The Management And Economics Effective Communication English Language Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

In every corner of the world, communication plays a major part for people in all walks of life. In particular, communication is used as business communication or the international communication, aviation and trade. People with their English proficiency in those professions can effectively deal with one another. Like Cambodian, who need to develop their country, have to use their language skills in communicating and understanding the cultures of people from countries around the globe.

Looking back in the past, Cambodia gained dependence from France in 1953 and became a sovereign state whose economic growth at that time was moderate. Unfortunately, the more-than twenty year civil war began in 1970 and this poor country nearly fell in to devastation. In economic and social development was severely retarded. During the mid 1970s Khmer Rough ruled the country. Many intellectual people were killed and others were evacuated from the cities to work in a collectivized culture

Cambodia now is a full member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) established during the Vietnamese War to support democracy in Southeast Asia. Its main purpose is to build up its transparent legal infrastructure for greater economic development, provide security and help keep peace in the region. Therefore, communication is very important for Cambodia to contact with those countries in order to corporate and develop the country.

Rational study

Communication occurs every where and every time. People have to communicate in order to do business or it is the basic need for applying the job. Seeing that Knk net work international has good relationship in communicating and has many international partner organizations, we chose this organization to research.

Objectives of study

To write this research paper, we focus on two objectives that are suitable to our finding- not too big and too not small.

To identify how to communicate effectively

To study the language skills in communication.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

Significance of the study

We hope this research paper will be another help for students, university, and KNK to show how various aspects of communication in both business and international communication:

The research paper has been specially written for the effective communication, bring to students a very clear idea of how these various aspects are used effectively. Each section of the research paper includes a specially written the elements of communication, together with the language skills used in communication to strengthen the students' understanding of what has been learnt.

We hope the Effective Communication will help you become an effective communicator. Now and in the future, you will be the ones giving the historically significant communication and the day-to-day communication that make a difference in our world.

The effective communication can improve students' communication skills. As you study International Relation, you are preparing for many of the communication situations faced by presidents, generals, business leaders, celebrities, and reformers. You are also preparing for the more common situations faced by teachers, sales people, ministers, and other who want to make thing better for themselves and their community.

The Effective of communication and the language skills used in communication is useful for the university to be a helpful document related to effective communication and the language used in communication. In order to meet the needs of the different teachers, students, and researchers in different situations to improve their abilities the Effective of communication and language skills used in communication is available in the university.

The Effective of communication and the language skills used in communication can be a useful document for KNK. The organization can find its weakness and strength from the Effective of communication and the language skills used in communication in order to change what has been wrong and strengthen what is going smoothly.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

Research Structure

Chapter IV

Research Methodology

Primary Data

Secondary Data

Scoop of study

Chapter I



Rational study


Significance of the study

Research Structure

Chapter II

Area of study

Chapter III

Literature Review

Chapter V

Presentation of finding

Communicate effectively

Skills language in communication

Chapter VI

Discussion on strength points and weakness

Strong points analysis

Weak points analysis

Chapter VII

Conclusion and recommendation

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication



There are lots of local organizations and international organizations that were established to develop Cambodia. Among them, Knk international is good at communicating and has much support from overseas to educate and develop one part of the government in Cambodia.

This organization was established in September 2000 when the first project was imitated in Cambodia. KnK has three branches in Cambodia such as Battambang, Banteay Meanchey and Phnom Penh. Knk in Battambang is located in Cham Kar Reusey village, Prek Presh Sdech commune, Battambant district, Battambang province. There are twenty five staffs working there. Knk has two missions:

to support underprivileged children and youth in Asia

to implement educational activity for children youth and the general youths in Japan

Street children

Traffic youth

Adolescents in conflict the law

Children from extremely poor families abandoned youth

Children and minor who are forced into labor abuse children

Youth affected by massive natural deserters

Knk conducts its activities in the close relationship with local partner organization with the main purposes of assisting these children and youth to become reintegrated into society.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication



3.1 Basic Communication Skills Everyone Needs

Basic communication skills are required for nearly every job or relationship you pursue. What if you don't have time to take a writing course, or you are just too shy to speak up in meetings? That is OK. There are small steps that each of us can take with a little time, and little or no money. Let's take a look at the basic requirement most employers look for, and ways you can improve those skills.

3.1 .1 Verbal Communication

The ability to speak clearly and concisely, and to convey information or articulate an opinion is essential for most jobs with internal or external customer contact. A good communicator is comfortable speaking to an individual or to groups.

If you wish to improve your verbal skills, you are not alone. Is it your speech, your language choice, or presentation style that you want to work on? To help you pinpoint it, ask a trusted colleague or manager to give you some feedback.

Speaking or diction courses at community colleges or adult schools will help you speak with confidence. You may also consider an acting or improvisation workshop, especially if fear of speaking is an issue for you. Many people join Toastmasters to take their speaking and presentation skills to a new level.

Speaking skill is just as important when you're talking one on one as it is when you addressing one hundred. There are dozens of seminars on the subject of effective communication, relationship building, sales calling or serving customers. In one day you can begin to change the way you communicate with individuals. (Leven Dr. and Adelelman, M.B, 1982, beyond language: Intercultural communication for English as a second language. Prentice Hall Regend)

3.1.2 Written Communication

When you communicate in writing, you always have a permanent record of information that was exchanged. If there is a question concerning the information, the written communication is available and you can refer to it.

As written communications are permanent, they should always reflect your best efforts. Keep in mind that the written communications that you prepare not only represent your skills, but they also represent the company.

Writing Skills: There are general techniques that can be applied specifically to improving writing skills. They are:

Be yourself

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

Know your reader

Be courteous, polite and well-mannered

Keep to the points

Organize your message

Be clear and concise

Be accurate and proofread

Avoid jargon

Usage Skills: The most important usage skills you can acquire are:

Know your grammar

Understand punctuation rules

Spell correctly

Have a good vocabulary

3.1.3 Nonverbal Communication

People also communicate feeling nonverbally, both consciously and unconsciously. We send messages nonverbally without ever being aware of it. Often feelings are communicated far better without words as we indicated earlier. Psychologist Albert Me Arabian, in Silent Message, reports that a person communicates feeling nonverbally much more than he communicates them verbally. In fact, he found out that 7 percent of our feelings are expressed through words, 38 percent through voice, and 55 percent through facial expression, including eye contact. (Leven Dr. and Adelelman, M.B, 1982, beyond language: Intercultural communication for English as a second language. Prentice Hall Regend)

Nonverbal communication may define relationships between people more obviously than verbal language does. Often people do not talk about their relationship with each other, but express their feelings for each other through nonverbal messages.

Some major areas of nonverbal behaviors to explore are:

A-Eye contact

B-Facial expression



A-Eye contact:

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

Eye contact, an important channel of international communication, helps regulate the flow of communication. And it signals interest in others. Furthermore, eye contact with audiences increases the speaker's credibility. Teachers who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth and credibility.

B- Facial expressions:

Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits:






Thus, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and receivers will react favorably and learn more.

C- Gestures:

If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring, stiff and unanimated. A lively and animates style capture listener's attention.

D- Appearance:

Appearance is usually not very important in communicating international feelings unless you specifically change your appearance for someone, for example by wearing a friend gives you,

dressing to be accepted by friends, dressing to please someone special.

3.2 The communication Process

Communication is a two-way process in which information is exchanged. The process of communication in the business world is referred to as business communication. All communication requires a sender, a receiver and message. The sender is the person who creates and sends the message of information. The receiver is the person who interprets the message. The sender may choose the verbal form using written or spoken words to communicate, or the nonverbal form using symbols, pictures or body gestures. Nonverbal communication that depends on behavior such as gestures is called body language. Body language is a very important part of the communication process. (Public and Office Administration prepared by Kong Pov and Chheang Keng, 2007-2009)

In order to communicate effectively, you have to think clearly, speak and write will and demonstrate good interpersonal skills. You must be understood in the business office, and good communication skills make it possible.

3.2.1 The Elements of Communication

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

Every subject has its own vocabulary. Mechanics talk about alternators and universals. Computer people refer to hardware and DOS. Communication is no different. In order to understand the process, you need to know several items. You will understand them best by examining how they fit into the communication process.

One of the best ways to examine the process is to visualize it. You may find it somewhat

difficult to picture a process. The use of communication model, or a diagram, explaining how the parts of the communication process work and relate to one another, may make it easier to understand what takes place when someone communicates.

A model of the communication process begins with its most basic parts-a sender and a receiver. The sender is the person who has a message to communicate. The receiver is the person who has whom message is addressed, whether the speaker is taking to one person or to a large audience. The message is the idea the sender wants the receiver to understand.

(Public Speaking Today by Diana Prentice Carlin and James Payne in 1992)

3.2.2 Improving Communication Skill

Miscommunication occurs when something goes wrong between the sender and the receiver. The sender may send a message that is confusing or that contains inaccurate information, or the receiver may not hear or understand the message correctly. With the amount of information being communicated, it is highly that on occasion a message will be missing communicated. Miscommunication in the business world can cause serious errors. To avoid miscommunication you must;


Ask for and give feedback

3.3 Developing Communication Skill

3.3.1 Oral Communication

Oral Communication is the most important human relations skill. What you say to visitors in the office or what you say to your co workers creates impressions and attitudes that are difficult to change.

One major factor affecting the impression you make in the business world is your language.

A. Speaking: Some guidelines for good communication skill are:

* Be sure that your message is worthwhile

* Be sensitive to your audience

* Develop voice control and quality

* Use correct language

* Be sensitive to timing

* Present and maintain a good appearance

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

B. Listening: Listening involves hearing something with attention and understanding what you have heard. Some techniques to improve listening skills are:

* Interact with the speaker

* Take notes

3.3.2 Person-to-Person Communication

Most person-to-person communication in the office is informal. The kinds of situations that you are most likely to deal with include:

Greeting visitors and making introduction

Answering telephone calls

Responding to question and requests for information

Giving and receiving instructions

3.3.3 Person-to-Group Communication

When one person is speaking to a group of people, the process is known as person-to-group communication. Examples of person-to-group communication include seminars, conferences, Teleconferences, videoconferences, meeting.

3.4 How to Communicate Effectively

Communication makes the world go round. On a smaller level, communication, or being able to communicate effectively, is what gets you through each day, in both your career and personal life. No matter what your age, background or experience, communicating effectively is something that every person can achieve. All it requires is self-confidence, good articulation and knowledge of how communication can be made more effective.

There are steps following:

1. Choose the right moment and the right place. If you need to discuss something in private with a person, make sure that the choice of venue is private and that you do not feel uncomfortable about the possibility of being overheard. On the other hand, if you need to make your point before a group of people, ensure that the location is somewhere that your discussion will be audible to all who is present to ensure that you engage each and every person in the group.

2. Organize and clarify ideas in your mind before you attempt to communicate them. If you are feeling passionate about a topic, you may become garbled if you haven't already thought of some key points to stick with. A good rule-of-thumb is to choose three main points and keep your communication focused on those. That way, if the topic wanders off course, you will be able to return to one or more of these three key points without feeling flustered.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

3. Stay on-topic. Make sure all facts, stories, allusions, etc, add to the conversation/debate. Again, refer to the three key points. If you have already thought through the issues and the essence of the ideas that you wish to put across to others, it is likely that some pertinent phrases will stick in your mind. Do not be afraid to use these to underline your points - even very confident and well-known speakers re-use their key lines again and again for major effect.

4. Be clearly about the purpose of the communication. For example, your purpose could be to inform others, to obtain information or to initiate action. You need to know this in advance.

ƒ´ Effective eye contact and engagement can enhance communication for both parties.

5. Articulate. Articulate talk is talk that gets remembered because people instantly understand what it is that you are saying. To be most effective at articulating your message, there are some key considerations:

Do not mumble. Sound out the words clearly and openly, with the intent to have them heard without error. If mumbling is a defensive habit that you have fallen into out of fear of communicating, practice your message at home in front of the mirror. Discuss what you want to communicate with those you feel comfortable around first to better develop the message in your mind. Both the practice and the development of your words for the messaging will build your confidence and help you to avoid wanting to mumble.

Look into the other person's eyes if possible but be aware that this is culturally ordained - in some cultures eye contact is considered to be unsettling or inappropriate. Be aware of this as fits your context.

Use facial expressions consciously. Aim to reflect passion and generate empathy with the listener by using soft, gentle and aware facial expressions. Avoid negative facial expressions, such as frowns or raised eyebrows. What is, or isn't negative is dependent on the context, including cultural context, so be guided by your situation.

Use breathing and pauses to your advantage. Take deep breathes to steady yourself before you begin communicating. Get into the habit of solid, regular breathing during a conversation that will help you to keep a steady, calm voice and will also keep you more relaxed. Use pauses to take a breather in what you are saying. Pauses are also an effective tool to emphasize your point, as the listener has a moment to digest what has been said and then wonders what is coming next.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

ƒ´ Does this gesture unsettle you or encourage you to listen?

6. Use hand gestures carefully. Be conscious of what your hands are saying as you speak. Some hand gestures can be very effective in highlighting your points. Others can be distracting or even offensive to some listeners. Also watch the body language - wandering eyes, hands picking at fluff on your clothing and constant sniffling are all guaranteed to dampen the effectiveness of your message and will cease to engage your listeners.

ƒ´ If the phone rings, laugh it off the first time and then turn it off immediately and continue talking.

7. Remove distractions. Turn off the cell phone, put away the, and tie your dog to a post. Do not allow external distractions to act as crutches that keep sidetracking your concentration. They will distract both you and your listener and they will also effectively kill the communication. Even if the communication that you are having is a difficult one, it will not help the effectiveness of your message if you are seeking comfort in such distractions.

ƒ´ Be attentive when listening and ensure that your facial expressions reflect your interest.

8. Listen. Communication is a two-way street and requires you to listen as well. Remember, while you are talking you are not learning. In listening, you will be able to gauge how much of your message is getting through to your listeners and whether or not it is being received correctly or is being misinterpreted. It can be helpful to ask listeners to rephrase some of what you have said in their own words if they appear to be returning confused or mistaken views to you.

9. Thank the person or group for the time taken to listen and respond. No matter what the outcome of your communication, even if the response to your talk or discussion has been negative, it is good manners to end it politely and with respect for everyone's input and time.

Tips in Communication:

Do not beat around the bush when you are trying to get a point across. State what you want in a clear voice.

To maximize the effectiveness of your communication make sure the person has time to devote solely to you. If the person is otherwise occupied it might be better to save your thoughts for a better time.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication


To talk without purpose is to ramble. If you want to be taken lightly, ramble.

Do not whine or plead. Neither is guaranteed to instill respect or interest in the listener. If you are very upset, excuse yourself and come back to the discussion later when you have had a chance to think it through.

Be careful with levity. While a little humor injected into what you are discussing can be very effective, do not take it too far and do not rely on it as a crutch to cover up the hard-to-say things. If you keep giggling and joking, your communication will not be taken seriously. (

3.5 Barriers to Effective Communication

There are a wide number of sources of noise or interference that can enter into the communication process. This can occur when people now each other very well and should understand the sources of error. In a work setting, it is even more common since interactions involve people who not only don't have years of experience with each other, but communication is complicated by the complex and often confliction relationships that exist at work. In a work setting, the following suggests a number of sources of noise:

Language: The choice of words or language in which a sender encodes a message will influence the quality of communication. Because language is a symbolic representation of a phenomenon, room for interpretation and distortion of the meaning exists. In the above example, the Boss uses language (this is the third day you've missed) that is likely to convey far more than objective information. To Terry it conveys indifference to her medical problems. Note that the same words will be interpreted different by each different person. Meaning has to be given to words and many factors affect how an individual will attribute meaning to particular words. It is important to note that no two people will attribute the exact same meaning to the same words.

defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past

misreading of body language, tone and other non-verbal forms of communication (see section below)

noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency)

receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues

power struggles

self-fulfilling assumptions

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

language-different levels of meaning

managers hesitation to be candid

Assumptions. Example, assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you

distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people

Perceptual Biases: People attend to stimuli in the environment in very different ways. We each have shortcuts that we use to organize data. Invariably, these shortcuts introduce some biases into communication. Some of these shortcuts include stereotyping, projection, and self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotyping is one of the most common. This is when we assume that the other person has certain characteristics based on the group to which they belong without validating that they in fact have these characteristics.

Interpersonal Relationships: How we perceive communication is affected by the past experience with the individual. Perception is also affected by the organizational relationship two people have. For example, communication from a superior may be perceived differently than that from a subordinate or peer.

Cultural Differences: Effective communication requires deciphering the basic values, motives, aspirations, and assumptions that operate across geographical lines. Given some dramatic differences across cultures in approaches to such areas as time, space, and privacy, the opportunities for miss-communication while we are in cross-cultural situations are plentiful. (http://web,cba,neu,edu/ewertheim/inter/commun, htm#introd#introd.)

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication




Spending the most valuable time to prepare the interview all the staffs in the Knk were given the questions to fulfill. The process of doing the interview and questions were started on 17 May 2008 to 22 May 2008 by having an appointment first before giving the questionnaires directly. All the staffs in the Knk were interested and were willing to give their honest answer our overall research.


Material used in this study consisted of the established questionnaires for all the staff. The questionnaires were generally about communication strategies and the way to communicate effectively. The questionnaires were composed of twenty questions prepared for the staff and university students.

Possible answers were included in the questionnaires to facilitate giving their response because they are working and communicating. The staffs were required to give English or Khmer answers to the Questionnaires. The survey for this research paper took place when I had the questionnaires photocopied. The participants were asked to complete the questions. In order to collect more information, we conducted one-on one interview with several staff who worked for NGOs.


In order to fulfill this thesis, spend lots of time in front of computer checking the internet to fill out how to communicate effectively. Other resources - like library, printed books and some documents were checked by our group.


Because of time limit, this research only focuses on the effective communication strategies for Knk organization and investigates the process of communication.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication



5.1 Result

Gathering the data for this research paper through two methods:

The first method we handed the questionnaires to staff in Knk. In this part the data collection is explained in detail and focus on how it is implanted.

The second method we conducted the interview with staff members were rechecked to classify their response.


After the response of staff was collected, we worked on the all the questionnaires. Then finding something in common and put them in categories. Finally adding up the response and calculated as percentages. Through this process we found some guest ions were briefly answered. However some answers which gave us new insides were offered by some staff and students. In particular the benefit from this process provides more information how to communicate effectively.

1-b- Interview

The interview we conducted with staff in Knk focus on the language skills in communication and the communication process.

The following skills are:

Listening skill

Speaking Skill

Reading skill

Writing skill

After completing the interviews with these staff, we compared their answers with other from the questionnaires. The result of the survey and interviews are presented in the next chapter.

This chapter provided a summary of the participants' responses taken from interview and questionnaires. We present our finding for both how to communicate effectively and language skills in communication. The finding focuses on communication strategies and participants encounter the reason why Communication is important.

5.2 Staff's points of views

During conducting the interview will all the staffs and executive director we asked them to give the idea in the sending message to receivers and the lacking points of sending messages.

Also we talked about the way, tactic in used of sending experiences.

We found that they send the message while they make communication such as in the meeting, workshop, mass communication (internet, phone) or interpersonal communication.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

It can be seen that in process of receiving messages the staff at Knk net work get information through the activities like work shop, meeting, mass communication are the same of sending messages.

The majority of the staffs understand clearly about the communication process and they used their strategies in order to communicate effectively.

According to what the Knk work and communicate with children all the staffs used various way to communicate. Ms. Sopha's idea "I am open minded with children, listen their problem with attention and motivate them to do the right thing so I can communicate with them and they give messages to me what they want to tell"

Mr Long Vuthy added that he used interpersonal communication and eyes contact to communicate with them.

In addition to communicate successfully, they described the language skills in communication.

5.3 Sending messages effectively

There are two skills in sending messages and senders are more active than receivers.

The senders present the messages to the receivers. In order to send the messages, senders have to use writing skills and speaking skills.

Ļ Writing and Speaking skills

Depend on the interviewing; Ms. Sopha continued to describe the effective way to write below:

Use formal writing rules

Do not write the abbreviation letters

Describe the report from step to step

Make sure your receivers understand your goal

Ms. Sarideth also mentioned that she often brainstorms the idea before she writes as sentences or paragraphs.

Trough this experience, Mr. Srey Sakan, the project manager presented that the speaking methods such as:

Speak clearly with good pronunciation

Ask yourself what messages you want to send to the receivers and provide the correctly information you wish they can gain.

Moreover, he affirmed that the words to speak are important how to use in different situations. When he speaks to the donors, he has to use formal or appropriate words and sometimes he speaks simple words to his co workers.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

5.4 Receiving messages effectively

Ļ Listening and Reading skills

Below are the summaries of responses taken from the questionnaires about the good way to help in receiving messages.

In receiving messages the receivers get messages through listening and reading. So Ms. Sarideth said that the receivers must concentrate what speakers is speaking and take note the events or ask when some points are missed.

Other staffs expressed more idea how to use reading effectively:

Read thoroughly to get the main idea of the messages

Take note the events

Read with thinking

Do not stop while come across with new words

In the interview, the staff members also raised some problems in receiving message and communication. Sometimes some information is missed when they receive from the receivers. Further more, it is hard for them when they communicate with their Japanese donors because they face cross cultural.

Although it faces some with barrier of communication, Knk net work is still has good relationship with other institutes and partners from oversea through communication. All in all, communication is important for the staff members and organization list below:

Share information with each other

Keep good relationship with every one around

Working smoothly and good corporation

Easy to solve problems

Get support from the partners

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

Communication is defined, by Jandt (1995) as "the exchange of meaning. This involves the sending and receiving of information between a sender and a receiver. This happens not only through the use of words, but also through non-verbal factors, such as gestures and facial expression. The message received can be very different from the message that was sent. Communication can be very difficult if there is a big difference between the two cultures".

Terry Bergeson describes "Communication is defined as a process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating. Use of these processes is developmental and transfers to all areas of life: home, school, community, work, and beyond. It is through communication that collaboration and cooperation occur".

Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe "Many of the problems that occur in an organization are the direct result of people failing to communicate. Faulty communication causes the most problems. It leads to confusion and can cause a good plan to fail. Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another. It involves a sender transmitting an idea to a receiver. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit.

Studying the communication process is important because you coach, coordinate, counsel, evaluate, and supervise through this process. It is the chain of understanding that integrates the members of an organization from top to bottom, bottom to top, and side to side". He presents the communication process below:

Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. These can be concept, idea, information, or feelings.

B. Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.

C. Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand.

During the transmitting of the message, two elements will be received: content and context. Content is the actual words or symbols of the message which is known as language - the spoken and written words combined into phrases that make grammatical and semantic sense. We all use and interpret the meanings of words differently, so even simple messages can be misunderstood. And many words have different meanings to confuse the issue even more.

Context is the way the message is delivered and is known as paralanguage - it is the non verbal elements in speech such as the tone of voice, the look in the sender's eyes, body language, hand gestures, and state of emotions (anger, fear, uncertainty, confidence, etc.) that can be detected. Although paralanguage or context often cause messages to be misunderstood as we believe what we see more than what we hear; they are powerful communicators that

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

help us to understand each other. Indeed, we often trust the accuracy of nonverbal behaviors more than verbal behaviors.

Some leaders think they have communicated once they told someone to do something, "I don't know why it did not get done. I told Jim to it." More than likely, Jim misunderstood the message. A message has NOT been communicated unless it is understood by the receiver (decoded). How do you know it has been properly received? By two-way communication or feedback. This feedback tells the sender that the receiver understood the message, its level of importance, and what must be done with it. Communication is an exchange, not just a give, as all parties must participate to complete the information exchange.

Speaking Hints in Communication

In the communication process, William Shkespeare provides the following idea:

When speaking or trying to explain something, ask the listeners if they are following you.

Ensure the receiver has a chance to comment or ask questions.

Try to put yourself in the other person's shoes - consider the feelings of the receiver.

Be clear about what you say.

Look at the receiver.

Make sure your words match your tone and body language (Nonverbal Behaviors).

Vary your tone and pace.

Do not be vague, but on the other hand, do not complicate what you are saying with too much detail.

Do not ignore signs of confusion.

Developing Communication Skills: Listening Skills

Skill in communication involves a number of specific strengths. The receiver involves listening skills. The following lists some suggests for effective listening when confronted with a problem at work:

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

Listen openly and with empathy to the other person

Judge the content, not the messenger or delivery; comprehend before judging

Use multiple techniques to fully comprehend (ask, repeat, rephrase, etc.)

Practice supportive listening, not one way listening

Mindtools explains that "good communication skills require a high level of self-awareness. By understanding the personal style of communicating, people will go a long way towards creating good and lasting impressions with others".

Listening effectively is a demanding and involved process. One must be able to deal with different accent or pronunciation, or unfamiliar situation.

In order to become an active listener, Mintools presents several strategies below:

Pay attention: give the speaker the undivided attention and acknowledge the message. Recognize that what is not said also speaks loudly.

Look at the speaker directly.

Put aside distracting thoughts. Don't mentally prepare a rebuttal!

Avoid being distracted by environmental factors.

"Listen" to the speaker's body language.

Refrain from side conversations when listening in a group setting.

Show that you are listening

Smile and use other facial expressions.

Note your posture and make sure it is open and inviting.

c. Encourage the speaker to continue with small verbal comments like yes and uh huh.

Provide feedback

Reflect what has been said by paraphrasing

Ask questions to clarify certain points.

Summarize the speaker's comments periodically

Defer judgment.

Interrupting is a waste of time. It frustrates the speaker and limits full understanding of the message.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

Allow the speaker to finish.

Don't interrupt with counterarguments

Respond Appropriately

Be candid, open, and honest in your response.

Assert your opinions respectfully.

Treat the other person as he or she would want to be treated.

Mindtools adds that "many people are intimidated by writing. Even so, there are times when writing is the best way to communicate, and oftentimes the only way to get your message across". Some of the most basic tips to remember when writing include:

Avoid the use of slang words

Try not to use abbreviations (unless appropriately defined)

Steer away from the use of symbols (such as ampersands [&])

Clichés should be avoided, or at the very least, used with caution

Brackets are used to play down words or phrases

Dashes are generally used for emphasis

Great care should always be taken to spell the names of people and companies correctly

Numbers should be expressed as words when the number is less than 10 or is used to start a sentence (example: Ten years ago, my brother and I…). The number 10, or anything greater than 10, should be expressed as a figure (example: My brother has 13 Matchbox cars.)

Quotation marks should be placed around any directly quoted speech or text and around titles of publications.

Keep sentences short

While the above tips cover the most common mistakes made when writing letters, memos and reports, they in no way cover everything you need to know to ensure your written communications are accurate and understood.

While this takes some practice, there are many sources available to assist with writing style, including "The Elements of Style", by White.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

One glance in any newsroom or on the desk of even the most accomplished writers and you are sure to find this small, easy-to-read, easy-to-understand, no-nonsense guide to writing. It is clear, concise and perhaps the best book of its kind. If you plan on writing a great deal of letters or even proposals, it is strongly recommended that you pick up this nifty guide, which by the way, will fit in your shirt pocket.

Letter Writing Hints...

When writing letters, it is best to address the letter to an individual. And, when beginning the letter with a personal name, be sure to end it with an appropriate closing, such as 'Sincerely yours'. If you cannot obtain an individual's name, consider ending it with a more generic (less personal) closing, such as 'With kindest regards'.

For normal business letters, your letter should start with an overall summary, showing in the first paragraph why the letter is relevant to the reader. It's not a good practice to make the reader go past the first paragraph to find out why the letter was sent to them.

The body of the letter needs to explain the reason for the correspondence, including any relevant background and current information. Make sure the information flows logically, ensuring you are making your points effectively.

The closing of the letter is the final impression you leave with the reader. End with an action point, such as 'I will call you later this week to discuss this further'.

Reading Effectively

Gary K. Probst explains "Intrapersonal Communication Skills are a prerequisite for developing Reading comprehension Skills" When reading, a person uses a neurophysiologic activity called intrapersonal communication. Intrapersonal communication is the "talking to yourself" you do while reading.

To develop an understanding or comprehension of what is being read, a person needs to possess good intrapersonal communication skills. Good intrapersonal communication requires using intonation, diction and enunciation while "talking to yourself" when you read.

Mindtools provides strategies and techniques that can use to improve the efficiency with assimilate information by:

Using active reading techniques to ensure that you keep focused on the material

Knowing what you need to know, and reading appropriately

Reading at the appropriate depth: skimming, scanning and studying

Using a table of contents for reading magazines and newspapers, and clipping interesting articles

Understanding how to extract information from different article types

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication

Learning how to read junk mail effectively

Using indexes, tables of contents, glossaries and Mind Maps to help you assimilate technical information.

Creating your own table of contents for reviewing subject analyses.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication



In this session, we will discuss about some strategies used more discovery during the research found some points from the result of questionnaires and interview. These points are presented below:

6-1- Strength points

Through data analysis and interpretation, it was clearly seen that there were a lot of good points found as the following:

All staffs have conducted well with other organization members and children.

All staffs responsible for their jobs and duties.

All staffs have good relationship.

All staffs are well educated, flexible and come up with new idea of communication.

They are good at corporation and appreciation.

6-2- Weakness points

From the discussion on finding, there were some points critically and deeply considered as weak points. They are listed as the following:

They have difficultly to make communication with other cultures.

The use of mass communication is still limited.

Some information is missed.

It is hard to deal with intercultural Communication

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication



In the present time, the world is rapidly developing to the business, tourism, diplomacy. There fore, communication between one to other organizations is very important and broadly.

Within Communication is also developed. It plays the important role in our lives. We communicate with people, high rank people, and other cultures. Seeing that, our group tries to find strategies or the way to add more how to communicate successfully. It will make the communication effectively.

According to what we found in the research, all the staffs expressed their feeling to the important of communication. They can share experiences, information, working smoothly and Corporation. At the same time staff members used the differences strategies in communication including the way how sending messages and receiving messages.

In addition, the staffs at Knk commented in the survey of questionnaires and interview for the case of language skills in communication. These skills will make the communication get success or get failure. Practical communication they used at work appropriate in communication process.

However, there is a lack of receiving messages. Staff members got some miss information and it is hard for them to communicate and deal with other cultures.

We strongly recommend that staff member should:

Read more books about Intercultural Communication. It is a good to way to know more about how to communicate with different culture.

Understand the messages clearly before sending messages to receivers. It will not miss information.

The messages receivers should pay attention to the sender and catch up the main points properly.

Try to use different ways in communication so that the listeners are not boring.

Tell the manager to install more equipments relate to mass communication such as connect the internet, telephone.

Using the language skills such as listening skills, writing skills, reading skill, and speaking skill every day. They can make your communication effectively.

Try to use Non verbal communication like gesture, eye contact, facial expression to help in communication.

University Of Management and Economics Effective Communication