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This means that the writer/speaker should approach the audience without threatening them because his or her argument depends on it. Carl Rogers believe that when people agree with each other means that they are sensitive to each other's belief, which also means that they need to be willing to change their position on the issue. Those Rogerian principles were brought to the attention of scholars and writing teachers in the 1970 by Pike, Becker, and Young in their publication Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. Those principles that are the Rogerian Arguments for writing and composition are usually organized in the following way:
The introduction: should catch the readers' interest. After that, the writer should immediately state the problem and its impact on both sides, using neutral language. This paragraph is usually comprehensive and covers the argument of both sides.
Describe the opposing side position: still with the use of neutral language in order not to miss-present the opposition. The goal of this section is to acknowledge the validity of the opposing position in terms of the support and the evidence.
Present his/ her own argument: while maintain a neutral tone, dispassionately present his/ her own support and evidence. This section is crucial to the acceptance of the speaker's/ writer's point of view.
Find common ground between both sides: the writer/ speaker should find alternative solutions for both arguers of the problem in order to consider a way to compromise. The purpose of this section is to combie the positive ideas for solutions from both sides and convinces in a creative way the audience that each arguer will move toward the middle and meet a logical compromise.
Sheehy, N. (1997). Fifty key thinkers in psychology. New York: Routledge
This source is a definitive biography of the famous psychologist and philosopher Carl Roger. In this article, Dr. Boeree wrote about the family background of Carl Rogers, his family background, his childhood, and his collegiate experience. In brief, this source states that Carl Rogers was January, 1902 in a small suburb calledÂ Oak Park,Â Illinois.Â He was the fourth son out of six children. His parents were strict Protestants who worked very hard to keep the society out from corrupting their children.Â Â When Rogers was a teenager, his family moved to a farm in Glen Ellen,Â Illinois where he started being interested in agriculture. He decided to go to college and study at theÂ UniversityÂ ofÂ WisconsinÂ in order to pursue a career in agriculture and farming.Â Â Once graduated from college, Carl Rogers married Helen, his long time girlfriend Helen, and they had a son and a daughter. In this article, Dr. Boeree also talks about the Professional Accomplishments of Carl Rogers when he mentioned the books that were written by Rogers like "The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child". Dr. Boeree also mentioned that along with his book he was well known for being the first psychologist to record his therapy session and giving a demonstration for his beliefs and theories.
This source is very detailed when it comes to its scope because the information that it contains is well explained.
The intended audiences of this book are the undergraduate, the graduate, the academic and the researchers who can find this dictionary to be a worthy sources to their research since the author and the editors of this book have a huge academic background on psychology.
This source has almost no similarities with the other sources used in this research since this one deals with giving information about the life of Carl Rogers while the other sources deals with giving facts about the theories and the rhetorical aspects he adopted.
This source support the research paper because in order to understand how Carl Rogers created his Rogerian Argument Process, we need to understand his background in order to identify what made him develop his own particular process and not follow the ones that were already present then.
This article is very user friendly since graduates, undergraduate, students, and researchers can find in this article very interesting information that is very simple to comprehend about the life of Carl Rogers.
"Within a phenomenological framework, it is necessary to determine how people can separate fact from fiction and construct a correct representation of reality"( Sheehy, p. 195)
Carl Rogers beliefs that there is only one way to test reality. This will be by checking the correctness of the information on which one's build his/ her hypothesis.
"He formulated a general theory of interpersonal relationships, which he summarized as follows. The theory assumes that if: two people are minimally willing to be in contact, each is able and minimally willing to communicate, and contact continues over time, then the greater the degree of congruence of experience and communication in one person the stronger the tendency towards reciprocal communication and mutual understanding."( Sheehy, p. 196)
What Rogers's tring to say is that when assuming a minimum of willingness to recieve communication and to be in mutual contact, it can be said that the bigger the communication of experience and behavior, the more the relationship between the sides will develop toward a mutual communication with the same qualities, which will lead to a mutual satisfaction in the relationship.
Hairston, M. (1976). Carl rogers's alternative to traditional rhetoric. College Composition and Communication, 27( 4), 373-377.
Maxine Hairston (1976) links the Rogerian Argumentation with persuasion. She also intreprets the "Basic Permise" in Rogers's article " Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation" In this article, Rogers explains that it's possible to convert people to one's own point of view by finding a set of methods that are not threathing them and challenging their values. Furthermore, this article states that even if Hairston takes for gtranted that the theory of Rogers is appropriate to be used by rhetoriacians as a way of persuasion, it is not the case. Because it may seems that Rogers's içdeas is to use his theory to persuade but it is about giving a detailed description of the arguers position, analyze the argument, and then give a evidence to support the position.(p. 373). Hariston (1976) concluded that arguers should never give their argument first until they have restated carefully the opponent's position in order to prove that they understood the other argument and that there can be times when that viewpoint can stand According to University of Texas website, Maxine Hairston is professor English who passed away at the age of 83. She had a remarkable career in examining the role of rhetoric writing programs across the US. Therefore, using the article of this Rhetoric author is very reliable in the making of this research paper.
The intended audience of this article can be the students who have mastered the composition skills but who need to examine a their attitudes, thinking, and assumpustions a little bit more. That's because the Rogerian Argumentation Model encouyrages non-judemental focus and open mindness.
According to the website of Texas University (2012), Maxine Hairston is an English professor wxho died at the age of 83. She had a remarkable career during which she examined the role of rhethoric and writing programs. Therefore, an article written by Hairtson is very reliable as a source for a research paper that deals with the Rogerian Argumentation Model.
"In my own work, I introduce the Rogerian approach to argument as a supplement to traditional Aristotelian rhetoric, pointing out that in certain situations it may work when most conventional strategies fail." (Hairston, 373)
The traditional form of argument that is represented in Aristotelian argument which points out that the arguer must be conscious about the ethos and logos, the Rogerian argument tries to solve problem instead of attacking the other side. This shows that the Rogerian approach and the Aristotlian approach are supplementary Â
"Carl Rogers suggests that we can do two things which he, as a therapist, has found helpful in opening up communication and resolving conflicts. First, we can scrupulously avoid using evaluative language; second, we can listen to each other with understanding and acceptance"(Hairston, p.373)
Based on his background as a therapist, Rogers suggest that there are two ways of solving problems. First, it can be done by avoiding the use of language that will make the opposing side feel like they're being evaluated. Second, the arguers should listen to each other and try to understand and accept their positions.
"When a client feels that the therapist is making a serious and genuine effort to empathize, to enter into his world in an interested but non-judgmental way, then he may accept the possibility of change. And when a person with whom we have a difference of opinion feels that we really understand why he feels as he does, there is a possibility that he may change his mind"(Hairston; p. 374)
The opposing arguers might change their minds just because they feel that the writer or the speaker is being comprehensive instead of judgmental.
This shows that the emotion of the audience can play a major role in determining whether they will accept the writer's position or not.
Bator, P. (1980, December). Aristotelian and Rogerian Rhetoric. College Composition and Communication , 31, pp. 427-432.
Paul writes about rethorics that deals with pathos, ethos, and logos. He also provides a contrastive comparison between the Rogerian rhetoric and the Aristotelian rhetoric in order to explain which one is rhetoric to understand which is more useful in the modern composition classroom. He argues that Aristotelian rhetoric is not relevant to the rhetorical situations found in the classroom because of the complex relationship between the speaker/writer and the audience in Aristotle model. This source is similar to the other sources in terms of the Rogerian process of argumentation. The intended audience is the composition professors who are trying to find out the difference between the Rogerian and the Aristotelian argumentative models.
"The ethos of the speaker-listener relationship, in Aristotelian terms, is set by the speaker alone. Ethos is a concept associated with the rhetor; it is the quality of the rhetor's character which can be one of "the most potent of all the means to persuasion"
Bator compares "ethos" of Aristotle and "ethics" of Rogueries Rhetoric. Therefore, he found out that the ethos of listener-speaker relationship according to the Aristotelian Approach is set by the speaker alone. Bator also interprets Aristotle's ethos as a persuasive method that aims to win advantage using the psychological weakness of the opposing audience. Thus, the Aristotelian rhetoric, unlike the Rogerian rhetoric, seeks to control the expectations of the audience in order to persuade them to one's own point of view.
"Mutual communication tends to be pointed toward solving a problem rather than toward attacking a person or group"
When arguers communicate between them using a respectful tone, this tends to solve problems in an efficient and an effective way. But when there is no communication, it only worsens the situation.
"By presenting a careful statement of the reader's position and delineating the areas of validity in the reader's position, the writer establishes a shared basis for further communication and interaction."
When acknowledging the validity of the reader's viewpoint, the writer implicitly building his or her mind a common ground with the reader that makes him/ her understand the position of the reader and the create a ground for communication and interaction.
Teich, N. (1992). Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation
This books presents the distinct theoretical views of the Rogerian nfluences on the Rhetoric theories and on the teaching of composition and wirting. It focus on how the Rogerian argumentation model in terms of communication works in the real life for example in classroom interactions and in peer debates.
"For the first time, many students become aware of the fact that audiences can literally stop reading their essays if the audience is so moved"(Teich, p. 228)
When applying the Rogerian approach, student realized that the audience can decide not to read a specific essay if they are offended in any way, even if the writer did not mean to offend them.
"it gives the audience a clear idea of the issue concerned and an objective view of the two sides"(Teich, p.228)
Thanks to the Rogerian approach, the audience has the chance to fully understand the viewpoint of both arguers and have an objective thought about the issue which makes the audience able to formulate a new viewpoint.
"Sometimes one side is clearly weaker than the other, thus making it difficult to defend or understand"
Students thought that sometimes when using the Rogerian Argumentation Model, the argument of one side seems less strong than the one of the opposing position.
This shows that even the Rogerian Model can have some weak points since it can emphasis on a point without even realizing it.