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Successful leaders today are not preserved for men only. Women also have managed to be very effective in their leadership. Both have submitted a high capacity as well as producing a psychologically strong society for well performance. Although some research results propose that there is no difference in overall leadership effectiveness by gender, still people in various communities have diverse preferences to their boss's gender in which it might be considered as cultural phenomena.
My assignment will examine international comparative data on the different reactions of citizens towards the gender of their boss in some European and Arab countries. First, I am going to specify certain questions that I would like to search for, and then I will talk about the theatrical framework that I am going to use in my investigation. After that I will indicates the ideas that will help me in analyzing my data. Moreover, I will give a description to the data that I'm planning to collect with evidence. I will refer to the researching methodology that I'm intending to use such as: (visual methods, recording, questioner paper, online survey, setting description, ethical issues, and finally the theoretical methods). The conclusion will be a sum up of my perception about the proposal.
Aims of My Investigation
My examination ought to answer the following questions:
How do European men and women react toward boss's gender?
Are there any differences between European men and women leadership?
How do Arab men and women react toward boss's gender?
Are there any differences between Arab men and women leadership?
What are the facts that lead European/Arab men and women think in this way?
Which gender is more preferred in both communities? Why?
Are there certain jobs that suit female more than male? If the answer is yes, what are they?
Are there any difficulties in dealing with man/woman boss?
Does the boss's gender affect the employ's success?
Has anyone quit or changed position because of their boss?
Are there any differences between Europeans and Arabs towards the boss's gender?
Which gender is more preferred to be hired by Europeans and Arabs (female/male)?
Rationale and Main Conceptual themes for the Research
Through my career I have developed a good experience of the intricate involved in work places in which most of the time people may have male of female bosses in their work. As a manager assistant in the International Gulf Company, I have usual access to various work sites, where the majority of our customers are from different countries. I have personally witnessed the divergent attitudes of different people towards their boss's gender. It was amazing what I have found out. The sociolinguist, Dell Hymes said that one needs "fresh kind of data" to examine straightforwardly the way people's act and behave. Also, we need to understand the context of situation and the setting to determine patterns of personality, social structure, customs and religion. (Hymes quoted in Maybin, Language & Literacy in Social Practice, p. 9)
I always thought that most women would prefer to have a female boss. However, I was shock because what I found is, on the contrary, the majority of how I met prefers male boss. Whereas, some men said it doesn't matter, a few said they don't have a problem as long as she is beautiful and other would resign. Therefore, I decide to make an investigation in order to explore if this phenomenon is spread only in Arab countries, or it is also in European countries.
My study will demonstrate which boss's gender is the most preferred in the Arab and European countries and the reason behind that. Moreover, I want to show the different reaction of the two sides toward their boss's gender, and if there are some differences between male and female leadership. Furthermore, I'm going to indicate if the boss's gender affects the employ's success, and if it is hard to deal with male/female. My research can be categorizing under social study or can be known as culture studies, which require a specific method that can make the investigation productive.
There are many idea and information that can support and underpinning my work in the text book such as: the first article, in Researching Language and Literary in Social Context by Graddol, Maybin, and Stierer, Introducing Ethnography Hammersley pp. 1-12. Beside the second article in Language and Literacy in Social practice, by Maybin, Toward, ethnographies of communication by Dell Hymes p. 9- 17. Additionally, A Synthesis Of Ethnographic Research by Michael Genzuk (1999), on line material. Finally, Researching Language and Literary in Social Context by Graddol, Maybin, and Stierer. Swann, Joan (2005) Observing and Recording Talk in Educational Settings Chapter 3.
Description of Intended Data and Research Methods
My investigation will be conducted in the form ethnography study. "Ethnography (Greek á¼”Î¸Î½Î¿Ï‚ ethnos = folk/people and Î³ÏÎ¬Ï†ÎµÎ¹Î½ graphein = writing) is a qualitative research method often used in the social sciences, particularly in anthropology and in sociology." It is commonly used for gathering "empirical data on human societies/cultures." "Data collection is always done through participant observation, interviews, questionnaires, etc. Ethnography seeks to illustrate the nature of those who are studied (i.e. to describe a people, an ethnos) through writing. In the biological sciences, this type of study might be called a "field study" or a "case report," both of which are used as common synonyms for "ethnography"." (Wikipedia, Hammersley quoted in Maybin, 2005, Researching Language & Literacy in Social Context, p. 1) My data for this report comes from numerous sources. I mainly rely on survey, interviews, and questionnaires data collected within the framework of my project. The data collection method and details have been illustrated in another place; hence I will review this only briefly here.
The examination will be established on analyzing two different communities. The first participants group (A) will be European (male and female) from different countries and the second one, group (B) will be Arabs (male and female). I will use three different methods in conducting my exploration:-
The first one will be through interviewing a number of people from both societies.
The second method will be a questionnaire. I will distribute a questionnaire paper between people from different nationality to observe their answers.
The last technique will be the survey which is posted by me and by other people in the website.
The reason behind choosing different methods is to get a broader insight and to have a good chance of collecting a numerous number of data. For example, the first method will provide me with a direct observation and audio recording of the whole interview, which will make it easy for me to listen to it more than one time. Of course some of the interviews will be in Arabic. Therefore, I will transliteration, translate, and transcribe the data that I have in order to be easily understood (Swann quoted in Maybin, 2005, Researching Language & Literacy in Social Context, chapter, 3, pp. 29-36). Moreover, the second technique will supply information in a different way. It is simpler and helpful in collocating bigger number of information in short time. Although the last type (survey) is posted on line, I think it will be useful because it will be answered by various participants.
Settings for Collection of Evidence
I am going to visit various settings (companies and institutions). For example, The International Gulf Company, Al-Shoura International for trading, GLS for transportation, Mordas Al-Mutairi for consulting, Body Lean Health club, Al-Jumeirah beach, Shuwaikh port, Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Defiance. The research will be conducting with many people from different countries (male and female, from USA, UK, Latvia, Germany, Slovakia, Kuwait, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, UAE, and may be other countries which will be specified more in the project). Also, I will interview some participants and record the interview. Additionally, I found that as long as I'm going to travel to UAE, it will be an excellent opportunity to see, meet, and interview many people from different country. Moreover, I prepared a questionnaire to distribute it in the previous companies and institutions. Also, I will use surveys that are posted on line by me on the Face book and in Yahoo! answers?, by other people such as: the Badbossology (Women vs. Men) link and by the Naira land forum (Female Boss or Male Boss?). (Straightshooter, 2005)
Methods for Collection of Data
I will visit each company and interview people as many as I can. Also, at my work I will go to different sections and inquire them to tell me their opinion. I will be the one who is interviewing these people. I should always be careful of the way I ask my question because I want my interviewee to answer the question from their perspective. Moreover, I will distribute my questionnaire in the different places and collect them back within a week. Additionally, I posted a survey on my Facebook and Yahoo! Answer? and I'm going to use a survey that is posted already by other people. After that I will collect all the answers and start to analyze, illustrate, transliterate, translate, transcribe, evaluate, categorize, and calculate all the data.
Since ethnographic investigation is conducting among real people in real situation, there are a number of ethical concerns to be alert to before starting. In brief, as a researcher I must make my research purposes understandable to the members of the society where I am going to undertake my study and gain their permission to my investigation "beforehand". It is also important to ask whether the group would favor to be a pseudonym or named in the report. In addition, I would offer the outcome of the research if researched would like to read it. I must be sure that my exploration does not hurt or abuse the participants. The used materials will be acknowledged in the bibliography section. (Cameron, Frazer, Harvey, Rampton, & Richardson quoted in Maybin, 2005, Researching Language & Literacy in Social Context, chapter. 2, pp. 15-19)
Planned Analysis of Collected Data
The answers' analysis of the participants will provide me a chance to make quantitative graphic diagrams of frequency gender choice for each person. Furthermore, the collection of all responses (transcripts, questionnaires, and surveys) will be added in a statistics' schedules and charts. Also, an explanation and a discussion will be provided in each step.