The indian cable television industry

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THE INDIAN CABLE television industry has grown from a near zero in the 1990s to over 40 million subscriber homes, as is the current estimate. The penetration of cable in the residential sector exceeds that of telephones, and thus cable is the obvious choice for the delivery of various services in residential homes.

But come December 2006 and cable television viewing will get a complete makeover at least in some pockets in Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai. The Set Top Box (STB) will be found in the living room of every viewer. This follows the Delhi High Court order to implement the Conditional Access System (CAS) by December 31 in the three metro cities. Chennai has already introduced CAS to its public.

The exponential growth of cable TV is known to all of us. Cable, as a distribution technology, has done a tremendous job in developing the cable and satellite market in India. However, the continuous tariff hikes in cable TV rentals remain an eyesore with the viewers. This has not gone down very well with the middle-income mass market of consumers. Hence, there has always been an equivocal demand and willingness to pay for what you desire.

Now the stage is set for the next generation of satellite TV- Direct to Home (DTH) broadcasting. Location and accessibility to the cable line no longer matters in a DTH scenario. This is because the programs are beamed directly to the television at home. Enter CAS, a technology platform, which allows the viewers to pay for the content they watch. The idea of viewing pay channels at an affordable price led to the introduction of CAS in 2003.

In a CAS set up, if subscribers want to view pay channels, STB is a prerequisite. Viewers can either go in for an analog or a digital STB- both the versions will be made available by the cable TV operators. The analog STBs cost anywhere between Rs 3,000-3,500. The limitation, however, is that it carries not more than 80-90 channels. Thus, even if the 30-odd free-to-air channels are accommodated, not more than 20-30 pay channels will be left for the viewers to watch.

While there are no restrictions in terms of channels being carried on to the DTH platform, what makes it interesting is that one could tier the services being carried to different segments in the market. Thus a customer can now have the power to choose what he wants to see and pay accordingly. This also opens up the market for the broadcasters who wish to launch niche channels or launch value-added services such as video on demand, interactive television, etc. This is beneficial from the point of view of consumers (choice and value for money), cable operators (bundling of services), broadcasters (accurate revenues from actual subscribers), advertisers (more efficient targeting), and the government (revenue tracking).

Cable TV networks continue to distribute channels in an analog format and, thus, are not able to distribute more than seventy-odd channels. On the other hand, there are already more than 150 channels over the sky. Also, since the services on cable networks could not be tiered, there has been no incentive or business model for broadcasters to launch any premium/value added services.

So, does this mean the end of cable? Not really. The growth of DTH would ensure that cable networks do invest in the business to upgrade and push aggressively their broadband and digital services.

Also, the low-entry cost of cable would ensure that a large number of price-sensitive customers do remain with the cable. DTH would grow exponentially in the rural sector as well as amongst quality conscious customers. However, DTH will never replace cable TV. Instead, DTH could kick-start the next stage of development in India's Rs 90 billion TV industry, increasing both competition and consumer choice and providing media owners with a valuable extension for the addressable distribution of programming.




Consumers worldwide enjoy digital television from many sources today: terrestrial broadcasts, cable and satellite systems, high-speed Internet connections and a variety of recorded and prerecorded media. It is satellite distribution that provided consumers their first widespread

Opportunity to enjoy digital television.

All direct-to-home (DTH) system designs, whether analog or digital, have benefited from the fundamental advantages of satellite delivery-versus, for example, terrestrial broadcasting-

That can be summarized as follows:

  • line-of-sight transmission through the use of microwave frequencies, directive antennas, and high elevation angles;
  • consistent picture quality across all channels received;

Although satellite DTH television delivery was the dream of futurists for decades, little technological progress was made before 1980. DTH service in the United States began,

Serendipitously, in 1979, when the FCC declared that receive- only terminal licensing was no longer mandatory and individuals started installing dishes, initially with a diameter 4 m, to receive signals intended for distribution to cable head-ends.

The digital DTH satellite era began in 2004 and quickly captured the "big dish" market and other latent market demand.


Hong Kong-based Media Partners Asia Ltd's (MPA) director of research and content Vivek Couto, "In the long term, the (Indian) market will be able to support a phased rollout of CAS, the expansion of digital DTH satellite services." MPA also estimates that in about a decade's time DTH would constitute about 15 per cent of the total TV business.

In fact, all the DTH wannabes in India are looking at capturing around 33 per cent of the total cable TV market within two years of its full introduction (that is once Star and DD are fully onstream alongside Zee's Dish).

One key factor for DTH to take off in India, unlike in the West, will be whether the service provider has access to all the existing channels, or at least the popular entertainment, sports and movie channels.

While globally a typical DTH service survives primarily on niche content, mostly led by adult and movie content - in India availability of existing cable channels has become a must for spelling success. One of the reasons for Dish TV not picking up faster in urban areas is that most prospective subscribers ask for a list of channels and get disappointed when told that Star and Sony channels, plus some smaller ones like Ten Sports, are still to join the platform.



Zee Entertainment Enterprises was previously known as Zee Telefilms Limited which was founded in October 1992 as a content supplier for Zee TV - India's first Hindi satellite channel. It was promoted by Subhash Chandra, one of India's leading entrepreneurs, who sought to establish Zee as an 'infotainment' company focused on the convergence of media and communications.

Early in Zee's history, Subhash Chandra and the STAR group of companies entered into a joint venture for television broadcasting in India. When News Corp Limited acquired the satellite distribution business of Star, News Corp de facto became a partner of Zee. To further develop the relationship, News Corp and Zee subsequently co-founded Siticable one of the leading cable MSOs. In March 2000, after a six-year joint venture, Zee bought News Corp's stake in both the broadcasting business and Siti cable.

People at Zee have built a diverse portfolio of leading businesses over time and have taken a host of strong Company-wide initiatives that drive growth and increases efficiency. Zee has a very strong consumer-connect and a set of common values that allows it to face any environment with confidence


Dish TV - The future of entertainment

Dish is India's first direct to home entertainment service that has digitalized Indian entertainment to bring to your home the best in television viewing through the latest in digital technology. It not only broadcasts high quality programmers straight from the satellite to your home, but also gives you absolute and complete control of what you watch and what you pay for. It is almost like having your own satellite up in the sky With dish you can unleash the true potential of your high-end television set and complete your TV viewing experience with true DVD quality. If you are a connoisseur of good sound then make sure you experience true stereophonic sound effects, which only dish can bring to your home dish takes television viewing to the next level as it supports various futuristic features like Electronic Programmed Guide, Parental Lock, Capacity up to 400 channels, Video Games, Interactive TV, Movie on Demand etc that act as value enhancements.

Dish also brings to you exclusive National and International channels for the first time in India! You can enjoy all of these never-seen -before channels in uninterrupted viewing without any transmission cuts brought to you by the Essel Group; dish has changed the face of the Indian television home, bringing it at par with the global entertainment industry.


Going the DTH way has a lot of benefits. You are automatically upgraded to a host of world-class features that makes television viewing a pleasurable experience. Have a look at some of the key add on benefits that dish brings to your home.

Digital Picture Quality The exceptional digital and direct-to-home transmission ensures you watch all your favorite programmers in true DVD quality

Stereophonic Sound the Direct-to-Home satellite transmission treats your ears to a true theatre experience by providing awesome stereophonic sound

Geographic Mobility No matter which part of the country you are in or moving to, dishtv with its all India coverage ensures direct signals where ever you are

»Uninterrupted Viewing With dish at your home, as long as your equipment is connected to a power source you can enjoy uninterrupted transmission of your favorite programmers

Capacity up to 400 Channels dishcan offer you up to 400 entertaining channels. And that's not all, every month more channels will be added to provide complete entertainment to your family.


Dish provides you with a range of price offers & schemes, giving you the power to choose from a basic entertainment package to over 160 channels. It is the only platform in India, which allows you to choose the best of television entertainmentspecific to your needs and pocket.


Movie on Demand

Dish brings you the first time in the history of Indian television - Movie on Demand

Now you get to make your own movie show timings. Watch the latest blockbusters anytime of the day that you choose. Go on, stars are now on demand, bringing them home when you want!

Digital Video Recorder

Experience the next level of TV entertainment with the revolutionary dish DVR- the Digital Video Recorder. The new age dish DVR lets you do the unimaginable, all at the mere touch of a button! With the staggering 80 GB hard disk capacity you can store up to 100 hrs of programming with 7 weeks of your favourite programs, Pause live TV and do much more...

Personal media library

Stores Pictures

Capture the priceless moments of your life and create your own family album. Record, store and download pictures from your handicap and digicam as well as your PC.

Stores Music

Jive, croon and sway to your favourite songs! With the MP3 jukebox which enables you to download music from your PC to your dish DVR and play it at a later stage.

Video on demand

Dish brings the very best of quality cinema to your living room by periodically downloading movies from satellite to your dish DVR box. You will be informed about the movies through a pop up on your TV screen. Activate as per your convenience by simply sending an SMS or making a call!

Multiple Programme Recording

Record up to 6 channels simultaneously with the revolutionary dual tuner. Record programmes on 6 free to air channels or 3 free to air channels and 3 pay channels. The magical inbuilt timer function allows you to catch up with your favourite programmes even when you are away! All you have to do is to specify the date and time of your favorite serial and leave the rest to DVR!

Make You're Picture-In-Picture TV

Picture in Picture (PIP) TV adds a whole new dimension to your television viewing experience with the ability to display 2 channels on the screen simultaneously. Now, there's no need to buy a Picture in Picture TV!

Mosaic Channel Choice Option

Cutting edge mosaic viewing enables you to choose the channel of your choice by viewing 4, 9, 10, 13 or 16 channels simultaneously. . Say goodbye to channel surfing

Dynamic Zoom Screen

Enjoy a detailed view of any part of the screen with the awesome Dynamic zoom feature

Digital Gaming Extra Vaganga

Elevate your gaming experience with thrilling new-age digital games. Download games from the Internet and transfer them to dish DVR using USB port!

Electronic Program Guide

Electronic Program Guide is an easy and friendly display of the program schedule. Not only is it loaded with amazing features, it also ensures that you never miss your favourite programmes. Or have to open the paper to check the programme schedule. You can also create lists of your favourite channels for quick access. All this and more at the press of a single button


With 24x7 gaming channel, Play Jam, don't just watch TV. Start playing on it. Any time of the day or night. You don't require any additional equipment as you can simply use the remote to play. Choose from a variety of games in different genres - Board, Strategy, Puzzle, Arcade & cards. To keep the excitement going, 5 to 8 new games will be added every month


With dish Active on dish you will be able to watch TV like you have never even imagined! Now enjoy viewing and selecting from the choicest of channels of your favorite genres all in one screen. Their More Choice, More Control with More Active

Kids Active

Kids Active showcases eight kids' entertainment Channels Pogo,Animax,Nick,Boomerang,Disney,

Toon Disney, Hungama and Cartoon Network.

Cinema Active

Cinema Active Showcases six Hindi movie Channels-ZeePremiere,ZeeAction,Zee Classic,Zee Cinema,Max and Star Gold

Khel Active

Khel Active showcases four sports channels ESPN, Star Sports, Zee Sports and Ten Sports

Movie Active

Movie Active showcases six English Movie Channels-HBO,MGM,ZeeStudio,Star Movies,TCM and PIX

Music Active showcases eight Music Channels - VH1, Trace TV, Channel V, MTV, Zee Music, ETC Punjabi, B4U Music and SS Music.


Tata Sky is set to revolutionize television viewing in India through its superior digital quality picture and sound. The service aims to empower the Indian viewer with Choice, Control and Convenience through its wide array of programming choices and interactive features. Tata Sky offers viewers a variety of channels ranging from entertainment, sports, movies and music to news and documentaries in DVD picture quality and CD quality sound.


Tata Sky aims to revolutionize Indian entertainment by offering superior DVD quality picture and CD quality sound. Tata Sky envisions:

Extensive Customer Service Network

Tata Sky has established an extensive customer service network across the country. It has engaged a field force of approximately 3000 service engineers who are complemented by high-end 24x7 call centers, manned by multi-lingual customer service associates, trained to solve all customer problems.

Tata Sky takes direct responsibility for installing and servicing the hardware at every subscriber's home, thereby ensuring the highest levels of customer service.

Tata Sky retails its hardware and prepaid recharge vouchers through popular consumer electronic stores to enhance customer convenience.


In addition to new channels and exciting interactive features, Tata Sky offers all popular television channels, thus becoming a one-stop shop for all the television entertainment needs of customers.


Tata Sky has invested in state-of-the-art digital infrastructure and has partnered with global leaders in digital technology for the pay television market.


Tata Sky has leased all 12 Ku-Band transponders on ISRO's Indian satellite, INSAT 4A, the most advanced and high-powered KU-Band communication satellite in the region, developed keeping in mind local requirements. The satellite enables Tata Sky to offer superior picture and sound quality with a wider range of channels.

Business Support Software:

NDS: Tata Sky has partnered with NDS, the leading provider of technology solutions for pay television. NDS systems has played a key role in the end-to-end system architecture and launching the nationwide digital service. The NDS VideoGuard conditional access solution provides superior broadcast security, and enables Tata Sky to offer multiple programming and pricing packages.

Siebel: Tata Sky has selected Siebel, leaders in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software, to support operations across the areas of call centre and field service operations, customer order management and product configuration.

SAP: SAP the leading Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) application suite, has been selected by Tata Sky to support the company's materials management, sales and distribution, finance and control and human resources requirements.


Sun Microsystems: Tata Sky has selected Sun Microsystems to provide world-class technology infrastructure, which helps the company to deliver high-level service standards for its Satellite Television service. The servers ensure maximum up-time, fault recovery and load management. Sun has also provided Tata Sky with installation, engineering expertise and support.

Inception and Heritage

Incorporated in 2004, Tata Sky is an 80:20 JV between TATA and STAR. Tata Sky endeavours to offer Indian viewers a world-class television viewing experience through its Satellite Television service.

Sky Brand

The SKY brand, owned by the UK-based British Sky Broadcasting Group, brings to Tata Sky the reputation of more than 20 years experience of satellite broadcasting. SKY is well known for the innovative products and services launched by BSkyB, such as DTH broadcasting in 1989, digital satellite broadcasting in 1998, interactive television services in 1999 and the SKY+ personal video recorder in 2001. Tata Sky joins an international group of DTH businesses that includes platforms as far apart as the UK and Italy in Europe, and Mexico and Brazil in Latin America. =


The Tata Group is one of India's largest and most respected business conglomerates. It comprises 93 operating companies in seven business sectors: information systems and communications, engineering, materials, services, energy, consumer products and chemicals. The Tata Group has operations in more than 40 countries across six continents and its companies export products and services to 140 nations. The Group and its enterprises have been steadfast and distinctive in their adherence to business ethics and their commitment to corporate social responsibility. This is a legacy that has earned the Group the trust of many millions of stakeholders in a measure few business houses anywhere in the world can match. Tata Sky Satellite TV service is here to completely transform your television viewing experience. More Choice, Greater Convenience and Amazing Control. Prepare yourself for a television experience that will truly amaze you.


All your favorite channels in DVD quality picture and CD quality sound. No hazy pictures. No distortion just crystal clear picture that's sure to take your breath away recently released blockbuster movies on your television with showcase. Order the movie over the telephone and enjoy it in the comfort of your home.

  • Ten audio channels from music choice. Choose the genre of music you like and enjoy ad-free music in CD quality sound.
  • A bouquet of interactive services that make television viewing an all-new experience!
  • With active games, television is now more than just watching TV and is sure to keep everyone in the family entertained.
  • Interactive learning games for kids on active wizkids.
  • Ganeshaspeaks: All it takes is the press of a button. Find out what each day has in store for you with daily astrology from Bejan Daruwalla's team.

What choice with out control?

Tata Sky transfers the control to your hands. Now watch your favorite channel the way you want to.

  • With active sports, you can watch cricket the way you want, with exclusive features like choice of commentators, highlights on demand and player statistics.
  • With active star news, go directly to the section that interests you, from headlines to top stories of the day to special features.

Control what your children watch. Use a Parental PIN and lock channels and programmes based on programme rating (if provided by the broadcaster)



You sit down to watch TV and cannot decide what movie or serial to watch. 'HOME' comes to your rescue.

In 'HOME' channels are listed based on categories. You can get a preview of movies playing across all movie channels on the same screen. Deciding what you want to watch was never this easy.


The Union Cabinet opened up Ku-band direct to home television broadcasting issuing a notification (executive order). The notification lays the ground rules for a company wanting to foray into Ku-band DTH broadcasting. The details are slated to follow later in the day. But the gist of the clearance is as follows:

  • Entry fee has been put at Rs 100 million. The DTH operator will have to hand over 10 per cent of its revenues as annual fees. A Rs 400 million bank guarantee has also been mandated.
  • The limit on foreign direct investment is 20 per cent with non-residents being allowed to hold 49 per cent.
  • The licence is for 10 years and it is non-exclusive.
  • No broadaster or cable TV company is allowed to own more 20 per cent of the DTH operation. This is to prevent the emergence of a vertically integrated monopoly.
  • The DTH offering company will be under Indian management control. Its chief executive will be an Indian citizen.
  • The DTH service will have to be unlinked from Indian soil within 12 months of the license being awarded. The common encryption, and conditional access system, and subscriber management system should be located in the earth station on Indian soil. The system should be based on an open architecture.
  • The DTH operator will follow the advertising and programming code drawn up by the information and broadcasting ministry. And it should maintain a record of the advertising and programming for 90 days.
  • The DTH operator should not discriminate between various channels wanting to get on the network.
  • Government banned channels will not be allowed to be carried.
  • Uplink can be to both foreign and Indian satellites. Preferential treatment will be given to uplink to Indian satellites.
  • The information & broadcasting ministry will be the licensing authority until one is set up.
  • The DTH operator is bound to carry Prasar Bharati channels on most favourable terms offered to any other channels.
  • The DTH operator can offer value added services such as fax, voice, or broadband, as long as it gets clearance from the right competent authority.


Tata sky the best!!- Zee's Dish TV has been a disappointment for a lot of users with even the franchisee complaining about the lack of support they get from the company. Tata and Star should be able to do a better task with the Services Tata Sky has tied up with Thomson for the set-top boxes and NDS Systems for the smart card technology. Vikram Kaushik, CEO, Tata Sky said about their upcoming services: "Our DTH service will completely redefine the television viewing experience in India. We are committed to building a state-of-the-art DTH operation. NDS Systems will enable us to transfer control and choice into the hands of subscribers Dish INDIA owned by zee has the worst line up of international channels like boomerang TV and stc these channels with the local cable operator in chennai through STB for free however dish calls them exclusive pay channels even VH1 is free but pay on dish when comparing dish with DD DTH its better to go for the Latter because its free and offers the same regional entertainment.


  • The reception is extremely poor or unavailable during rains. This however, is true about every satellite TV service in the world. Tata Sky makes no mention of it on their website.
  • Their toll-free number only works with MTNL / BSNL lines. If you're an Airtel subscriber, you'll have to call an STD number to get customer support. Knowing how long these calls take, the support will end up costing you quite a bit. (You can't go out and call from another phone because you might need to sit next to the TV if they tell you to change some settings)
  • In North Delhi, there have been reports that NDPL, also a Tata company, is using force to remove cable connections from NDPL electricity poles causing disruption in the cable infrastructure and forcing cable TV subscribers in 800,000 homes to upgrade to Tata Sky.
  • The set-top box that Tata Sky provides has a hidden port to accept PC card but it's been rendered useless since there's no software interface to use it. It's hidden behind a small plate held by two screws at the back.
  • They charge you Rs. 1000 when you change a house.
  • They will never tell you this but you can watch TV in more than one room with a single set-top box though you'll only be able to watch the same channel on all TVs.
  • There is a hidden settings menu in their interface for the technically inclined. Go to Organiser System Settings press 0, 1 and select button in quick succession. You'll get to DNB settings and other options.
  • The Tata Sky set-top box is from Thomson, their remote identical to those you get with SkyTV in UK and the software is from Open TV, the firm that sells software to Sky TV. Apparently, no one has been able to hack Sky TV (at least not publicly) to use the service without paying subscription fees.
  • assuming you don't relocate and your set top box doesn't breakdown after one year. If either of these happen, add additional cost.

How was this calculated

The costs in all cases include hardware, installation, subscription and maintenance costs (at today's prices) over a five year period. Basically, Cable TV is so cheap because it costs next to nothing to connect multiple TVs and because it has no maintenance costs. All you need is a coaxial cable splitter and you can connect as many TVs as you want. Since there is no STB so you don't have to worry about maintenance either.

Note that in case of Cable TV, the only installation expense is the cost of coaxial cable you use from the nearest connection to your house. The cable guy might quote a prohibitive amount for this wire but you have the option of getting your own (it's freely available at hardware stores) at a much cheaper price.

Here is a complete breakup of the costs over five year period for three televisions.


Opportunities for DTH in India look great. Since cable has penetrated the Indian market in a big way with roughly 40 million C&S homes, it is imperative that in its first few years of operations, paid service of DTH will be focused on a niche market. This niche would basically constitute the rich segment from urban as well as rural areas due to the primary reason of high initial costs for DTH and the associated psychology of people. Since Doordarshan will be starting its novel free-to-air service on Ku band, it is likely to give the prospective private DTH operators tremors and nightmares. The most attractive part of the Doordarshan platform is going to be its low initial cost and no recurring expenditure. Many cable homes are likely to make a shift to its platform and the service is likely to show its full impact in the rural areas where cable service is not possible.

All in all, there exists a tremendous potential for direct to home broadcast in Indian market and it is projected that within three years, there would be around 2.5 million DTH subscribers in India. This figure is likely to increase due to the increase in TV and Cable households and also the growing multiple TV households, which would form a large percentage of the total subscriber base. Since India's population crossed the one billion mark, it is no surprise that satellite operators and programmers world-wide have set their eyes on the world's largest open market for DTH satellite TV services. The growing popularity of TV as a communication medium has resulted in the TV media sectors undergoing a rapid transformation.

DTH players target potential CAS customers with attractive offers

Taking advantage of the shortage of set-top boxes faced by cable users, DTH players are luring potential CAS (conditional access system) customers with fancy offers to go for their satellite brands. The CAS markets of Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai are specifically being targeted with special schemes and offers.

While Essel Group's Dish TV has announced a special pricing for the CAS cities, Tata Sky is offering six month free subscription between December 28 and January 10, timing its offering with the introduction of CAS in these cities.

In the last few days since CAS came into being, Tata Sky claims it has been getting 25,000 customer calls at its call centres on a daily basis. "We believed we have garnered between 30 to 50 per cent of the CAS market so far

Essel Group's Dish TV has also been taking advantage of the demand-supply mismatch of set-top boxes by going for a special pricing for the CAS markets. With its provision of `flexible' pricing


Reliance Gets Go Ahead for DTH

Anil Ambani's Reliance-ADAG has reportedly received the letter of intent (LoI) from the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (I&B) to foray into the direct-to-home (DTH) broadcasting service in the country. Reliance Communications, however, declined to comment on this development. The government has reportedly asked the company to complete formalities, including bank guarantee and license fee The Company will now submit fees for the license, which it expects to procure within four to six weeks. Subsequently, the service will be launched within six to eight months.

Reliance-ADAG had applied for license to enter DTH services about a year ago when the two Ambani brothers reached a settlement on the issue of ownership of the Reliance Group. The service will be called "Reliance Blue Magic," and Reliance will be the fifth operator to enter the DTH arena after Zee Group's Dish TV, Star TV and Tatas' Tata Sky, Prasar Bharati's DD Direct Plus, and Kalanidhi Maran-promoted Sun TV. Meanwhile, Reliance-ADAG's entry into DTH is seen as the group's strategy to include the entire range of delivery systems through which content can be delivered to customers.

The company will now submit fees for the license, which it expects to procure within four to six weeks. Subsequently, the service will be launched within six to eight months. Reliance-ADAG had applied for license to enter DTH services about a year ago when the two Ambani brothers reached a settlement on the issue of ownership of the Reliance Group.

Dish TV Finds a New Competitor in Tata Sky

Tata Sky, the direct-to-home (DTH) venture of the Tata Group and STAR Network, was officially launched in the Capital on August 8, 2006. This will be the third DTH venture in the country. The other two players in the market are the Zee Group's Dish TV and Prasar Bharti's DD Direct. Till date, there hasn't been any direct competition between Dish TV and DD Direct as they both air different content. While Dish TV airs all the private satellite channels, DD Direct beams all the Doordarshan channels on its platform. In fact, their markets were also pre-defined. For instance, while Zee concentrated on and has built a strong market in the metros and bigger cities, DD Direct has penetrated the remote areas and villages across the country to a considerable extent in the absence of cable and satellite (C&S) television.


Research methodology is systematic representation of research or any other problem. It is a written game plan for conducting research. It tends to describe the step taken by researcher in studying the research problem along with logical background.

It tends to describe the methodology for solution of the problem that has been taken for the purpose of study. The chapter focuses in methodology for the techniques used for collection, classification and tabulation of data .This plan throws light on research problem objective and limitation of study.


A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. The research design used in my study is basically descriptive in nature.


The study made in use of both primary and secondary sources.


The survey will be undertaken on the lines of interaction with customers. It was the survey.


The survey method of obtaining information is based on the questioning and the answering of respondent & dealer. Respondent are asked a verify of question regarding their Opinion about project. The question were asked verbally and response were sought .The question were direct as well as indirect. Also the questions asked were Opening - handed.


Secondary data will be collected from various sources involving brouchers, Internet etc that will be of considerable help to me.


A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population .It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample i.e. the size of the sample. Convenience sample method is adopted to select the sample

4. SAMPL E SIZE: 108

(53 DTH users, 47 cable users& 8 dealers)


Ludhiana I have selected that city for the survey because these are the big city of Punjab and almost every new strategy is firstly tested here


The data after collection has to be processed and analyzed with the outline laid for the purpose at the time of developing the research plan. This is essential for a scientific study and for insuring that we have all relevant data for making contemplated comparison and analysis.

Technically speaking processing implies editing, coding, classification and tabulation of collected data so that they are amenable to analysis.

The term analysis refer to the computation of certain measures along with searching for patterns of relationship that exist among data groups .To analyze the data percentages, charts, graphs etc will be used.


The objective of my study is mainly to concentrate on:-



There was difficulties/obstacle faced during the initial part of the project, which were however overcome successfully. To list:-

  1. Geographical area is confined to MOHALI & CHANDIGARH and time was very less
  2. Another constraint has been regarding cost, since study involves the collection of primary and secondary data. Therefore the cost incurred was much more. Due to constraint the coverage of study could not be extended to more customers.
  3. Our knowledge is limited as we are students and does not have much experience
  4. People are hesitant to disclose information
  5. To convince the people for a proper interviewing process is also difficult
  6. Sample taken is small that is only 108 respondents.
  7. The 8 respondents are main dealers in the two big cities like Mohali and Chandigarh.
  8. Survey has been conducted in urban area so results may differ.


From the project we can conclude that people have started liking the DTH over the conventional cable connections and the initial response to DTH is more than good.

This is mainly due to the better quality of sound, picture and better connectivity. The customer also gets more value added services which are not possible with the cable TV. The only drawback is its initial investment and the monthly expense, which everyone could not afford to spend and people are also not much aware of the services of the DTH.

There is not much of difference between the services provided by TATA SKY and DISH TV, as TATA SKY score over the quality of audio and video, activation of the services and TATA SKY has an excellent customer care system while DISH TV has an edge over while providing the Value added services.

No doubt the future belongs to the DTH services as cables could not match the standards of DTH services.


  • Kothari C.R., Research methodology, New Age Publishing House, Second Edition
  • Beri G.C., Marketing research, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing House, Third Edition.
  • Gupta, S.P, Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand and sons, New Delhi, 2004
  • Kotler Philip (2003), Principals of Marketing, Pearson publishing, New Delhi
  • www.indiatelevision .com