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Use of written communication in the upward flow of communication is generally discouraged . Employees hesitate to use it . Modern management encourage it by introducing suitable suggestion system in which workers can write about their grievances and suggestions freely.
There is a need to use clear , concise and modern English in written communication because written communication is widely used in the business environment. Following points will help in clarifying that clear , concise and modern English in written communication helps the business organization :
Written communication helps in giving orders and instructions to the subordinates so it is desirable to use clear , concise and modern English to make the communication effective in the business environment.
Written communication helps in sending lengthy messages easily and effectively when it is difficult to transmit lengthy messages orally and here also use of clear , concise and modern English make the communication effective.
Written communication is helpful in explaining verbal communication . It also keeps a record of that information and here also the use of clear ,concise and modern English serve their purpose.
It is used in legal proceedings and it can be used for future references as it is reliable so it essential to use clear, concise and modern English.
It is clear and specific as the sender carefully selects the words to write message so that receiver will understand it correctly. Use of clear , concise and modern English make it effective.
When parties are situated in distant places , it is cheaper to communicate with the help of written communication so use of clear , concise and modern English are required.
It is difficult for a fraud to alter the contents of written message and to make written messages more effective clear, concise and modern English must be used.
Receiver takes sufficient time to understand the meaning of written message as a result , response is generally well-thought out in the case of written communication so written messages should be clear ,concise and they should be in modern English.
Written communication helps in eliminating chaos and confusion and the usage of clear, concise and modern English makes it more meaningful.
Written communication helps employees at work which results in coordination and cooperation if they are written with the use of clear, concise and modern English.
With the use of clear, concise and modern English, employees can write effective messages .Thus, written communication helps in the avoiding conflicts.
Use of clear, concise and modern English, effective messages can be built. Thus written communication helps in strengthening organization values and good organization culture.
Employees should use clear, concise and modern English to make the messages effective .In this way ,written communication can be used by employees to aware top management about grievances and suggestions through suggestion boxes which results in developing healthy relations between superior and subordinates.
The communication paths that are institutionally designed by the organizations are known as formal channels of communications. They are formed on the basis of status and position of sender and receiver.
Formal communication is determined by the top management in a proper manner so that authority , responsibility , accountability can be understood in an organization .It involves transmission of messages inside and outside the organization for the attainment of organizational objectives .
Written communication is generally useful in the formal communication. Orders, instructions, etc. are transmitted by the sender to the receiver in the form of written messages. Use of clear, concise, complete, concrete messages are highly essential for the effectiveness of business communication.
Completeness, conciseness, clarity, concreteness, courtesy, consideration correctness are the seven Cs of communication.
While writing it is essential that messages should be complete. Incomplete messages result in misunderstanding, confusion, conflicts, tension and make the environment unhealthy for work .
A complete message helps the organization in the following ways:
Complete messages help in reducing costs in business as there will not be any requirement of extra messages.
Complete messages help in building goodwill for the organization because receivers can know concern for them by the senders.
Complete messages avoid conflicts by avoiding possibility of wrong information.
Guidelines for complete messages are:
All the essential information should be provided in the messages.
All the answers must be provided for every question asked.
Some additional information must be given when desired.
In company's it is essential messages written should be concise. It should contain fewest possible words and messages must be brief without ignoring rest of the Cs of communication. A concise message is not wordy but it is complete to send the intended message to the receiver.
Following are the advantages of concise messages:
A concise message helps in reducing cost and it also helps in saving time .
A concise message helps in emphasizing important information and ignores irrelevant words.
A concise message is found more interesting to the receivers as they understand it in a better way.
Guidelines for concise messages are:
Wordy expressions must be avoided.
Only relevant information should be provided.
Unnecessary repetition of information must be avoided.
Messages should be organized in a proper manner.
Messages must be written in simple terms so that receiver can understand it properly. Words must be understood by the receiver in the same manner as intended by the receiver. Themes, slogans should be used in case of complex messages in order to maintain simplicity and clarity in the messages. Use of simple words and short sentences are advised. Accurate and familiar words should be used for writing messages.
Guidelines for clarity in messages are:
Sender should choose precise, concrete, accurate and familiar simple words for writing messages.
Sentences and paragraphs should be written in an effective manner.
Messages should contain accurate facts, figures and words .Language should be correct. If there will be any incorrect information with the receiver then it will result in conflicts and distrust.
Use of proper language of communication should be given priority and grammatical errors must be avoided.
Guidelines for correct messages are:
Only right and correct information should be provided to the receiver.
Grammatical errors should be avoided.
Messages should be specific, definite, vivid but not vague .If the messages are specific then receiver will understand the messages in the same manner as sent by the sender.
Guidelines for concrete messages are:
Concrete expressions should be used by the sender.
Specific facts and figures should be provided to the receiver.
Use of passive voice should be avoided.
Sender should choose vivid words rather than vague and general.
Sender should keep in mind about the sentiments, emotions of the receiver while writing messages. In this manner effective communication can be possible in the organizations. The use of Humane approach is advised.
Consideration also includes use of positive and pleasant facts. All the no's and regrets can be expressed in a positive manner.
Guidelines for considerations are:
Sender should understand the socio-psychological background of the receiver.
Positive and pleasant facts can make the communication effective.
People should understand others by listening carefully and patiently to them. They should give respect to them. There should communicate in a polite manner. They should show respect and concern for others .It helps in effective communication in the organizations.
Guidelines for courtesy are:
Thank the person who has done favor to you.
A person who has done mistake must apologize sincerely.
Irritating expressions should be avoided.
Non- discriminatory expressions must be used to show equal treatment for everybody
There are various sub- processes in the writing process. Sender has to think then he or her writes again he or her thinks and write so process of writing is a recursive process . A writer has memorize the content to write and while writing also he or her to keep the content, information
The sub-processes of writing are:
Prewriting - It includes germination of ideas and thoughts.
Drafting - It includes designing skeleton.
Sharing -To think about the way of sharing information and about what information.
Revising- It involves redrafting .Information which is unclear , elimination , expression etc.
Editing-It includes the choice of words, connotations, sentence- building etc.
Evaluation-It involves checking of logic, reasoning, ethics and to check whether they matches the purpose.
These six sub-processes are divided into three stages of writing and they are as follows:
1. Pre-writing or Preparation and Planning stage.
2. Drafting and Sharing or Writing stage.
3. Revising, Editing and Evaluation or Checking stage.
For the purpose of writing, a writer has to decide about the following questions:
He or She is to know the purpose of writing.
He or She is know about the invisible reader.
He or She needs to know about the material to be put in the message.
He or She should know the right time to write the message.
To know from where he or she would collect resources and about manner of organizing the message.
Planning involves deciding about how much space is to be provided. It also involves about the beginning and ending of the message. It involves deciding the length of message within which it is to be written .Planning stage helps in carefully analysis about the whole message that how it should be formed so that it would make the communication effective.
Drafting and Sharing stage.
A writer must know what he or she wants to write in the message, this helps in choosing the correct words for writing messages. It also helps in expressing his or her thoughts in the message in a appropriate manner.
Writer's word power , vocabulary , usage of words , knowledge of grammar , knowledge of connotations , knowledge of sentence- making , use of phrases , experimentation with the idioms and words etc.
Writing should be clear, precise and to the point so that reader or receiver can understand it in a proper way.
Three areas needed concern are:
The message which is sent to the sender to the receiver.
The kind of information which is to be put in the message.
Effective use of technique to focus on every part of the topic.
Revising , Editing and Evaluation stage
In this stage revision and checking of the written message is to be done. Any grammatical error , spelling mistakes , use of wrong words etc are to be identified so that message would be free from errors and message would be able to serve its purpose.
There should be some time gap between the three stages so that writer would be able identify the various mistakes and he or she would be able to correct those mistakes.
Writer should check the appropriate length of the message, space between words, tenses, clarity of sentences, brevity, conciseness and precision etc.
All these points must be checked. In this way there can be an effective communication.
WRITING EFFECTIVE SENTENCE
There should be effective sentence making for the effective communication. A writer must know how to make sentences in case of questions, statements, a command etc. Knowledge about the subject - verb-object pattern in a normal sentence is required by the writer. Usage of conjunctions and knowledge about compound sentences is required by the writer. Phrases and clauses are used in the making of sentences. Knowledge of noun phrases, adjectival phrases, prepositional phrases, adverbial phrases is required by the writer.
Knowledge about subject and predicate in the clauses must be known to the writer for the effective communication. Writer should avoid writing in the same pattern as it becomes monotonous. There are various patterns of writing .They help in creating interest in the text.
Writer should decide the length of the sentences. Short sentences help in making messages simple and easy to understand by the receiver. There are chances of grammatical errors in case of long sentences. A writer must know about manipulating and experimenting with the words, phrases, short sentences and long sentences etc.
EFFECTIVE WRITING SKILLS
Following skills are important in effective writing:
Unified writing is essential for the effective writing .There should be right development of the topic .Without proper development of the topic, it cannot serve its purpose .A writer must give importance to the stature of the reader and receiver. Proper use of vocabulary for encoding of data, ideas, information, helps in transmitting message in an effective manner.
There must be correct cause and effect relationship. Facts, generalizations, predictions, and conclusions should be based on correct information.
Following are the characteristics of the unified writing.
Writer must select unique topic for writing. He or She must know about the topic in detail. Selection of topic should be done after proper analyzing and evaluating various information .Selection of wrong topic can create problems.
Selection of topic creates various thoughts in the mind of the writer .He or She should develop his or her own opinion about the topic .Unclear thoughts creates confusion for the writer and reader as well. So writer should develop his or her own opinion to make the reader understand.
Ideas should be grouped into paragraphs .Similar thoughts should be grouped in an idea to make the text simple and easy to understand by the reader.
A writer should know about the skill of dividing the whole information in various paragraphs. Movement from one paragraph to another depends on the skills and capability of the writer to make the message effective.
Paragraphs must be linked to each other, there should be proper transition. There should be some questions and facts at the end of first paragraph to make messages effective. Then, topic continues with next paragraph.
There should be proper direction in writing effective messages .Objective of the writing determines the right direction and path to follow.
A writer should make message interesting .Interesting messages leads to quick response from the side of reader.
Unified writing makes reader satisfied by covering all information in detail. Complete message helps in effective communication.
Coherence is important skill in writing .Paragraphs and sections should related to each other. The text should not be loosely composed. Compact text helps in making messages effective. A tight text catches the attention of the reader. It eliminates distraction from the reader's side.
Following are the characteristics of the coherence in writing skills.
A writer should choose the precise words for writing .Use of choppy expressions should be avoided by the writer. He or She should write to the point.
A writer should minimum possible words for writing messages. Messages should be brief but it should be complete as well. Concise messages make the communication effective.
There must be some reason behind different statements. Reasoning tightens the text .
There should be some logic in various statements .Logic validates the text. There should be cause and effect relationship to make the communication effective.
A writer should use abbreviations where required in the text. It makes the sentences short.
An efficient writer compresses the text from his or her skills to make the communication effective.
An efficient writer avoids the repetitions of the same idea to make the message interesting and effective.
Following are the guidelines for the staff members of the organization to communicate effectively:
Employees should write brief and precise messages for effective communication.
Use of masculine pronouns such as he, him, his for both sexes should be avoided when they are used in case of both sexes as they can create problems.
Employees should write short paragraphs as readers find them interesting to read. They should take care of paragraph length. Initial and last paragraphs should be small.
Paragraphs should be unified and all sentences in a paragraph should be related to the same idea.
Messages should be complete so that they will not create confusion to the receiver.
Employees should use indirect approach in case of negative news or bad news.
Abbreviations should be used to make the communication effective.
Spelling must be checked before sending the letter.
Different patterns of sentences should be used to make the text interesting to read by the reader.
Repetitions of the information should be avoided to make the communication effective.
Employees should use technical words with caution otherwise it can results in miscommunication
Employees should avoid the use of slang's to make the communication effective.
Employees should give reason for every statement to make the reader understand the message properly.
Employees should use simple and familiar words to make the communication effective.
Employees should include all the favorable details about the good news messages.
Employees should compress the text but it should be complete as well to make the text interesting.
Employees should use their logic while writing. They should provide cause and effect relationship to make the messages clear and easy to understand.