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Gold can be used as a resource to create jewelry due to it's softness of pure gold, which we normally known as 24k gold. In this case, gold is usually used to altering its hardness and ductility, in which it can affect the extent which solid materials, can be plastically deformed without fracture. Usually, 22k,18k,14k or 10k will contains higher percentage of other base metals (e.g.: copper, silver or palladium).
Copper: is the most common type of base metal used for gold jewelry production, yielding a redder color. On the other hand, eighteen-carat gold containing 25% copper is usually found in antique and Russian jewelry and has a copper cast, creating rose gold.
18 carat gold necklace
Fourteen-carat gold copper: is nearly exactly the same as color of certain bronze alloys, these resources can be used for police badges. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron and purple gold, it can be made by alloying with aluminum. Even thought it is rarely used in other usage other than specialized jewelry. Blue gold is much more brittle compare to other gold and therefore it will make it slightly harder to processing into jewelry by using blue gold.
There are fourteen and eighteen carat gold which is alloy with silver alone will appear greenish-yellow which refered as green gold are. White gold alloys can be made with palladium or nickel. White 18 carat will contain around 17.3% nickel, 5.5 % zinc and 2.2 % copper and the appearance is silver in color. Even though nickel is toxic, but it release with legal approval from Europe.
Palladium: Alternative of white gold alloy which are available based on silver and other white metal, one of the disadvantages of palladium is the cost, as the cost is higher than nickel. High carat white gold alloys got a higher resistant comparing to pure silver or sterling silver. In Japan, Mokume-gane (a mixed metal laminate with distinctive layered patterns) was used to contrast the color between laminated colored gold alloys to product decorative wood grain effects.
In creating jewelry, metal finishes is an important element. To get metal finish done, platinum, gold, and silver required to complete the task. There are many techniques to create finish, the most common way is high polish (a technique to polish the metal into shining surface, often with a mirror like finish),satin/matte, brushed and hammered. High-polished jewelry is the most comman way and highly effective method to give the jewelry shiny and highly reflective look. Satin or matte finish by reduces the shine and reflection of the jewelry by using a material, which is similar to sand paper to brush against the metal, leaving some "brush strokes". On the other hand, hammered finishes are using a soft, rounded hammer and hammering the jewelry to finish the jewelry making with a wavy texture on the jewelry.
Some jewelry is plated to give shiny or achieve a desired color, and even reflective look on the jewelry. Usually sterling silver jewelry can be plated with a thin layer of 0.999 fine silver (which is a method commonly known as flashing) or may be plated with rhodium or gold for a more attractive finish.
Example of gold product after finish polish
Nowadays, technology has been advancing and gold was seen as beneficial for the health now. Most of the people believe that something rare and beautiful can be healthy too. Some of the modern esotericism (esoteric beliefs) assign metallic gold as a healing power and become alternative medicine (any type of medicine that is not fall in realm of conventional medicine).
Gold salt: uses as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions as the contents inside the gold salts have anti-inflammatory properties. However, only salt and radioisotopes of gold can be use in pharmacological value as elemental gold is inert to all chemicals that it will encounters inside the body. In modern days, inject able gold have been proven to help reducing pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis (a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organ but primary attacks joints) and tuberculosis (common disease caused by various strains of mycobacterium that usually attack lungs and affect other part of body).
Gold alloys: used in restorative dentistry, especially in tooth restorations, such as crowns (dental restoration which completely caps or encircles a tooth) and permanent bridges (dental restoration used to replace a missing tooth by joining permanently to adjacent teeth). The gold alloys' slightly malleability creates a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces excellent result than those produced by the creation of porcelain crowns.
Gold alloys used in restorative dentistry
Colloidal gold: Also known as "nanogold", is a suspension of sub-micrometer sized particles of gold in fluid. The liquid is usually either an intense red color (for particles that are less than 100nm), or a dirty yellowish color (for larger particles). It can be made with tightly controlled particle by reduction of gold chloride with citrate ions. Colloidal gold is used in research application in medical, biology and material science. The technique of immunogold labeling is a staining teachnique used in electron microscopy. It is use to bind a specific protein or other cell regions in a non-specic way.
Colloidal Gold liquid
Gold, or alloys of gold and palladium, can be applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and other non-conducting materials such as plastics and glass to be viewed in a scanning electron microscope. This type coating, which is usually applied by sputtering with argon plasma, has a triple role in this application. Gold's very high electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the electron beam, helping to limit the depth to which the electron beam penetrates the specimen. This improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image. Gold also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and these low-energy electrons are the most commonly used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.
The isotope gold-198, (half-life 2.7 days) is normally used in some cancer treatments and for treating other diseases
According to Professors Maria Teresa Chicote, 1998, some gold complexes with s-donor ligands, such as thiomalate, thioglucose or thiopropanol are amongst the most effective drug for the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. The potential of these gold complexes as antitumoural, antimicrobial and anti HIV 1 agents has been demonstrated.
Gold can be attacked by and dissolves in alkaline solution of potassium or sodium cyanide, and among them, gold cyanide is the electrolyte (any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive) used in commercial electroplating (plating process that uses electrical current to reduce cations of a desired material from a solution and coat a conductive object with a thin layer of the material) of gold onto base metals and electroforming
Gold chloride , which is also known as chloroauric acid solutions are used to make colloidal gold by reduction with citrate or ascorbate ions. Chloroauric acid is used in the electrolyte process to refine gold to the highest degree of purity (99.999%).
Gold chloride and gold oxide: This gold is used as resources for highly valued cranberry or red colored glass, which is usually an expensive decoration. This like colloidal gold suspensions and it contains evenly sized spherical gold nanoparticles. Cranberry glass is a red glass made by adding gold chloride to molten glass. It is made in craft production rather in large quantities due to the high cost of the gold and the delicate mixing process required. Cranberry glass creations were most popular as a table display and it is frequenty used for wine glasses, decanters, and finger bowls.
Cranberry or red colored glass vase
Gold solder: Used for joining the components of gold jewelry by hard soldering or brazing. If the work is to be of hallmarking quality, the gold solder must match the carat weight of the work. Other than that, the alloy formulas have to be manufactured in most industry-standard carat weights in order to color match yellow and white gold. Gold solder is usually made in at least three melting-point ranges referred to as easy, medium and hard. Goldsmiths can assemble complex items with several separate soldered joints by combining the method of hard, high-melting point solder first, followed by solders with progressively lower melting points.
Soldering of gold
Thread: Embroidery is the art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread. Gold can be used in embroidery industry by being used as a thread and gold work can be produced by using metal threads.
Gold work during 19th century
Gold leaf: It is gold that is beaten into extremely thin sheets; the thin gold sheets are commonly used for decorating. Gold leaf is available in a wide variety of karats and shades too, and a 22 karat yellow gold is the most commonly used gold leaf in the industry. What differentiate gold leaf with metal leaf is the metal leaf does not contain any real karat gold while the real yellow gold leaf is about 92% pure gold and silver color white gold is approximately 50% pure gold. Techniques of layering the gold leaf over a surface are known as gold leafing or gilding. Traditional water gilding is the most difficult form of gold leafing. It has remained virtually unchanged after hundreds years and it is still done by hand instead of machine.
Process of gold leafing
Gold toners: It is used to shift the color of silver bromide black and white prints towards brown or blue tones, or to increase their stability as some of the photo might not have the effect of the photographer desired. Used on sepia-toned prints, gold toners produce red tones. Kodak published formulas for several types of gold toners, which use gold as the chloride.
Effect of photo after using gold toner
Protecting coating: Gold can be used as protective coating on many coating on many artificial satellites because it is a good reflector of electromagnetic radiation such as infrared and visible light as well as radio waves, it can be use in infrared protective faceplates in thermal protection suits and astronauts' helmets and in electronic warfare planes like the EA-6B Prowler.
Gold protecting coating
Airplane de-icing: As gold can be produced into so thin that it appear to be transparent, it is used in some aircraft cockpit for de-icing by producing resistance when the electricity passing through it. This method can prevent ice from forming.
Phone made of Gold
Watch made of Gold
Special Edition X-box made of gold
Vaporizer made of gold
24k pure gold Mac book
i-pod made by gold
The concentration of free electrons in gold metal is 5.90Ã-1022 cmâˆ’3. Gold is highly conductive to electricity, and has been used for electrical wiring in some high-energy applications (only silver and copper are more conductive per volume, but gold has the advantage of corrosion resistance). For example, gold electrical wires were used during some of the Manhattan Project's atomic experiments, but large high current silver wires were used in the calutron isotope separator magnets in the project.
Though gold is attacked by free chlorine, its good conductivity and general resistance to oxidation and corrosion in other environments (including resistance to non-chlorinated acids) has led to its widespread industrial use in the electronic era as a thin layer coating electrical connectors of all kinds, thereby ensuring good connection. For example, gold is used in the connectors of the more expensive electronics cables, such as audio, video and USB cables. The benefit of using gold over other connector metals such as tin in these applications is highly debated. Gold connectors are often criticized by audio-visual experts as unnecessary for most consumers and seen as simply a marketing ploy. However, the use of gold in other applications in electronic sliding contacts in highly humid or corrosive atmospheres, and in use for contacts with a very high failure cost (certain computers, communications equipment, spacecraft, jet aircraft engines) remains very common.
Besides sliding electrical contacts, gold is also used in electrical contacts because of its resistance to corrosion, electrical conductivity, ductility and lack of toxicity. Switch contacts are generally subjected to more intense corrosion stress than are sliding contacts. Fine gold wires are used to connect semiconductor devices to their packages through a process known as wire bonding.
Food and Drink
Gold can be used in food and has the E number 175. E number is number codes for food additives that have been assessed for use within the European Union. They are commonly found on food labels throughout the European Union. Safety assessment and approval are the responsibility of the European food safety authority. The numbering scheme follows that of the international numbering system (INS) as determined by the Codex Alimentations committee though only a subset of the INS additives is approved for use in the European Union.
Gold Leaf: It is the flake or dust used on some gourmet foods, sweet and drinks as decorative ingredient. Gold Flake was used by the nobility of Europe as a decoration in food and drink, in the form of leaf, flakes or dust, either to demonstrate the host's wealth or in the belief that something that valuable and rare must be beneficial for one's health. Gold foil along with silver is sometimes used in South Asian sweets such as barfi, which is made up of condensed milk, cooked with suger until it solidifies and it is origin from Indian subcontinent.
Mooncake made of gold
Goldwasser : It also named as Danziger Goldwasser or Goldwater in English. It is a traditional German herbal liquor produced in what is today Gdansk Poland, and Schwabach, Germany. It contains flakes of gold leaf, there are some expensive cocktails which contain flakes of gold leaf. However, since metallic gold is inert to all body chemistry, it adds neither taste nor any nutritional effect and leaves the body unaltered.
Chocolate made by gold
Cigar made by gold
Lolipop made by gold
Chocolate flake made by gold
Sundae made by gold
Donut made by gold
Facial scrub made by gold
Facial mask made by gold
Last but not least , gold have been use as a symbol of status and even way of gratitude of some prize giving session as it represent the number one in the placing. A gold medal is typically the medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture. The award concept arose in the military, initially by simple recognition of military rank and later become the decorations for admission for military order.
Congressional Gold medal award by the United States Congress
Royal gold cup from French royal family
Professors María Teresa Chicote, Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Gold(I)
Complexes with C-, N- and S-Donor Ligands ,1998