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In the 18 century’s mid, it was realized by people that English has the related potential to become one of the world language because of individuals belonging to foreign were gaining dominance in comparison to others. Within the Europe, it was becoming a fashion to learn English language. With the passage of time, Italians also started taking interest to learn English and hence because of geopolitical enhancement, English language initiated to gain maximum attention of persons of the global world. Hence, the colonization takes place because the territories of the world were speaking in the English language (Osterhammel, 2005). Similarly, in 1952 (the time of Elizabeth 2) most people were using English Language to communicate with each other and hence, this growth of English Language tremendously increases because of expansion of colonial of England towards territories in the global world.
The different patterns of settlement
The English language was continuously spreading and hence, with the passage of time different patterns of colonization arises based on geographical locations as well as reasons of sociopolitics respectively. However, some countries think to spread themselves as “settler colonial” territory. On the other hand, dependency territory patters also present. The settler colonies, including many countries such as USA, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Thus, the people of Europe move towards these countries (Curthoys, 2005). It was not easy for the locals to migrate; hence, the outsider who needs a settler colony came towards these countries. Moreover, some local persons did marriage with people that came after migration including Mexico persons. On the other hand, some of them did not married to these migrated people and living, as they were always living in initial duration.
The other pattern of colonization namely dependencies that was done within the most powerful country. Thus, no settler did migration and hence the country if adopted colonization than they make certain administrators (an organization) who did control of these native people. However, this was done in India when the British Raj takes control over India. In this, the Netherland people (an organization’s role taken) control over East India.
Another pattern of colonization was plantation colonies. In this colony, the country that was maximum in powers grow different crops and take over the lands of those countries that are poor and not able to argue with others. Within these colonies, the poor country became slaves of the rich country and work, as they are their farmers of the land. It includes countries like Jamaica.
As there were different, patterns present of colonization, so it also includes trading post. In this colony, export and import was done with freedom. This mostly happened within the country that was more powerful and was rich as well. Similarly, the trading post was set up so that they have easily traded, selling products and services and flourishing their businesses towards the international market and gaining maximum concentration of the rest of the world. As per this situation, the rich countries were setting their forces of military and incurring different rules and regulation within the countries that were colonized.
People were influenced and ready to move towards other colonies because there were unemployment increasing within the England territory and hence, they think to move towards other colonies, which arises sociopolitical issues. Thus, people move to deal with unemployment issue as well as inflation. The overseas colonies were providing them job and fulfilling their needs.
The linguistic consequences
With time, the linguistic consequences arise for colonization in different and new forms the English in the globe (Mufwene, 2004). Similarly, in new varieties of the English arises and play a significant role. Within the new varieties of the development, five different stages came from the English (Seargeant & Swann, 2012). The very first stage was foundation in which English came in a territory that was very new and no single person was aware of this language. Within this territory, the settlers introduce the language and hence communication initiated. The other stage is exonormative stabilization. Within this stage, the English was the main language that was already spoken by different administrators and purpose of education. The third stage named as nativisation in which traditional culture and politic alliances replaced by the new one. The new linguistic took place and people started practicing them. The other stage was endonormative stabilization. Within this stage, the English territory considered as the important one and people started following it. Hence, a political independent territory takes place and English language play an essential role within the territory. The last stage was differentiation in which the people living locally were established in advance manner. However, people belonging to internal linguistic started and adopted English language as per their own choices and shaped the language in their own style.
British Isles or beyond along with one case of colonization and variation of the language
Different colonies were present that speak English Language in the world. The expansion of colony, England made the language of English as an international one. Hence, the English language gain maximum development because of different settlers of Europe was English speakers. Taking the example of North America, which was founded in 1607. The settlement done within the country and the group was named as the Pilgrim Fathers. To attract settlers, North American colony played a vital role during 1620. Almost 25000 people shifted towards North America because of the attraction. These pilgrims get religious freedom to live easily and follow their religion as per their own choices. The southern colonization was very different from northern one, as people settling in southern got less freedom comparatively. However, there was a relationship made in between North American persons settlement and trading the slave which was complex enough (Seargeant & Swann, 2013). With the passage of time, the difference takes place in between British English and American English. This difference, termed as colonial lag. Likewise, within the North America, variation occurs within the languages. With the linguistic differences, certain conflict arises in terms of economies, but hence gradually colonists take interest and settlement done. In 1783, similar like British gain full independence. Moreover, because of the colonization, a civil war also led in 1806 in which North America got the victory.
The resulting categories of language speakers as per Kachru’s circles
Different speakers for the English Language development present many models. However, Kachru’s Circle Model is one of the best, which describe colonization including different countries. In 1985, when the English was developed in the world, Kachru presented a model named as three-circle model intensifying its ways. This circle model consists of different phase include inner circle, the outer side circle and the last expanding circle (Schmitz, 2014). As the English used around the globe and hence became an important language. For this reason, the circles have reasons, including the type in which the circle is spreading, different forms and the acquisition of the language and function of the similar language that having cultures across the borders correspondingly.
The inner circle of the model is representing the English usage in traditional ways, where the people believe that this English language is their mother tongue. Countries like the USA, UK, and New Zealand are falling within the inner circle of the model. The other part of the circle named as an outer side circle. This part of the circle consists of the language English within those countries where it is being used as a secondary language. The language here is believed as a developing norm and it includes countries like Malaysia and India. The last part of the circle is named as expanding circle. Within this phase, people learn most common language of the world that is the English language. There is no history of English present in time, however, they do learn because of communication purposes with international countries including territories USA, UK and others. The people of these countries learn English language because the English language is an international language and commonly speaking all over the world. In addition, countries like China, Poland, and Greece are coming into expanding circle phase as they have learned English for just communication purposes.
It is believed that this model plays an important role to understand the English and its usage in different countries and territories. Moreover, this model helps to understand the English reality and its maximum belonging countries within the world.
The history shows the growth and continuous development of the English Language within the world. The process of expansion of English was initiated in the 18th century and still it is growing in current world. The need of English was realized from the 18th century, but still no one can stop this growth. The English language now plays a significant role within the world to communicate with one another on an international basis. From taking setup internationally, to getting an education, the English language is necessary for all and is present in all forms including written and verbal. The colonization helps to process and develop the English language and become the turning point present in the history. Similarly, a lot of development also done in the English language to prosper this in the world and hence in result Kachru presented a model for giving better understanding.
Curthoys, A., 2005. Transnational historiography. In: Connected Worlds: History in Transnational Perspective. s.l.:ANU E Press, pp. 7-9.
Mufwene, S. S., 2004. Language Birth and Death. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 33, pp. 201-222.
Osterhammel, J., 2005. Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview. s.l.:Markus Wiener Publishers.
Schmitz, J. R., 2014. Looking under Kachru’s (1982, 1985) three circles model of World Englishes: the hidden reality and current challenges. Scielo, 14(2).
Seargeant , P. & Swann, J., 2012. The linguistic consequences of colonisation. In: English in the World: History, Diversity, Change. Ney York: Routledge, pp. 107-109.
Seargeant, P. & Swann, J., 2013. English in the World: History, Diversity, Change. s.l.:Routledge.
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