The Different Types Of Plagiarism English Language Essay

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There are standards that guide a writer in using other's words and ideas. The standards that govern whether or not a person has committed plagiarism have been long established. Violations of these rules are on the increase. According to Webster's New World Dictionary, plagiarism is defined as kidnapping and plagiarize is defined as taking an idea, writings, etc. from another and pass them off as one's own. ("Plagiarism," 1988) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition states that "Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they give credit where credit is due." (Publication Manual, 2010)

There are different types of plagiarism identified by Nuts and Bolts of College Writing:

Quoting material without attribution.

Passing off another's idea as your own, even if it's been reworded.

Imitating a passage's structure or argument with attribution.

Concealing the extent to which you've borrowed from a text or other source. (Harvey, 2003)

I can understand or relate to why students plagiarize because I am a student and have often found myself with too many assignments at one time. However, I have never intentionally plagiarized any paper I completed. For one thing, teachers have a way of knowing that the work is not the students. Just as we as students have access to sites where we can test our work for plagiarism, so can instructors.

Why students plagiarize? First, students become anxious when the words "research paper" is mentioned. A student taking more than one class with two or three research papers may find it over-taxing. Many students do not have the skills to perform research effectively. Students are told to paraphrase but cannot understand the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarizing. Students may be confused how to cite their resources. I have always had trouble citing websites and I am sure I am not alone in this. Some cites give clear reference information and others do not.

Intentional and Unintentional plagiarism can be mistaken as the same thing. I think this depends on the instructor. Intentional plagiarism involves a person knowing that the work or ideas he uses belongs to someone else. The plagiarizer either tries to disguise the other person's works or does not give the original writer credit. Buy research papers off the internet is also intentional plagiarism. Usually unintentional plagiarism means that s person either is not knowledgeable about the rules of plagiarism or they confused about the correct way to cite sources.

Citing sources in your research paper recognizes resources you have implemented and allows your readers to find the sources. When citing the precise words of someone else, quotation marks must enclose what is being cited. Paraphrasing can be tricky. Why? Because you are using your own words but another's ideas, your source must be cited.

The next six pages are taken from an online article by Dr. C. Bambaun, Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Valdosta State University. This paper describes and provides examples each type of plagiarism. (Barnbaun)

Description: Any time you lift a sentence or significant phrase intact from a source, you must use quotations marks and reference the source of your information.

Copy & Paste PLAGIARISM

Especially since the launch of HST and the unprecedented clarity of the images satellites have given us, you've all seen on the news or in books, beautiful color pictures of various sights in the cosmos. But is this the way you would see these objects if you went there? Well, to tackle that question, first we have to consider the nature of light and color. Light is made of waves of electromagnetic radiation. We perceive different wavelengths of visible light as different colors.

Everyone is interested in astronomical images, especially since the launch of HST and the unprecedented clarity of the images satellites have given us. But is this the way you would see these objects if you went there?

How to use the info without plagiarizing

We are all thrilled by the beauty of pictures of the universe taken with space telescopes and other satellites. The pictures display spectacular color and detail, but, as posed in "Source Article" by So-n-so, "is this the way you would see these objects if you went there?"

Description: If you take a sentence from a source and change around a few words, it is still plagiarism. If you want to quote a sentence, then you need to put it in quotation marks and cite the author and article. But quoting Source articles should only be done if what the quote says is particularly useful in the point you are trying to make in what you are writing. In the case below, a quotation would not be useful. The person who plagiarized in this example has just been too lazy to synthesize the ideas expressed in the Source article.

Word Switch PLAGIARISM

All solid bodies emit light: stars, rocks and people included. The temperature of the star, rock or person determines which wavelength of light will be most strongly radiated. In the constellation Orion, the upper left star is Betelgeuse (Armpit of the giant), 520 l-y distant. Betelgeuse is a supergiant star, 14,000 times brighter than our sun, and so big, if you were to put Betelgeuse in place of our sun, its surface would reach all the way out to Jupiter. Betelgeuse's color is bright red. On the other hand, another supergiant star, Rigel, with a luminosity 57,000 times that of the sun, appears whitish-blue. The reason that Betelgeuse is red and Rigel is blue is that their surface temperatures are different. Hot stars at 30,000 degrees emit a lot more blue light than red light, and so hot stars look blue or bluish-white. Cool stars at 3,000 degrees give off more red light than blue, and so these stars look red.

Stars, rocks and people all emit light, and which wavelength of light will be most strongly radiated depends on the temperature of the star, rock or person. For example, the star Betelgeuse in the constellation Orion, Armpit of the Giant, is a supergiant star, 14,000 times brighter than our own sun.

How to use the info without plagiarizing:

Everything has a temperature, and everything radiates light, and the two are not unconnected. In fact, the hotter a body is, the more blue light it radiates and the colder, the redder the emission. So what is the difference between red and blue light? It is the wavelength. An interesting example is given in "The Source Article" by So-n-so, where the author points out that the star Betelgeuse in the constellation Orion is very red because its temperature is so cool, and Rigel, another star in Orion, is blue because it is so hot.

Word Switch PLAGIARISM

Brown dwarfs rank among the most elusive objects in the universe. With masses from about 15 to 80 times that of Jupiter, they are bigger than planets but too small to ignite the nuclear fusion reactions that cause stars to shine.

Brown dwarfs are difficult to locate and rank among the most elusive objects in the universe. Brown dwarfs have masses from about 15 to 80 times that of Jupiter. Scientists have determined that brown dwarfs are bigger than planets, however, they are too small to ignite nuclear fusion reactions which cause stars to shine.

How to use the info without plagiarizing:

Brown dwarfs are more massive than typical planets but yet are too small to be stars. Stars, by definition, maintain nuclear fusion reactions, which require a large mass.

Description: When you follow a Source Article sentence-by-sentence or paragraph-by-paragraph (as is done in the example below), it is plagiarism, even though none of your sentences is exactly like those in the Source Article or even in the same order. What you are copying in this case, is the author's reasoning style. If you were to make a basic outline of the Source Article below and then outline the Style-plagiarized example on the right, you would see that the outlines are the same! Contrast this with the non-plagiarized example, where the information in the Source Article is used only to enhance the point the student is trying to make.

Style PLAGIARISM

Especially since the launch of HST and the unprecedented clarity of the images satellites have given us, You've all seen on the news or in books, beautiful color pictures of various sights in the cosmos. But is this the way you would see these objects if you went there? Well, to tackle that question, first we have to talk about the nature of light and color.

Light is made of waves of electromagnetic radiation. We perceive different wavelengths as different colors.

All solid bodies emit light: stars, rocks and people included. The temperature of the star, rock or person determines which wavelength of light will be most strongly radiated. In the constellation Orion, the upper left star is Betelgeuse (Armpit of the giant), 520 l-y distant. Betelgeuse is a supergiant star, 14,000 times brighter than our sun. and so big, if you were to put Betelgeuse in place of our sun, its surface would reach all the way out to Jupiter. Betelgeuse's color is bright red. On the other hand, another supergiant star, Rigel, with a luminosity 57,000 times that of the sun, appears whitish-blue. The reason that Betelgeuse is red and Rigel is blue is that their surface temperatures are different.

Hot stars at 30,000 degrees emit a lot more blue light than red light, and so hot stars look blue or bluish-white. Cool stars at 3,000 degrees give off more red light than blue, and so these stars look red.

The beautiful pictures that the space telescope has given us show spectacular color. But is the color real? First, we have to consider what light and color are. Different wavelengths of light correspond to different colors, and light is called electromagnetic radiation. The temperature of an object determines the color of light emitted, and all things, including people, emit light. In the constellation Orion, the star Betelgeuse is a huge, giant star, as big as the orbit of Jupiter. Betelgeuse is red. Another star in Orion, Rigel, is blue. The reason that they are different colors is that they each have a different surface temperature.

Cold stars are at about 3,000 degrees and emit more red than blue light and very hot stars emit blue light since they have temperatures of about 30,000 degrees.

How to use the info without plagiarizing

Is there anything we can know about stars by just looking at them without binoculars or a telescope, or are they just really mysterious objects that will always keep their secrets? With only our naked eyes we can see that stars have different colors, from white to blue to yellowish and red; and color does indeed tell us something important about stars. Color tells us a star's temperature. Everything has a temperature, and everything radiates light, and temperature and light are intimately connected. In fact, the hotter a body is, the more blue light it radiates and the colder, the redder the emission.

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