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Porcelain, also called 'fine china', featuring its delicate texture, pleasing color, and refined sculpture, has been one of the earliest artworks introduced to the western world through the Silk Road. The precursor of china is an original green porcelain, it from the pottery is to the outcome of china transition period. China at the earliest stage the original green porcelain was discovered to Fenglong mountain cultural ruins of Shanxi province, be apart from now about 4200.Machine contains bottle and Bo. The original green porcelain distrebute is very widely in China , the downstream and the southern regionses all have a detection in yellow river realm, Yangtze River.
Key words: developing history of porcelain, ChinaPreamble
The china was famous pottery and porcelain country, and to contrivance chinaware earliest a country in the world. At the ten thousand years ago, it's new stone implement period, the earthenware ware contrivance and used wide range by the Chinese ancestor.
At Jiangxi's ten thousand years the fairy hole ruins discover of the pottery, it is the keepsake of about 8800 year ago through science measurement, it is discovered the earliest pottery in nowadays. It is invented to Shang Zhou ages, there is more than 4,000 years of history till now.
The invention of the china is first ancient times the people's major contribution to material civilization in the world. The creation and development of china, all experience from the low class to the high class, from simple to complicated process. Go thought continuously improved the choice and processing of raw material, burns into high temperature and waref surface distribute glaze, create to burn the original china that and pottery are different from. The East Han to second century A.D. later period. A kind of quality that has porcelain is sleek, deeply and only sex is better and burn into temperature about 1310 ? , knock of the orotund clear and crisp china burn, and in great quantities appear in Zhejiang province, this is the Chinese porcelain and ceramics history up have epoch-making and important meaning.Chapter 1: Shang Dynasty
The precursor is original green porcelain of china, it is the outcome of china transition period that from the pottery to the porcelain. in the early time, the porcelain's machine contains bottle and Bo. The original green porcelain is distributed a little bit widely in China. In yellow river regions, the Yangtze downstream and the southern all have detection.
? The earliest porcelain ware was found made of Kaolin in the Shang Dynasty (16th - 11th century BC), and possessed the common aspects of the smoothness and impervious quality of hard enamel, though pottery wares were more widely used among most of the ordinary people. Anyway it was the beginning of porcelain, which afterwards in the succeeding dynasties and due to its durability and luster, rapidly became a necessity of daily life, especially in the middle and upper classes.
They were made in the form of all kinds of items, such as bowls, cups, tea sets, vases, jewel cases, incense burners, musical instruments and boxes for stationary and chess, as well as pillows for traditional doctors to use to feel one's pulse.Chapter 2: Han Dynasty
The undoubted porcelain was appeared is during the East Han Dynasty period (23-220 A.D.).and began to accelerate.
Celadon (like the color of jade) and black porcelain wares were the dominant types at that time. The quality is delicate of porcelain slice, the enamel face contains sheen, the porcelain face and enamel are combines close and firm. Regardless on the outward appearance, or on the microstructure up, this kind of enamel all have already got away from the originality of original green porcelain. Have already matched undoubted porcelain standard.
After The East Han , the production of Three Kingdoms ,two Jin South and North Dynasty period(220-581 A.D.) southern green porcelains, form alone kiln to fasten. The so-called kiln fastens and mean a some product that all produces a certain or a few same type with some kiln fields of the another province, these constitute a kiln to fasten, with mainly and have the kiln field of influence to assign name to most .Zhejiang was region that the kiln fastens at the earliest stage in China, its reason probably was the source of Chinese china with here and made a porcelain industry specially flourishing relevant.
More the kiln produces green porcelain with black porcelain and arrive west Jin later period also produce the green enamel brown spot porcelain and plus brown to order in the main part of colourful with break the monochrome style of green porcelain.
Three Kingdoms more the product face of the kiln the quality is strong and tough and delicate and assume shallow gray; Enamel juice look like pure, regard shallow blue as principle, yellow or green yellow was seldom seen; The machine type have bowl, disc, bottle, pot, wash, basin, Bo, box and dish, ear cup and censer Tow days, such as pot, tiger cub, water Yu and pickles altar...etc. it is used in daily life. In West Jin appeared flat pot, chicken pot, candlestick and counteract evil force again etc. at the South dynasty , Buddhism's current, use the lotus petal or the lotus as adornment more on the porcelain. From the Three Kingdoms to Sui dynasty unify in ex- hundreds of years, with more kiln for the representative's china production had a substantial development. Its species are numerous, the style is novel and have already gone deep into to each living realm.Chapter 3: Tang Dynasty
Although the northern china production is at the south late hundreds of years, it then and quickly improved a production technique raised craft level once control green porcelain production, and combine the humanities characteristics of north, caused the emergence of white porcelain. The white porcelain is developed since then by the green porcelain of, both of the differentiation only lie in the dissimilarity of iron content in the foetus, enamel. In regard to the development of china, developed toward the colourful porcelain from the single enamel porcelain of, is regardless brown green colourful, red etc. colourful porcelain in the whitely black flower, green flower and enamel, all took white as to set off, make a show of various colour of gorgeous and wonderful. So, the creation of white porcelain, have to the development of china and profound influence, going to the Tang Dynasty has already formed the structure and form of "south green north white". (White porcelain of north, three colours porcelain , the green porcelain of south in the Tang dynasty)
During the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907), a large number of porcelain wares were in daily use having been substituted for the ones made of gold, silver, jade and other materials. Three Colors of tang and white porcelain wares were the dominant types at the time.Chapter 4: Song Dynasty
- Develop of the porcelain in history
- Development of kilns
- The Different Porcelain's Distribute
Stepping into the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279), a variety of genres of porcelain appeared and it became a fashion that people showed great interest in purchasing and collecting certain wares suitable to their taste.
The tang dynasty system porcelain industry development is an independent production section and appear "south green north white" two greatly make porcelain system, the china replaces the symbol that the silk becomes China civilization;
Song generation Jingdezhen becomes porcelains all and appear the place kiln of each special feature White porcelain, three colourful porcelains of the green porcelain, north of south; And replying of long sand kiln in Hunan colourful porcelain all has a bigger development.
Grow the china of sand kiln all have been already sprouted in not-13 second nations, 73 locations among them, explain that its influence spreads over at home and abroad. Carved from the non-Han nationalities in its product, coco Zao, palm tree line kind and wrote Arabic language etc. to see, the probably appearing is exclusively the china of export but production.
Sung generation at the foundation in Tang Dynasty on, appeared "settle, Ru, officer, elder brother, all" five name kilns and Be called to the phenomenon of a life time.
The period of the Sung Dynasty, there are China's porcelain unprecedented development period that rows ages and occupy the position of very importance in the whole china development history. At that time kiln all over the south was north everyplace, kiln Die, category numerous, green and white two greatest porcelains fastened, besides which, black enamel, green white enamel and colour porcelain in succession rise. The Ru of world famous, officer, elder brother, settle, Jun the product of five name kilns is a life time Jean. Still have already shown off state kiln, farms in lake area kiln, Lung-chuan kiln, set up kiln, the Ji state products, such as kiln and Ci state kiln...etc. is also that the style is special, each get coquettish, present the good situation of a thriving, is the first high peak on the our country porcelain and ceramics development history. This with science and technology technique progress of Sung generation, the development of economy is an inseparable. For example Sung generation china, in the foetus quality, the enamel anticipates and creates technique etc., and then has a new exaltation and burns the degree that the porcelain technique attains complete maturity. On the craft technique, there is explicit division of labour, develop in the our country china of an important stage. Sung generation is known for a Chinese and Foreign the kiln is a lot of and show off state kiln, the Ci state kiln, the view virtuous town kiln, Lung-chuan kiln, more kiln, set up kiln and is called the Ru of Sung generation five name kilns, officer, elder brother, Jun and settle etc. the product all has themselves the special style.
Settle kiln to belong to Sung generation people's kiln, the kiln address is distributed to now river is north song sun once the county take, Tang belongs to settle state, past settle kiln. Create to burn in Tang Dynasty, the vigorous period is in north Sung and go to a dollar generation stop. Settle kiln product numerous, white porcelain is lord, and burn sauce enamel, black enamel and green enamel. Its porcelain quality is excellent to decorate with line pretty, once was chosen into palace, it was a huge kiln system to settle kiln. North Sung early, middle in order to pack box Bo, the Yang burns, machine bottom it is thus clear that pay to nail trace or sand grain; North Sung will extensively use to reply to burn a method hereafter, follows Shi You not, be so called "long grass", usually inset a turn of gold, silver or copper is decoration. The white porcelain adornment has already engraved a flower and row flower, stamp-tax, and Ti flower...etc. various skills, the pattern familiar flower and fruit birds. The stamp-tax adornment begins from north Sung middle, the line decorates the lines clear lucidity and reflected to a little bit superbly engrave to touch and take off a tyle technique at that time. Settling the kiln porcelain enamel layer is moreover fine, the enamel noodles is sleek and make the clearness pleased the eye and formed its special art style.
The Jun kiln is one of Sung generation famous kiln addresses, can is divided into an officer Jun kiln and people Jun kiln. Jun kiln now once the river south Yu county take, Sung generation calls Jun state, Sung beginning establishes kiln, past. The officer Jun kiln is that Sung badge believes in a year to build up after the Ru kiln the second officer's kiln. The Jun porcelain burns into a craft to differ from another, for two times burn, it burns for vegetable for the first time, and exerts colourful enamel, carry on the second-time kiln again to burn. The Jun kiln porcelain enamel makes use of an iron, copper to present a colour different characteristics and burn one blue and medium take red, purple spot or sky are green, the month wait in vain a colour and have the felling of the milk muddy opacity. The kiln of Sung Jun familiar enamel colour contains purple, red begonia rose, the plum green etc..The machine form of Jun porcelain mainly has the flower pot, dish and stove, wash, bowl etc., the river places, such as north and mountain west...etc. of gold, dollar period much has been already imitated to burn. The Jun porcelain is called "flower porcelain" in Sung generation, its enamel noodles the characteristic often appears anomaly fluxion-like in shape fine thread, is called "the earthworm walks mire line", add of the Jun enamel is constantly changing during the period of burning manufacturing, don't behave work control, so the posterity is hard to make copy and have "the Jun porcelain is matchless" it says. The flower enamel in Tang Dynasty broke the traditional regulation of a work a kind of enamel colour, but this kind of flower enamel only limits at black enamel waref, arrived Sung generation and replied the technical skill of colour enamel to get a very big development. The Jun kiln china still keeps belonging to green porcelain system in regard to the keynote of its porcelain enamel, its sky is green, blue ash, month the white various colour is just thick thin different, just the colour degree difference. The Jun kiln red purple colour appeared on china mutually in order to joining a copper in the enamel, at the time it can appear beautiful effect.
The Ru kiln is always listed as the head of Sung generation five name kilns by people, the Ru kiln was people's kiln at first, the product style looked like copper Chuan in Shaanxi to show off state kiln, the later north Song period started burned to build an upscale china for palace. So, for long time, have two kinds of parlances: A kind of kiln that say Ru indicates generally the region that ancient Ru state governs burns to build of knowing together as of green porcelain series product; other porcelain that say Ru refers to specialized for the use of emperor of that some officer kiln. Sung badge believes in a ruling period, the Ru kiln is the golden age that it burns to build a history, its product foetus quality is delicate and be suffused with Huang in the ash and be so called "the fragrant ash is yellow", the Ru porcelain enamel noodles small opened a slice, the enamel bottom had a sparse spirit bubble; Ru kiln green porcelain enamel the colour is thin green elegant, the shape pays attention to, not with line decoration is heavy. Sung badge believes in Zhao Ji to believe in religion of Taoism, the Taoism emphasizes nature reserve, lead simple life simple aesthetic sense. The Ru kiln china that this at that time expects is exactly this kind of reflection that appreciates beauty wit and humour and reflect a Taoist pure Yi and have no for of thought state, become Sung the vogue of upper-class society is for ages. Elder brother's kiln is also listed as Sung generation kiln, but has never seen Sung the person jot down, just behind expect there is just cultural heritage record in Ming Dynasty. It is said that state person's chapter in Zhejiang's living with its younger brother's chapter and living two all is to make porcelain good hand. Two of them person together each establish one kiln in Lung-chuan, is an elder brother because of living a, so is called "elder brother's kiln", living two for the younger brother, certainly be called "younger brother's kiln", this two kilns all is famous people's kiln. The enamel colour of elder brother's kiln with green is lord, iron foot purple, the enamel noodles has a ground line but famous, number day "100 Jis are ground".
The foetus colour of elder brother kiln china assumes gray or soil yellow, the enamel colour is green and green for powder Huang, month white, putty etc., among them putty colour is the most familiar. Its main characteristics is the enamel noodles "open a slice", the size is different, veins colour the depth is different, the machine form different constringency part is also different, so change 100001000 but again natural much to the point. Elder brother the kiln china up usually appear thicker crack to present black, thinner crack appears a yellow, the layer is wrong to fall before or after and be called "gold silk wire". The ice crack of elder brother the kiln china enamel noodles, originally is made a craft up of blemish, mainly is because what the coefficient of expansion inconformity of foetus body and enamel layer results in. But a kind of beauties of nature of this kind of corrupt practice formation, become special United States with differs from at other species.
Officer's kiln has a different meaning in Chinese porcelain and ceramics history. Speak from the broad sense, it means to differ from people's kiln but just for government-operated kiln, the product is monopolized by palace. But in Sung generation china, officer's kiln then 1 kind exclusively alleges, green porcelain is burned to build by the palace ad hoc kiln at the Bian beam of capital city while particularly pointing north Sung and south Sung, the Bian city is in Kaifeng, Henan in nowadays a take. Because the ancient yellow river is in many occurrence floods in history and change a way, make the local geography produced a huge change, so this brings to the today's people's investigating very difficult, the officer of the north Sung period kiln address also has no from investigate. There being a kind of parlance thinks that north Sung officer's kiln is a Ru kiln.
The south Sung Dynasty court follows north Sung old make, at faced Anne to construct specialized burn officer's kiln of building the china for imperial house. Officer the kiln machine enamel colour the powder is green, the tone is elegantly simple, don't emphasize wood grain adornment, is good at the shape and the enamel colour. Officer kiln porcelain iron in foetus divides more, the foetus colour is partial to purple, brown, black, foot bottom not glaze, because the flowing of porcelain enamel drips and make follow the place hang enamel thinner, rear to take a purple porcelain foetus, this was usually the expert so-called "purple ironed foot", the importance that becomes authenticating an officer a kiln machine basis.
Show off the state kiln be located on now once copper boat in Shaanxi take, Song belongs to the state of showing off. Start to burn in Tang Dynasty, north Sung middle attains vigorous, the Jin and Yuan generation period changes direction comedown. Its ruins in 50's and 80's after twice more large-scale exhumation, make we to show off the product of state kiln understand more, its quality is higher, the influence is extensive, with go to river south, the etc. grounds in Guangxi all imitate in succession and form 1 to hugely show off the state kiln fasten. Showing off the state kiln is a famous Song generation north green porcelain habitat, the product species is abundant, and the shape much changes. Its foetus colour is grey and thin, enamel colour even clean, green medium be suffused with green, have the most close spirit bubble; In order to there being iron in the foetus quality, at correspond of burn into atmosphere under, make the machine bottom presented a kind of Huang Ban Kuai, formed the characteristic that the state kiln possesses singly of showing off. Decorate with to engrave the flower as lord, lines the fluency , after north Sung middle, appear stamp-tax adornment; The enamel noodles is generally small to open a slice, the clarity is better, and the enamel layer is thicker; Engrave a flower technique the hat cut off at that time, the knife method is sharp, lines just strength, the knife scar had gradient; The pattern contents regards flower as principle and familiarly has already tied up a lotus, peony, and chrysanthemum...etc., also useful fish line, water line of, Long Feng Wen is only limited by palace porcelain appropriation.
The "Ci" word of Chinese can make a porcelain and ceramics solution, so the Ci state can comprehend for "porcelain and ceramics" state. That state belonged to river south at first and was located on the river north Ci county now and started be burned to Sung, dollar generation don't year hereafter move the Peng city in day up to now. Historical Ci state kiln and afterwards the Peng city various kiln produces civil day more to use a porcelain and ceramics, past again "miscellaneous machine kiln". The Ci state kiln product's decorating with to engrave, row flower or rust flower is lords, the black and white is clear and simple and generous, have been following up to now. This at that time expects the porcelain and ceramics Zhen of Ci state kiln most in order to have, carve into child's image of cheery amiability more, or give a clear quickly clear line decoration, have a strong water Mo painting style, the flowers and birds fish insect, landscape person and poem clerk's method all writes freely, will make porcelain technical skill and painting art perfect combine together, create new style in Chinese porcelain and ceramics history. In addition still have green enamel black colourful, red and green colourful on the white enamel and the low temperature yellow, green and brown colourful enamel pottery. Have certain influence to colourful development of the clear and pure period view virtuous town enamel on red and green creation of enamel among them. That kiln decorates a style to still influence mountain, the west lies to rest, Shandong Zi Bo, Shaanxi shows off state etc. ground, formed so-called "show off the state kiln fasten".
Can say that Sung generation china appeared to let a hundred flowers blossom, the flowers contended for gorgeous situation. It Can't deny that Sung generation china is an our country porcelain and ceramics development the top on the history, but of so have situation like this is also with Sung generation then social background, economy development, science and technology development, the political factor is inseparable.
It is the then social background first. The Song Dynasty is that the Chinese ancient times is unique doesn't practice "suppress a company" over a long period of time the dynasty of the policy. The Song Dynasty founds, it make a pit mineral and organize tea salt development. As a result in great quantities the liberation come out from the land of the farmer throw in business handicraft industry, the folks economy is subjected to incitement and advances by leaps and bounds. It created unprecedented wealth and prosperity. Sung dynasty adjusted the heavy Xing light people's traditional way of doing in the in the past lawmaking, the righteousness benefit laid equal stress on to very value economic lawmaking. The laws contents involves each aspect of social economic activities and exclusively established to particularly sell a method, like salt method, wine method, tea method etc. ordinance. Song generation period that become ancient economic Chinese lawmaking's stimulating most , its lawmaking activity is multifarious, the laws contents involves each aspect of social economic activities, and establishing of laws, implementation everyone's noodles all has unprecedented imagination dint. The economic ordinance of Sung, noticed the benefits allotment of the nation and economic activities relation, adjust the regulation of merchandise economy. Song Dynasty's acquiring huge public finance income is soon a national economy to fly development, the industry and business industry is extremely prosperous. The economy of the Sung Dynasty, particularly the second, the third industry got a tremendous development, people's living standard comes to an unprecedented height.1077 A.D., Constitute national public finance income corpus of, Be no longer agriculture, but industry and business industry, the Sung Dynasty has already come out agriculture civilization, Sung the agriculture society of China already at start a society that moves forward toward the industry and business industry. The earliest capitalism of China in the world is embryonic and was born in a strong business wave of big Sung tide in ...
These factors all promoted the development of Song porcelain, also caused our thinking to the Sung porcelain, the elegant delicacy of Sung porcelain, such as ice jade, is also why Sung generation the developments of in the past china after didn't exceed the reason of Sung generation. Lamentable is we didn't go on this "highest point", the Chinese china finally had no very big of creative, don't head for a building art, didn't even develop to more extensive realm, but let it slowly decline. Because the porcelain and ceramics in Chinese ancient times is also subjected to traditional cultural influence in China and has the branding of feudalistic society.
We can used for modern art each realm to the Sung porcelain, for example porcelain and ceramics' getting involved path and way of environment art is abundant, such as the surface processing of the shape, colour and dimensions, topic and material etc., but thinks in the writer, is a porcelain and ceramics and carves important way and one of the means that mutually fits together with modern environment to the exhumation of porcelain and ceramics art the United States. Before we have already made analysis and also introduced the species of Sung porcelain to why the Sung porcelain is the high peak on the Chinese china history. The adaptability that the all these all expressed that porcelain and ceramics and modern environment request and satisfy abundant potential of request.
Establish the porcelain and ceramics work of growing the form or park type of slightly taking of a different type, the surface colour is gorgeous and crude and uncivilized. Namely broke inside the space on the material of result in to from the reinforced concrete of neat wall noodles of, monotonous and apathetic atmosphere, can avoid a gallery again on the shape on-line and the building perpendicular lines of repeated. Shape surface processing top again bring the person the sense of vision to ascend easily naturally it enjoy, seem to be quite; Stabilize, make this half closed environment quietly beautiful and high-class. If in the space like this, place to establish carving of metal or cement to obviously present two kinds of different atmosphere. Easy creation monotonous boring even unsteady felling, material of similar, make the art effect of carving the work been very easily destroyed by the high big building, can carve by porcelain and ceramics in some aspects compare of metal, the cement more has a "soft" emotion factor. Also have a different felling. Probably, on the Bo ancient, its craft comes to a decision this kind of destiny, the potter became an entertainer in the eyes of many people. Turn over to open to carve an art history, we won't are difficult to find out in great quantities astonishing of and the real eccentricity large porcelain and ceramics carves a work, but for long time, porcelain and ceramics-this kind of art means that seems to lose importance, still expressional more obvious in the creation of environment art. Secondly come from a craft technique up of limit; Because the porcelain and ceramics carves in the process of there being a more complicated craft in the manufacture and a little bit largely carves "blemish" in the easy creation in the design, don't exert person's idea. This is completely also the porcelain and ceramics to carve to get involved one of the environmental factors, it is a modern environment to urgently need to have natural character or have the plastic art that inspire the natural sex-like in shape strength. Put into a rough surface and plain quality, the style ancient Zhuo natural porcelain and ceramics to carve a work in a living room of new building, in bedroom and an environment of sectional modern furniture of tranquil and enjoyable comfort, again go together with light, the whole atmosphere of environment will be not greatly same. At numerous "rigidity thing" set off under, they have joyful active personality and make the indoor environment been full of nature, hilarious wit and humour, from appreciate beauty of function to see, the form, quality and color are the three greatest information amount of Wei of sense of vision realm the same layer. Quality namely the skin texture is the important form factor of feeling the United States, in the whole indoor environment, not only have to please the eye sex, and full of emotion. The abundant quality variety will arise to appreciate beauty of association of thought and imagination, and accompany with a strong emotion experience. The modern environment of changing with each passing day requests that we have more frontier spirits. However porcelain and ceramics' carving is a part of the modern environment art, will more and more show its importance, and influence people's emotion by its special art magic power, give people with spirit comfort and the United States of enjoy.Chapter 5: Yuan Dynasty
Well developed in the Yuan Dynasty (1271 - 1368A.D.), the blue and white porcelain (Qinghua Ci), in the main stream of porcelain, was the stylish artistic ware in the Ming and Qing Dynasties and promoted this period to be the most prolific in the field of feudal art.
Yuan generation is the Chinese china production accepts ex- Qi empress of the turn period be very in many ways all have innovation and development. Yuan Shizu (Hu Bilie) at 15 years of Yuan generation(1278 A.D.), the Yuan empire established "float beam porcelain bureau" in the Jingdezhen porcelain development producing industry created a beneficial condition, and for it at two clear pure becomes a whole country-made porcelain's center and as praise world of "the porcelains' city" make under a solid foundation, The Jingdezhen porcelain have a new breakthrough in making a porcelain craft, most is outstandingly then green flower and (a type of porcelain with) red under the glaze to burn.
The Yuan generation's Jingdezhen kiln produce very quickly rising in the foundation of Song generation's green white enamel. Make the person focus attention most among them of the achievement is to create to burn maturity green flower, enamel in red and various monochrome enamel species. The green flower lucky animal line dish be among them best of make, its form is big and the rules is whole, inside the bottom is a line kind to draw the kylin, bamboo, stone, melon and fruit, flower line. This kind of pattern that combine legendary lucky animal and bamboo stone melon and fruit together the implied meaning prosperous and flourishing, mainly is widely accepted the big dish of creation fine up. Line kind the lines is flowing freely, look like fine colour and rich, green flower is bright and shiny.Chapter 6: Ming and Ching Dynasty
During the Ching Dynasty, The familiar rose porcelain was another highlight that appeared during the reign of Emperor Kangxi (1653 - 1722). Ming(1368-1644 years) and Ching(1644-1911 A.D.) two generation are the most vigorous Chinese china production periods, the china produces of amount and qualities all come to a high peak. The Jingdezhen is "the porcelains' city" to really sign and make the Jingdezhen kiln ruled Ming and Ching generation's porcelain about few hundreds of years, keep up to nowadays. At that time, various colour enamel porcelain and colour porcelain is the outstanding representative of Jingdezhen-made porcelain level. In the Ching dynasty, the enamel colour is important develop.
The enamel is the colourful porcelain that the Chinese Ching dynasty particularly provides for the use of emperor. The characteristic that fastens to follow the copper foetus painting enamel burns to make of, is at red, yellow, blue and green etc. colour ground up draw is decorated with flower line. The beginning uses western enamel to anticipate and builds to do according to the pure temple a file jots down, Yong positive six years(1728) at build to do an enamel makes inside imitate chain western the enamel is colourful succeed, from that time on even if using domestic enamel is colourful. The enamel colourful china is resisted kiln factory to burn the good thin foetus white porcelain with the view virtuous town, from build to do a view virtuous town painting teacher that the enamel makes to be engaged in a description, the line kind is an all appointed first sketch, painting well behind again go into a heat of fire bake but become. The bottom of the enamel colourful china all writes the style in year and has the blue, rouge colour the heap and anticipates style and green flower style, the form of written has Kai and seal script two kinds of, use 4 words for "Kangxi or Yong is resisting and make", use 6 words are for "big pure Qianlong year system".
The main composition of enamel's colourful is the mixture of boric acid salt and silicate, at opaque and white and easy fuse of the enamel's colourful, join just the right amount of enamel that metal oxide dye can immediately become to have colour and lustre to anticipate. The Chinese academy of science that Shanghai silicate research institute to do a analysis and to survey and evaluate on colourful of Kangxi's enamel, first step assurance apply colour element for: The yellow is Ti and iron, the blue is a cobalt, white is an arsenic, fresh and red is gold, the pink is a gold, arsenic, the purple colour is cobalt, gold. On this foundation, and colourful create was more delicate than the five colour porcelain.Chapter 7: Nowadays
The art of Chinese china has a long history, the Chinese china can be used everywhere in modern life. However, Some porcelain usually as the gift during the communication of two countries. It is to represent two national friendly relations. And some as curio article to collection. For example: The Jingdezhen, Tang three colourful, green flower porcelain, Baiyangzun etc.Red china
Until nowadays, the most expensive collection is China up to now of red china, and then call China is red. China is red to is the delicacy in the porcelain, its development be: Be more prosperous than Tang's long sand kiln in night in more than 1000 year ago, becoming the world colour enamel is a founding of particularly red enamel, is called a national art object. The red symbolizes the sun, life, has a bumper harvests, good luck, satisfied etc. whole fine things. Deep red colour, it has abundant cultural content and high spirit state. China is red to be burned by the rare metal [Chemistry] tantalum (Ta) to make become, it still has to be precious than the gold.
A strange is "difficult":
Going together with to anticipate is difficult, difficult craft and burn to make difficult, model difficult. The red porcelain beard is burned to make by 1310 degrees heat, and "ten kilns nine don't become", it may be said "thousand kilns rare one treasure".
Two strange is "expensive":
The lord anticipates for the rare metal Te. The Te price is more expensive than the gold several, so praises red porcelain with the gold and burns to make actually not for lead.
Three strange is "smooth":
The general porcelain and ceramics gives out light to is partial to frailty, be partial to luminous and be partial to strong, be partial to bright; But the red porcelain gives out light smooth then but and but sink, sink but deeply and deeply but friendship, and soft within strong of generosity of spirit.
Four strange is "Xiang":
Red is big gentleman virtuous colour, lucky and peaceful, warmly and sincerity, elegant and riches and honor, great but the Yong permit. The gentleman is still virtuous, still virtuous pleased and red then, past red porcelain in really gentleman's collecting or donating is also on the good wonderful article.Jingdezhen porcelain
The Jingdezhen porcelain is very more in the modern collection. Such as follow some kinds of:
[Qinghualinglong porcelain ]the view green flower lovely porcelain (Qinghualinglong porcelain) in Jingdezhen is foundation creation and development that gets empty a craft in the Lou of clear year in Yung-loh to get up of, have already had 500 in various years of history. The porcelain work is used razor blade the Lou become to order on the Pi foetus some grain of rice-like in shape, is been called "rice" by people, call again lovely eye, again stuff with lovely enamel to anticipate, and go together with green flower adornment, go into kiln to burn to make but become. It seems to be show handy, thorough clear, dexterity, and very elegant.
[Qinghua porcelain]the view green flower porcelain (Qinghua porcelain) is been called "the human life treasure" by people. Start Be created to a dollar generation, arrive clear and pure two on behalf high peak. It uses to oxidize cobalt to anticipate a description line the kind is on the Pi foetus, the heat burns at a time after Shi You. It the blue white mutually reflect, contented become an interest, radiant clear quick, the beautiful Juan is long. The white enamel is green to spend one big city, spend from the enamel of the inside is deeply clear and make person enjoy to please the eye. Clear person navigator and seven times western, take each time large numbers of green flower porcelains, carry on association with more than 30 nations. Not a few delicacies are collected in the country museums, such as English and the United States...etc. now.
[The powder colourful porcelain ]the powder is colourful to as well call soft colourful, is the enamel of china to up decorate, white pure Kangxi later period starts, arrive Yong positive, Qianlong's age, the day attains perfect. Its method for making is: Hang up a pattern outline on the white foetus china first, again the heap fill a colour to anticipate and burn Ya but become in the temperature bottom of Celsius more than 700 degrees, the colour is soft, it is whole to draw the work delicate work, current Chinese painting taste, again bossed feeling, the appearance is full of a heavy race special feature. Have the person to regard the Chinese historical story and the myth as principle, have beautiful and colourful landscape and there is lifelike bird Ling hair, there is symmetry several whole work what pattern.
[Colour enamel porcelain ]anticipates in the enamel in plus a certain oxidize metal, through after baking to burn, will present a certain and proper colour, this is the colour enamel, mainly being the metal oxide that has already applied colour a function of the influence colour enamel content, in addition return anticipate with enamel of constitute, anticipate one degree size, burn to make temperature and burn to make atmosphere to have a close relation. People say "the nature has what colour, can burn to make what colour of china". If you visit the view virtuous town of colour enamel porcelain, will believe that this words aren't false. There are going together with of many colour enamels anticipating and burning to make being very difficult certainly, like "the fiesta red enamel", there are thousand kilns one treasures saying.
[Thin foetus porcelain]thin foetus porcelain, thin like cicada's wings, light like silk fabric yarn, is a kind of agile and beautiful, thin like the thin white porcelain of eggshell. The ancients said the thin foetus porcelain:"Breeze suspect blow to go, also worry the sun to eliminate in day ". The creation of thin foetus porcelain has the highest request and especially to repair unburnt earthenware, most difficulties also most key, all depend the technique that worker's teacher is familiar with, after more than 100 times of fix 2, 3 millimeters of thick unburnt earthenware to repair like the eggshell again and again so thin, in the turning point, little knife dislikes thick, many a knifes the Pi then break achievement hurt, slightly don't be careful, a breather will cause all previous work undone. The mire Pi like this returns the heat that the beard experiences Celsius more than 1,300 degrees to bake the test for burning, don't split ground, constant form, it is precious and seldom Be getting more imaginable, so people call thin foetus porcelain as miraculous delicacy.
[Carve porcelain ]the view virtuous town porcelain carving creation can trace back to more than 1,400 year ago and far have the creation of "lion", "elephant" big monster in Sui generation. The view virtuous town of contemporary, the porcelain carving craft is consummate, the craft category is well-found and have a park vulture and knead vulture, Lou vulture, and ectype...etc. The product is diverse and have a statue of Buddha the absolute being, flower and grass fish the insect and the pavilions and terraces building, and animal toy...etc. The shape is beautiful, form absolute being and have, lifelike; Decorate is very abundant, have a heat colour enamel, enamel next multicoloured etc. The art expresses dint strong, the solemn Hun having is thick and have cultured and delightfully freshly and have of sumptuous hall Huang, fresh gorgeous brilliant.Others porcelain
Modern of in the china, white sheep also one of in the precious article. Moreover, Jun porcelain and Ru porcelain is also rare articles in nowadays, it's only produce in Henan, and the Ru porcelain is a kind of purely green porcelain.
The kinds of porcelain is very much.
China is an ancient famous world porcelain and ceramics country, the invention of the pottery is mankind the society develop a history ascend epoch-making sign. First people make a pottery to use of glue soil to adjust to match with water, make use of the plasticity of gluing the soil, model into the container of suitable life, Be heated certain temperature by fire, burn stronger and tough pottery. The emergence of the pottery is the creation that the mankind changed a kind of material into another material through a chemistry variety at the earliest stage activity, is one of the important results on the invention history of mankind.
The ancient chinaware enamel colourful development in China, from have no enamel to have enamel, again from monochrome enamel go to many colour enamels, then again from enamel next colourful go to the enamel to ascend colourful, and gradually develop into enamel the bottom and enamel up matches to draw of brilliant colours, the Dou is colourful.
The colourful porcelain is generally divided into enamel colourful with enamel colourful two major types, draw good pattern first on the foetus Pi, glaze after go into the colourful porcelain that the kiln burns a chain to call enamel under colourful; The glaze goes into kiln to burn behind of china again colour, and then Be dried to burn by stove fire but become of colourful porcelain, call enamel ascend colourful.
- The china invents a history; the development of Chinese china; the famous china introduces; etc.