The Development Of Modern Artificial Intelligence English Language Essay

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I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.

Albert Einstein

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html

The Artificial Intelligence is the modern technology which is developed by the computer experts. We can easy to use this technology in our normal life. We can get the great advantages to make easier our daily routines. This generation use these devices to get the machinery works. The new world maintains the robots as the house hold item.

The designing of the robot cleaner is the imagination. I think that imagination can change the world one day and it can make revolution as well. Therefore our new imaginations can begin the new era in the history.

This project is about the robot cleaner and the routine of its development. We can use the robot cleaner to save our time without cleaning. Therefore, the robot cleaner can use as our house hold device like the computers.

The routine has the three stages. The first stage is the basic task and it's in the foundation level of the development stages and the well defined robot cleaner. The moderate task is the secondary stage of the development process. It is better development stage than basic and the weaknesses of the basic level are mostly reduced in this second task. The advanced task is the best development layer of my invention.

This project report and the presentation reflects the all the designing and the testing levels. As well as the project is designed with the critical appraisal including strengths and weaknesses of the each stages.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Using the Mind storm Robots produce a routing to move the block of rubbish ( a drinks can ) into a containment area and get the robot back behind the safety line.

Basic: Build and program a robot that can take a block of rubbish that starts just in front of the robot into a containment area, which is marked with a black line, and then move the robot back behind the safety line leaving the rubbish in the containment area.

Moderate: Build and program a robot that can detect whether there is a block of rubbish in the area or not, stay behind the safety line. If the rubbish is present then it will still be in front of the robot.

Advanced: Build and program a robot that can find a block of rubbish regardless of where it is located and move it into the containment area, which is marked with a black line, and move the robot back to a safe line.

Figure 1 Dropping off the rubbish

Figure 2 Going behind the line

ANALYSIS & ASSUMPTIONS

I use the RCX yellow coloured brick. The first generation of LEGO Mindstorms is build around the RCX. It contains a collision detector Renesas H8 / 300 microcontrollers as its internal CPU. Here is the main part of the robot the RCX brick. The motors are drive from ports A, B, and C. The sensors are connected on ports 1,2 and 3.In the problems unless otherwise stated the sensors will be connected on ports 1 , 2 and 3 and the motors on ports A and C. There is an LCD which can display the battery level, the conditions of the input /output ports, which program is selected or running, and other information.

leJOS-JAVA

A Java based system for advanced programmers can handle most sensors and I used this programming language in the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. It can be interfaced with the Eclipse IDE environment.

DESIGN

If the facts don't fit the theory, change the facts.

Albert Einstein

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html

"Design is a process of problem-solving and planning for a software solution. After the purpose and specifications of software are determined, software developers will design or employ designers to develop a plan for a solution. It includes low-level component and algorithm implementation issues as well as the architectural view."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_design

Basic Task

In the basic task in the assignment, robot cannot detect a block of rubbish. It can detect the containment area and the safety line. Therefore, the robot cleaner can take a block of rubbish that starts just in front of the robot cleaner into a containment area, which is marked with a black line. Then the cleaner moves backward to the safety line.

When I designed the solution to this basic task, I used only one light sensor. This single light sensor identified the black line in the containment area as the first line (according to the cording). The safety line was identified as the second line to the robot cleaner. Therefore, if you try to do this you must be placed the light sensor in front of the safety line at the very first time.

public class week2_4{

public static void main(String[] args)

{

robot2 cleaner=new robot2();

for(;;)

{

if (cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)

{

cleaner.forward(10);

}

if (cleaner.checkLight(1)==true)

{

cleaner.backward(1000);

while(cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)

{

cleaner.backward(10);

}

if (cleaner.checkLight(1)==true)

cleaner.halt();

}

}

}

}

Moderate Task

I attempted to do the moderate task with the three light sensors. First light sensor I use to detect the containment area. I use the second light sensor to identify the block of rubbish weather it is in front of the robot or not. Therefore the rubbish (Bin's body) must be covered with the black tape. Third light sensor helps to identify the safety line. The robot cleaner does not use the third sensor above the containment area. Therefore if the robot cleaner detects the block of rubbish in the area it moves the rubbish to the containment area.

If there is not the block of rubbish in front of the robot, it does not move to the containment area. First it goes forward the safety line and then come backward to the safety line.

In this step of the assignment, the block of rubbish will still be in front of the robot. In this moderate stage, it can detect a block of rubbish with using the second light sensor. The first light sensor must be placed in front of the safety line at the very first time. As well as the third light sensor must be on the safety line.

I got this three light sensor idea from one of my friends. First I decided to use the bumpers to identify the block of rubbish .But; I think this three light sensor idea is very simple to use and to implement to the robot. If I use the bumpers I must use the same type of cording, although this physical structure can be easily understand for the every one.

According to my opinion, when we are introducing the new device to the public, the way we are presenting it to them is very important. It should be the easy handling method to the every single person.

public class week2_4{

public static void main(String[] args)

{

robot2 cleaner=new robot2();

for(;;)

{

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==true)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==true));

{

cleaner.forward(500);

while((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==true)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==false))

{

cleaner.forward(5);

}

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==true)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==true)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==false));

{

cleaner.backward(3000);

while ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==false));

{

cleaner.backward(50);

}

If((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==true));

{

cleaner.halt();

}

}

}

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==true));

{

cleaner.halt();

}

}

}

}

Besides, I realised a weakness of using these light sensors. The second light sensor can detect the rubbish which is covered with the black tape. If we use the bumpers instead of the second light sensor and the third light sensor, we can reduce this problem. We do not want to use the block of rubbish with black tape, when we use the bumpers. Therefore I have made my cording to solve this weakness.

public class week2_4{

public static void main(String[] args)

{

robot2 cleaner=new robot2();

for(;;)

{

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkBumpers(2)==true)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (3)==true));

{

cleaner.forward(500);

while((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (2)==true)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (3)==true))

{

cleaner.forward(5);

}

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==true)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (2)==true)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (3)==true));

{

cleaner.backward(3000);

while ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (2)==false)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (3)==false));

{

cleaner.backward(50);

}

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==true)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (2)==false)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (3)==false));

{

cleaner.halt();

}

}

}

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==true)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (2)==false)&&( cleaner. checkBumpers (3)==false));

{

cleaner.halt();

}

}

}

}

Advanced Task

In the advanced task in the assignment, robot can detect a block of rubbish regardless where it is located and the robot should be moved it in to the containment area. The robot can move back to the containment area.

I did not finish the advanced task. But I have the opinion to do the advanced task in a simple way. We should make the two black lines to cover the cleaning area, where the block of rubbish is placed (the lines should be within the cleaning area). The black lines should be placed left and right hand sides of the cleaning area.

The robot cleaner uses the three light sensors same as the moderate task. But, they must be placed in a different manner. The front light sensor must be placed left hand corner of the front stage, where the two hands are placed. Then, the back light sensor must be placed right hand corner of the same stage.

The front light sensor does not detect the safety line and only the back light sensor detects the safety line. Then, the robot cleaner moves forward and turn right. After it turns to the right, the back light sensor should be on the safety line. Then the cleaner can move forward on the safety line.

When it meets the block of rubbish, the robot cleaner moves on the safety line Then, the robot cleaner goes backward for small period (20 milliseconds) and spins left in 90 degrees. After that, the back light sensor will be on the right side black line. Then it should move until the back light sensor will false. Then the robot cleaner moves backward for small period and turn left in 90 degrees. Then, it should go to the containment area. When the back light sensor meets to the black line of the containment area, the robot turns in 90 degrees to place the rubbish in the area. After that, the robot moves backward until the back light sensor will true. If the back light sensor identifies this black line it should be stopped. Because, it is the safety line.

When the robot cleaner does not meet any block of rubbish near t to the safety line, it goes forward until the front light sensor detects the right black line. Then, the robot cleaner goes backward for small period (20 milliseconds) and spins left in 90 degrees. In this position the back light sensor should be detected the right black line of the cleaning area. Then the robot cleaner moves forward for small period (100 milliseconds) and turns to left in 90 degrees. After that the robot goes forward until the front light sensor meets the left black line.

If the robot meets the block of rubbish near to the safety line (but on the right black line) then it goes forward until the back light sensor gets false. If it gets false the robot cleaner moves backward for small period (20 milliseconds) and spins left in 90 degrees. After that cleaner meets the containment area, the block of rubbish must put in there. When the back light sensor detects the black line, the robot turns to right hand side in 90 degrees and at this time the front light sensor can detect the front light of the containment area. After that until the back light sensor identifies the black line, the robot cleaner moves backward to the safety line.

If there is the block of rubbish in the middle of the cleaning area, the back and front light sensors nothing to be identified. The middle light sensor detects the block of rubbish and the robot goes to the left black line. If the front light sensor detects the black line, the robot moves backward for small period of time (20 milliseconds)and turns right in 90 degrees. At this time the front light sensor should got the signals from the left black line. Then the robot moves forward until the front light sensor gets false and moves backward for the small period of time (20 milliseconds) and spins right in 90 degrees. After that the robot cleaner goes forward until the front light sensor meets the front black line of the containment area. Then the cleaner turns in 90 degrees and leave the block of rubbish in there as well as it comes backward to the safety line. The safety line should be detected by the back light sensor.

This is my easy way to do the advanced task. But, I did not finish it.

TESTING

I think and think for months and years. Ninety-nine times, the conclusion is false. The hundredth time I am right.

Albert Einstein

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html

"Testing is an empirical investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test[1] , with respect to the context in which it is intended to operate. This includes, but is not limited to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_testing

Testing Steps for Basic Task

At the first time, the robot went forward with the wrong cording. Then I corrected it as following. Therefore, I made the larger, time range for the first backward statement than earlier. I suggested 1000 for it. Because, if the robot moves backward for 10 milliseconds, the light sensor will stand still above the black line. After that it worked, but an error was remaining. The robot cleaner did not stop at the safety line in the end. First, I used the stop for the last statement, but it did not work. Then I used halt for it. Finally, it worked properly according to the basic task

public class week2_4{

public static void main(String[] args)

{

robot2 cleaner=new robot2();

for(;;)

{

if (cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)

{

cleaner.forward(10);

}

if (cleaner.checkLight(1)==true)

{

cleaner.backward(10);

while(cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)

{

cleaner.backward(10);

}

if (cleaner.checkLight(1)==true)

cleaner.halt();

}

}

}

}

Corrected cording is

cleaner.backward(1000);

Testing Steps for Moderate Task

At the first time, the robot detected the safety line and moved forward with the block of rubbish. It means the robot cleaner can detect the block of rubbish as well as the third light sensor detected the safety line. It moved to the containment area and leaved the block of rubbish in there. But it did not move backward until it met the safety line. It stopped between the safety line and the containment area.

Then, I used the first time testing method to correct the cording. I enhanced the time period of the first backward statement and reduced the time of the second forward statement. Then the light sensors can identify the black line of the containment area easily.

After that the robot cleaner did not stop at the safety line in the end. First, I used the stop for the last statement, but it did not work. Then I used halt for it. Finally, it worked properly according to the moderate task

public class week2_4{

public static void main(String[] args)

{

robot2 cleaner=new robot2();

for(;;){

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==true)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==true));

{

cleaner.forward(500);

while((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==true)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==false))

{

cleaner.forward(500);

}

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==true)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==true)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==false));

{

cleaner.backward(1000);

while ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==false));

{

cleaner.backward(1000);

}

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==true));

{

cleaner.halt();

}

}

}

if ((cleaner.checkLight(1)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(2)==false)&&( cleaner.checkLight(3)==true));

{

cleaner.halt();

}

}

}

Corrected cording is

cleaner.forward(5);

cleaner.backward(3000);

The robot cleaner did not do the two targets at the same time. First it stopped when there was not the block of rubbish in front of the robot. In that time, it did not move backward to the safety line after leaving the block of rubbish. It stopped middle of the cleaning area.

After I corrected the cording, the robot moved backward to the safety line and it stopped there. In that time, when there was not the block of rubbish in front of the cleaner it moved backward continuously. It did not stop on the safety line at this extent. Although, the cleaner does not run practically according to moderate task, the cording does not have any errors to fulfil the task. Therefore, I moved to the next advanced task.

CRITICAL APPRAISAL

Basic Task - Strengths

The robot cleaner's basic stage, the light sensor can detect the front line of the containment area and the safety line. Therefore the cleaner can bring the block of rubbish to the containment area.

Weaknesses

The robot cleaner's basic stage, the light sensor can detect the black lines only. It is the first disadvantage of using the light sensor. If we use the bumpers we should design the walls for the bumpers.

According to the cording; the robot recognises the front black line of the containment area as the first line. The safety line should be the second line. Therefore, when we use the robot we should place it in front of the safety line at the beginning. It is a second weakness in this basic task. If the robot cleaner places behind the safety line, it will get incorrect commands. In the moderate stage, I used the three light sensors' technique to minimize this issue.

In this basic task, the cleaner cannot detect whether there is the block of rubbish in the area or not. If the block of rubbish is not in front of the robot, it runs to the containment area. The light sensor cannot detect the block of rubbish. This is the major disadvantage of the basic stage. In the moderate task, I used the method to reduce this weakness.

The basic task's robot cleaner cannot find the block of rubbish whether there is the rubbish in the cleaning area or not. It can push the rubbish to the containment area when the rubbish is in front of the safety line. In the advanced task I will try to use the new method to develop the robot cleaner.

Moderate Task - Strengths

The robot cleaner's moderate stage, the second light sensor can detect the block of rubbish whether there is the block of rubbish in the area or not. If it is not in front of the robot, the cleaner does not go forward. It stops behind the safety line. If the block of rubbish is in front of the safety line the robot cleaner goes to the containment area with the rubbish.

The three light sensors can identify uniquely the safety line and the front line of the containment area and the block of rubbish. The first light sensor is in front of the robot and it identifies only the front line of the containment area. It cannot identify the safety line. The safety line is detected by the third light sensor. If the third light moves to the safety line, the robot cleaner will stop. The second light sensor can detect the block of rubbish whether there is in front of the safety line or not.

Weaknesses

The moderate task's robot cleaner cannot find whether there is the rubbish in any other place of the cleaning area or not. It can push the rubbish to the containment area when the rubbish is in front of the robot cleaner. This is major disadvantage in this task. We can find the solution to this in the advanced level.

I realised another weakness of using these light sensors. The second light sensor can detect the rubbish which is covered only with the black tape. If we use the bumpers instead of the second light sensor and the third light sensor, we can reduce this problem. We do not want to use the block of rubbish with black tape, when we use the bumpers.

Advanced Task - Strengths

The robot cleaner's advanced stage; the light sensor can detect the boarder lines of the cleaning area. The cleaner can be identified right and left black lines uniquely. When the robot cleaner moves on the right black line, the robot's back light sensor can identify it. If the robot cleaner moves on the left black line, the robot's front light sensor can detect the line. As well as the back and front light sensors can detect the containment area and middle light sensor can identify the block of rubbish.

The robot cannot define the place where it is situated in the cleaning area. Therefore when the robot cleaner tries to move to the containment area, it will get difficulties. To reduce this problem, I introduced the following way to solve the problem. If the robot cleaner meets the block of rubbish the cleaner should go first to the right or left black lines of the cleaning area. Then the robot can go to the containment area along the black lines. Therefore we can reduce that problem and it is the better way to solve that problem.

Weaknesses

I realised another weakness of using these light sensors. The middle light sensor only can detect the rubbish which is covered body with the black tape. If we use the bumpers instead of the second light sensor and the third light sensor, we can reduce this problem. We do not want to use the block of rubbish with black tape, when we use the bumpers. But if there are bumpers with the cleaner, we should build the walls to the cleaning area.

The robot cleaner always moves to the backward for the small period when the cleaner wants to turn or spin. I think there is the method to solve the problem. If we fix the front light sensor beyond the front stage of the cleaner, the robot can identify the right and left black line with distance. Then the cleaner can spin according to the cording when it finds the block of rubbish.

MODERN ROBOT CLEANERS

The robot technology modifies with the new advancement of the science. This picture shows us the new LEGO Mind storm robot cleaner. It has the two hands the eyes to see and collect the rubbish. This robot cleaner can reduce my advanced cleaner weaknesses. The eyes can see the rubbish which is on the surface. The hand and the crusher can collect the rubbish and bring them to the containment area. But this robot has not the RCX device to control the motors as well as sensors.

"The arms are powered by two smaller PF motors stepped down with gears. It uses a flicking movement to click any rubbish into the belly before the crusher shuts"

"The head consists of the ultrasonic sensor mounted on a turntable to allow full scanning movements: It can differentiate between litter and fixtures / furniture's / walls. [When Ultrasonic sensor detects an object, the second NXT motor moves the ultra sonic sensor up to see if the object's body extends up. If it does it assumes it is a fixture / wall]"

"Rubbish crusher consists of a door pivoted at the base. It is powered by another NXT motor. A long axle and a worm gear is used to transmit the rotation from the back of the robot to the front."

http://us.mindstorms.lego.com/nxtlog

The Robot Sweeper

This robot sweeper uses the RCX as the motor and it uses the sensor like my invention.

REFERENCES

1)http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html

2)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_programming_Language

3)http://www.marioferrari.org/lego_mindstorm.html

4)http://library.northampton.ac.uk/files/guides/harvard.doc

5)http://www.computing.northampton.ac.uk/%7Escott/csy1020/pbs1_assmnt_5.doc

6)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_design

7)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_testing

8)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lego_Mindstorms

9)http://us.mindstorms.lego.com/nxtlog

 

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