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Plagiarism can be defined as the reckless reproduction of someone else's work, beliefs, language, proposal, or expression, and posing it as your own work. Till the 18th century, the plagiarism did not exist. In fact, artists and the like were advised to have maximum semblance to their masters' work, thus avoiding any form of development. But with the dawn of the 18th century, plagiarism came to be regarded as erroneous on moral, social and sometimes even legal grounds. An extreme form of plagiarism may be copyright infringement that may subject the person to punishment from the court of law.
Considering students, universities even have the power to penalize, fail the course, and in extreme cases, even suspension from term.
According to James.M, et al (2008), work submitted for assessment is termed as plagiarism when it includes ideas and words of others, without acknowledging the author or his credibility. A work that is directly taken from a fellow apprentice, the internet, books or even articles, and named as yours is also plagiarism. A deliberate form of plagiarism maybe faulty paraphrasing, where the students write the same matter as that of the original, merely changing the tense or grammar to distinguish it from the original.
As suggested in the website www.unc.edu, the gravity towards the issue of plagiarism is solely because the mentor needs to develop the following abilities in a student, as a part of the curriculum:
The student must be able to understand the reading matter provided with;
The student should boost his/her capability to recreate the issue with ideas of his own, using sources just as reference.
The student must have the potential to "cite" the authors' examples and ideas just as substantiation and support to his/ her new perspective of the topic. This fundamentally distinguishes work of student from the original text.
In recent times scholastic reliability is of major concern in the education society. As the episodes of plagiarism increase (for example, Kock, 1999; Kock & Davison, 2003), teaching societies have resorted to stringent rules and guidelines, with variant severity of plagiarism involved. Penalizing ranges from a zero in evaluation to failure for the term, and in most intense cases, rustication from the university. Plagiarism is growing problem, especially in assignments concerning essay writing.
Educationists dealt with this state of affairs very lightly in the past as plagiarism was no more than a question of copying work without recognition of its creator. But in today's world, where each person wants things to be as trouble-free and fast and with minimal effort, instructors are posed with the accountability of indentifying, quantifying and preventing the event of plagiarism. The technological advances and easy access to electronic books, journals and articles also play a key character here. In earlier times, one would have to type out or write the entire copied matter, whereas today, it's possible with two buttons: copy and paste!
Plagiarism is a nagging problem for international learners who have come to discover and characterize the international education structure on the basis of plagiarism, without fully contemplating the meaning of it.
Further incongruity among universities over the detection and cure of plagiarism is due to escalating quantity of students and the thinning one- to- one interaction for coursework such as essay writing. Another central reason is the boost in the number of international students, whose first language is basically not English, or for that matter it's even the second or third language in their countries. Hence international students face larger risk of resorting to plagiarism due to language barrier and the lack of knowledge and alertness.
Hence, the most imposing question to be addressed is: Why do students resort to plagiarism? Answering this question will provide educators with clarification I context of its prevention and management.
The key explanations to this plaguing issue are summarized by Yakovchuk .N (2001), of CELTE, University of Warwick under the following headings:
Lack of Content:
"lack of their own ideas", "no particular strong opinions", "not enough ideas or information to finish their assignments", "not solid knowledge of the subject", "not quite familiar with the topic", "lack of knowledge", "they aren't familiar with this assignment", "it's impossible to present new ideas of their own", "difficult to create an idea which is different from the one existed", "inability to develop original contribution on a certain topic".
Does this mean that there is a lack of sources or perhaps guidance?
The most common reason to plagiarism is a lazy attitude. Humans have always been attracted to the easier way out, and hence it's easier to copy than use the intellect or survey new ideas. They are perhaps too caught up with the social activities to be paying the much deserved attention to assessments. Sluggishness may also occur due to lack of curiosity which arises as a result of minimal general knowledge or even reluctance of the students to read books, hence diminishing any interest whatsoever in writing. Putting it in a nutshell, the students essentially lack motivation.
As mentioned earlier, this quandary is usually faced by international students who do not understand their subject matter or even most of the content for that matter. Most of them have a pitiable background of the English language and hence poor vocabulary. This may almost certainly be the reason that they are not able to form sentences. As claimed by many international students, they are not able to fully express their thoughts and beliefs and therefore, turn towards copying. They fundamentally have the same opinion as the author, but are not able to "write" it incorporating their own experiences or own words; this being the reason for their poor organization of the source matter and reduced paraphrasing ability. Probably the solution to this could be more summarizing and paraphrasing lessons before giving them assignments, in addition to providing them with an adequate amount of vocabulary.
Lack of Awareness:
Yakovchuk.N, has further sub-classified reasons for lack of awareness of students into:
Lack of awareness of conventions: this means that some students do not know that copying is not permitted. Furthermore, they are unacquainted with the concept of plagiarism and acknowledgement. Most students have the notion that they can use the book if it tells the fact.
Subconsciously: students are not aware that they are copying. They do not comprehend when they pick up others' words or ideas without acclaim.
Culture: in certain countries and traditions, the whole conception of referencing is not fed into the mindset of students and so they find it difficult when they pursue education in another country.
Therefore, to make international students realize the importance of credibility and inventiveness, more examples need to be mentioned to them in this milieu.
Finding a solution:
As the electronic plagiarism has amplified, so have the automatic detection tools, task settings, genre scrutiny and alliances between learning skill lecturers and discipline- specific lecturers. These detection systems robotically evaluate the students' essays with that of online data available, including journals, articles and e- books. Study and research suggests that plagiarism committed by international students is not frank. They typically fake fragments into their assignments, which is termed as plagiarism in the UK and US, but not considered cheating or even a slapdash writing practice in their home countries.
According to UKcosa (2004), the population of international students who are taught post graduate courses in the UK make up approximately 37%, with 22% of them studying business and management topics. Given these figures, the educational systems should put added labor into spreading awareness and addressing the subject of plagiarism among international students.
East. J (2009) states that, comparing the contrasting scholastic exercise of other countries can provide a rhetoric thus supplying us with the nature if understanding of the students who have had English as their second language. This relative analysis will give the lecturers a look into the difference in teaching the local population and the international students.
After all the attempts and changes made by the teaching faculty to make the students feel comfortable and in control of the situation, providing them with basic knowledge about the working of the education system and the gravity with which the issue of uniqueness of an assessment is dealt with, it is also the responsibility of the students to try their best in abiding by the rules.
The students should be certain of citing the references. Citations not only make your document look academically sophisticated, but also let the faculty know that you do know of the right behind the data. Fundamentally, your paper must have a point and the material should be rightly organised around this point.
Paraphrasing: it's a very well way of using other materials to sustain your paper and your information, making sure that the apt citations are given at the end of the particular sentence. Paraphrasing does not mean changing a word or two, or the structure of sentence, or changing its words or replacing them with synonyms.
Examples of paraphrasing would be as follows:
You can be a good conversationalist b being a good listener. When you are conversing with someone, pay close attention to the speaker's words while looking at his or her face. Show your interest by smiling and/or nodding. Furthermore, don't interrupt while someone is speaking: it is impolite to do so. If you have a good story, wait until the speaker is finished. Also, watch your body language; it can affect your communication whether you are the speaker or the listener. For instance, don't sit slumped in a chair or make nervous hand and foot movements. Be relaxed and bend your body slightly forward to show interest in the person and the conversation.
(Source: University of Portsmouth, 2008, Academic Writing, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth).
According to University of Portsmouth (2008), being a fine listener can make one a good communicator too. Looking at the narrators' expression and paying close notice to his/her words will also help in constructing a dialogue. Further, body language plays an awfully critical role, irrespective of you being the presenter or the audience. It should be kept in mind to uphold complete confidence and cool in an exchange, avoiding slouchy postures and uneasy movements. By aligning yourself faintly forward, seeming unperturbed and occasionally smiling or nodding, you can let the other individual feel comfortable besides showcasing your curiosity in the conversation. Most essentially, it is indecorous to disrupt someone's speech. You should wait until the speaker is done, to voice your outlook, or relate your own good story.
Britain and the US have agreed that they want a "strong and stable" BP, as the oil company faces intense pressure over the Gulf of Mexico oil leak. President Barack Obama and UK Prime Minister David Cameron discussed BP's problems at the G20 summit in Canada. They agreed that BP must meet its clean-up obligations, but also that it was in both countries' interests that the company remained a viable business. BP will be hoping the talks put an end to political attacks on the company.
(BBC News, 27 June 2010, 'BP: Cameron Tries to Ease Tension in Talks with Obama' , [Online], Available from URL: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/8564822.stm,[Accessed 4 June 2010]).
As quoted by BBC New (2010), In the G20 Summit held in Canada, the BP troubles were the main subject of concern for Britain and US. Both countries have settled to a "strong and stable" BP. President Barack Obama and UK Prime Minister David Cameron have established BP to meet its clean-up compulsion, as the oil company faces severe pressure over the oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico. It is anticipated that this parley will drop the curtain to the political assault on the company, as it is in both countries' interest to keep the company in feasible business.
The most excellent and the easiest way to steer clear of plagiarism, is by taking notes. Your critical opinion also advances by improving your note-taking skills. There are some of the other unfair practices, apart from plagiarism, other unfair practices that pose a problem particularly for international students are:
Collusion: this is a practice that engages a group assignment. Here the work of a number of students is submitted as the work of one person only, thence taking credit for everyone else's hard work. This can be passed up by simply avoiding collaborative assignments and by working alone. If need be, prior starting, the work should be evenly divided amongst all to avert collusion.
Unfair practice: this includes any such activity which gives the student more credit and superior grade than he/she ought to have based on his/ her IQ and general capability.
Quoting from the Student Guide to Academic Integrity, these practices include:
"the introduction into an examination room of unauthorized sources of information";
"the fabrication of results obtained either from research that did not take place, or that were falsified in an attempt to gain an advantage";
"the submission of the same and/or very similar work for more than one assessment";
"The impersonation of another student or allowing oneself to be impersonated for an examination."
Finally, University of Warwick (2008), comments that, there are umpteen forms of plagiarism that cannot be classified. Also, plagiarism holds a different definition for every student. Besides, students from other cultures view the concept of plagiarism in an entirely different light. The higher edification organizations present plagiarism as a glitch- free subject in most of their plagiarism prevention guidelines, but in realism it has many intricate and debatable contents.