benefits of raising a pallet off the earth. King Tutankahmen had a bed of ebony and gold. Common people slept on palm bows heaped in the corner of their home.

Roman Empire. First luxury bed. Often decorated with gold, silver or bronze, these beds featured mattresses stuffed with reeds, hay, wool or feathers.

Roman Empire. Romans discover the waterbed. The sleeper would recline in a cradle of warm water until drowsy, then be lifted onto an adjacent cradle with a mattress, where they would be rocked to sleep.

Renaissance. Mattresses were made of pea shucks or straw, sometimes feathers, stuffed into coarse ticks, then covered with sumptuous velvets, brocades and silks.

Louis XIV was inordinately fond of staying in bed, often holding court in the royal bedroom. Reportedly, he owned 413 beds and displayed a special liking for the ultra spacious and ostentatious variety.16th and 17th centuries. Mattresses were generally stuffed with straw or down, placed atop a latticework of rope.

The late 18th century. Advent of the cast iron bed and cotton mattresses. Together, they provided a sleeping space that was less attractive to bugs. Until that time, assorted vermin were simply accepted as an accepted component of even the most royal beds.

1865. The first coil spring construction for bedding was patented.

1930's. Innerspring mattresses and upholstered foundations became serious contenders for the dominant position they now enjoy in the U.S. and Canada.

1940's. Futons introduced to North America.

1950's. Foam rubber mattresses and pillows appeared on the market.

The expression "sleep tight" comes from the 16th and 17th centuries when mattresses were placed on top of ropes that needed regular tightening.1960's. Modern waterbed introduced. Adjustable beds become popular with consumers.

1980's. Airbeds introduced.

1990's. Spacious sleeping is once again on the rise. In 1999, the queen-size mattress became America's most popular choice for mattress size - for the first time ever - beating the twin.

2000's. Choice and comfort are key words in contemporary bedding. In addition to an almost unlimited range of innerspring mattress designs, new types of foam mattress cores (such as "memory" or visco-elastic foam and refinements to traditional latex) as well as airbeds, waterbeds and high-tech adjustable sleep sets offer consumers attractive, quality alternatives. Pillowtop mattresses, a popular innovation in luxury, offer an extra layer of soft cushioning, and single-sided no-flip mattresses are common.

© Copyright 2009 -- The Better Sleep Council; http://www.bettersleep.org/contact_us.asp

The Euklisia rug

An innovative rug that's been described as the world's first sleeping bag has been re-made and is going on display at the Newtown Textile Museum. The Euklisia rug (patented by Newtown entrepreneur Pryce Jones in 1876) was exported to many places around world in the late 19th century. Documents show he sold 60,000 the rugs to the Russian army, the British army also bought them to use in the world wars. There are records of civilian uses too - among missionaries in Africa and pioneers in the Australian outback. No examples of the rug appear to have survived - but researchers on a BBC Wales TV series, Wales and the History of the World - recreated one using the original patent material. Presenter Eddie Butler said: "It was great to see this Welsh fist brought back to life." Pryce Jones, who was apprenticed to a draper at the age of 12, became a business powerhouse in mid-Wales after publishing the world's first mail order catalogues. He finally had hundreds of thousands of customers around Europe, including many royals. Newtown Textile Museum is open from May to September 2010. - BBC news online

Pryce Jones has the honor of calling the special attention of Ladies to the following.

He has on hand seventeen thousand Brown Army Blankets (fitted with an air tight pillow, as per sketch above) which were expressly made for the Russian Army. These are the remains of a Contract of Sixty thousand, delivery of which was to have taken place at the rate of 6,000 per week. Plevna fell, and the order was cancelled. These goods have remained in his possession ever since, carefully packed in bales of fifties.

P.J. proposes to clear off the lot at a great sacrifice - he intends removing the air tight pillows and sewing up the slot, the space may, if required, be refilled with a pillow of feathers, wool, cotton or straw, and may in this manner, be utilized for the poor - being a bed and blanket combined.

These are much wider and longer than ordinary rugs.

These Blankets may, if desired, be obtained with the patent pillow attached, the cost of each rug would then be 3/- more than price named above.

As P.J. offers these goods under cost of production, he solicits and hopes to receive early orders.

Royal Warehouse

Newtown, N. Wales.

 

 

 

Pryce Jones leaflets etc

Powys County Archives

MX/43/2

The History of the Sleeping Bag

Back to home page

Back to sleeping bag guide

The sleeping bag is probably the most recognised piece of camping equipment in existence. Loved and appreciated by many, from family campers in the Lake District to the more adventurous mountain trekkers climbing Mount Everest and not forgetting kids who wouldn't be without their trusty sleeping bag on a sleepover. So it's understandable to wonder when the sleeping bag first came about and who had the brilliant idea of producing it.

What is thought to be the first ever sleeping bag was made in 1876 by Welsh entrepreneur Pryce Pryce Jones who also pioneered the mail order business. The sleeping bag was known as the Euklisia rug; an all in one blanket, shawl and rug with a sewn in inflated pillow. The success of this sleeping bag is supported by records which show that 60,000 Euklisia rugs were sold to the Russian army as well as being used in the Australian outback and missionary posts in Congo. Despite these records none of the aforementioned sleeping bags survive today, however the rug has been recreated using the original patent by an antique cloth specialist and donated to Newtown Textile Museum where it is now on display.

Another pioneer in the sleeping bag industry is Francis fox Tuckett. He was an Alpine Mountaineer and in 1861 tested out a prototype for an Alpine sleeping bag and after a few years had perfected his design of the Alpine sleeping bag, consisting of blanket material with a rubber undercoating.

The next significant bag in the history of the sleeping bag belonged to Captain Lawrence Oates. On the return journey of a polar expedition in 1912, Oates knowing that his frostbite was severely hampering the expedition's pace sacrificed himself so that his companions could survive, when he walked out into a blizzard and didn't return. His body was never found, only his sleeping bag which was made out of reindeer skin and tapered to the feet similar to the mummy style sleeping bag we are all familiar with today. The reindeer skin would have had similar insulating properties to the down filled sleeping bag nowadays, with the fur on the inside trapping air and providing good insulation.

Ajungilak of Norway was founded in 1855 in Oslo, Norway by Jacob Michael Breien, originally specialising in blankets, pillows and clothing filling. The company developed their first sleeping bag 34 years later in 1889, together with Fridtjof Nansen for the first expedition to the North Pole, which was filled with reindeer fur and kapok. Ajungilak went on to be the first to develop synthetic sleeping bags and became renowned for their expertise in synthetic sleeping bag manufacturing. Ajungilak are now part of the Mammut Sports Group AG.

Up until the middle of World War 2, soldiers were issued with blanket rolls consisting of ground sheets and several woollen blankets and it wasn't until 1942 that US soldiers were first issued with sleeping bags. These sleeping bags were made from a similar material to the blankets but were mummy shaped and so lighter due to less material being used. The late 1940's saw the army sleeping bag develop with feathers being used as the fill for insulation. This is when down filling in sleeping bags started to be developed commercially so that sleeping bags were no longer heavy and cumbersome.

Nowadays, the sleeping bag comes in two main designs; the mummy and the rectangle, the rectangle being the original shape and the mummy being developed for military purposes. They also come in two fillings; synthetic filled and down filled. The preferred shape for colder climates is the mummy style sleeping bag, however the rectangular style is still as popular as ever.

http://www.sleepingbagshop.co.uk/history-of-the-sleeping-bag

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.