The Communication Process Explained English Language Essay

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People management is the affect of Human Resource to Hospitality and tourism industry. For regarding this subject, the students can gain more knowledge about this People Management and Human Recourse. For example, the service in hospitality management is be owned by the interpersonal relationship with the delivery system, such as the interaction between front desk employee and those customers, who are undertaking in servicing and encounter departments. So how about the human resource? That is depends on see that all departments accomplish their responsibility, such as in marketing, operation, finance, and so on. In addition, for the competitive advantage, also had consist of value added services, performance of organizations people, and the combination of customer expectation and services which are containing the add value to customer and service improvement based on customer perceive, that is according the service that what that needs requirements. Hence, the services also couldn't ne lack of, such as the restaurant, hotels, conference that in industry structure and tradition. Clubs, theme park, or wild up park that well-known are make available in the attraction and entertainment. Airlines, railways road transport that will including in transportation. Travelling formation, will providing travel agency, tourism association, facilities, and so on. Then, characteristics in industry are described about the demand variation to product services, labor intensity for local or international environment. The people management has a variety of responsibilities and tasks in the hospitality industry which is developing with extensive in the worldwide.

Question 1:

Explain the communication process and some common forms of communication use in hospitality and tourism industry.

Introduction of communication

We human beings communicate all day every day. We spend over 70 percent of our waking hours sending or receiving messages, such as speaking, listening, writing, reading, pushing keys on computers, watching the television screen. Since we communicate so much, we ought to be pretty good at it. But we are not. There are probably as many opportunities to be misunderstood as there are people with whom we communicate. Different people interpret what you say in different methods, and not necessarily in the way that you meant, and you do the same with what they say to you. Many of problems we have on the job, and in our personal lives, that can involve some type of communication failure. If I'm a supervisor in a hospitality enterprise, I would be communicating constantly. And also are both a sender and a receiver of messages, and both roles will be very important. As a student, we must understand what comes down to us from the top so we can carry out our supervisor's instructions and the policies of the company. We must communicate evidently with other supervisors to coordinate our work with theirs. We must communicate with effectively with customers. Most important of all, we must communicate successfully with that we supervise so we will have the power to get things done. We cannot manage effectively if you cannot communicate effectively. In this chapter we will examine the communication process and it central role in managing people at work, such as list and describe various types of communication, and illustrate the use of effective communication skills in directing employees. So through this question, I would like to list the guidelines about the good communication's skills and the process.

Types of communication

A communication may be word-of-mouth message such as verbal instruction given on the job or an announcement at a meeting. Or it may be a written communication: a letter, a memo, a production sheet, a housekeeper's report, or a recipe. A message may go from one person to another, as when the sous chef tells the soup cook what soups to prepare for lunch; when the housekeeper tells a maid what room she is to make up or when one person says to another, "it's nice to have you back, we missed you." This is known as interpersonal communication. A message may go down the corporate ladder from the president of the company to the general manager to the food and beverage director to the executive chef to the sous chef to the station cooks to the cooks helps. Such as a message, is likely to be a policy directive or some other matter affecting the organization as a whole. This is an example of organizational communication. Furthermore, when messages move freely back and forth from one person to another, or up the ladder as well as down, we say that we have good two-way communication or open communication. Such communication contributes to a positive work climate and high productivity. In addition to interpersonal communication there are other forms of communication that a supervisor may be involved in, such as interviewing, small group communication, mass communication, and so on.

Communication Process

A communication is an interaction between a sender and a receiver. In a successful communication, the sender directs a clear message to someone and the receiver gets the message accurately. It sounds simple enough. The problems lie in the words clear and accurately.

Let us take the process apart a little bit. The sender has something to tell someone an idea in his mind that he needs to communicate. The sender knows what he means to say to the receiver, but he cannot transmit his meaning to her in directly by mental telegraphy. Therefore, he puts his meaning into words and sends the message by speaking the words to her or writing out the message. That's his part of this communication to conceiving the idea, expressing, and sending it.

6. Understands and accepts meaning

5. Translates words, symbols

4. Receives message (hears & reads)

3. Transmits message (tells, writes/sends)

2. Expresses meaning in words, symbols.

Thinks meaning of message

Noise and Distraction



Six elements of a successful communication.

The receiver receives the message by hearing or reading the words, the symbol of the sender's meaning. It must translate or interpret the words in order to understand what the sender's meant. Receiving, translating, and understanding are the parts of these communications. These six processes happen almost simultaneously in spoken messages, but it is useful to break the process down because something can go wrong in any one of the six steps. From the beginning, the message is manipulate by the sender's personality, background, education, emotions, attitudes toward the receiver, and so on. We can see that there are opportunities all along the way for things to be left out, misstated, miss sent, or misinterpreted. Sometimes, messages are not sent or received at all. The sender forgets or is afraid to send the message; if the receiver does not hear or read or register it. Over and over again, people think they have communicated when in fact they have not. The sender may think the receiver has misunderstood. The receiver may think so, when in facts this has not happened. When we see how complicated really are and how easily they can go wrong, we may wonder how we ever get message through. Yet nothing is more important to a supervisor both as a sender and as a receiver of messages.

How the communications affect the message? Both sender and receiver can obscure or distort messages without being aware of it. Differences in background, education, past experience, and intelligence can often cause communication difficulties. As a sender of messages, we need to adjust to such differences. We must be aware of where of where we and where the person is so that we can make our messages understandable to that person. People also differ in attitudes, opinions, and values and these differences can inhibit communication or gable messages. Something that is important to you may mean nothing to your workers if it does not affect them. Sender and receiver may have different perceptions about the subject of a communication.

Sender's Meaning/ Idea

Is filtered through the sender's background and characteristics (education, skills, etc.).

Stage 1

Transferred into symbols: Spoken/ written words, facial expressions, etc.

Stage 2

Never sent; No need, forgot, unwilling, unable…

Message is not transmitted.

Stage 3

Never received: Did not hear, listen, or read…

With the right timing, person, and media…

Stage 4

Is filtered through the sender's background and characteristics (education, skills, etc.

Stage 5

Meaning is not understood: distorted, misinterpreted, of forgotten.

Meaning was never received, understood, or accepted…

Sender's meaning is understood, and accepted.

Problems in sending the message, if we send at the wrong time, to the wrong person, by the wrong means, it may never reach its destination. Timing its important. For a message to get through, we have to consider the receiver's situation. The wrong time may be soon or too late or a time when the receiver cannot receive it or cannot do anything in response to it. Problems in receiving the meaning, sometimes a message or the way it is delivered will trigger emotions that make it unacceptable, and people will either tune it out will reach negatively.

Listening, if we want others to listen to us, listen to them. If we want to be able to size them up, to figure out who has potential and who is a bad apple, listen to them. If we want loyal, willing, cooperative workers, listen to them. If we want to minimize conflict and complaints and to solve people problems, listen, and listen well. Listening means paying complete attention to what people have to say, hearing them out. It is the second half of the communication process. Sending clear message, a clear message is also one that is understandable and meaningful to the person to whom it is sent. It must be phrased in terms that person can understand. It must be delivered on that person's level. It must be meaningful within that person's experience.


We can learned about communication's skills through this question, such as communication is the transferred of understanding and meaning between two or more people. And we will know what the six elements of a successful communication in the communication's skills.

Question 2

Motivation is the key to keeping performing continuously at the highest standards. How organization motivate their employees to excel at their jobs.

Introduction of Motivation

Theories of motivation, is that whether they realize or not, everyone has a theory of how to get people to perform on the job. Several of them are familiar to you, although we may not think of them as theories. Hence, the definition also is expressing to us the willingness to exert high levels of effort to organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual need and to influence people to work. For this reason, the role of motivation is to achieve affective performance such as performance, direction, motivation, and support. Motivation theories viewpoint, are consist of the individuals, groups, and organizational. Individuals, desire to do well in someone work to desire to meet someone personal need. Group, to ensure the employee to work the manager should understand the employee need & job design and workplace. Lastly, the organizational is to make certain employee to work to increase productivity, such as program and training. In addition, the different people are having the different needs in the motivation. In the workplace, motivation goes hand in hand with productivity. What's motivated? How to motivate? Motivation is including a few of part, which are individual content theory, individual and content, group content and process, and so on. Hence, how to motivate and encourage those employees or people to work? We will learn it through this subject for know more about this theories.

Motivation through fear, one of the oldest ways of motivating people to perform on the job is to use fear as the trigger for getting action. This method makes systematic use of coercion, threats, and punishments. Such as some powerful warning, for example "if you don't do your job with well, you won't be able get your rise." "I will out you back on the night shift if you still the same attitude." "I will fire you." This approach to motivation is sometimes referred to as a "kick in the pants." It is still used surprisingly often, with little success. Yet people who use it believe that it is the only way to get results. They are typically autocratic, high-control, authoritarian bosses with Theory X beliefs about people, and they think other theories of motivation are baloney, that you must be tough with people. Motivation through fear seldom works for long. People who work in order to avoid punishment usually produce mediocre results at best, and fear may actually reduce the ability to perform. At the same time it arouses hostility, resentment, and the desire to get even. Absenteeism, tardiness, poor performance, and high turnover are typical under this type of supervise. Fear will sometimes motivate people who have always been treated this way, and it can function as a last resort when all other methods have failed. But it will work only if the supervisor is perceived as being powerful enough to carry out the punishment. If the boss continually threatens punishment and never punishes, the threats have no power to motivate. In fact, not even fear works in this situation. No one recommends motivation through fear except the people who practice it. On average, workers in the United States simply will not put up with that kind of boss unless they are desperate for a job.

Carrot-And-Stick Method, a second philosophy of motivation is to combine fear with reward for good performance, punishment for bad. You may recognize this as carrot-as-stick motivation: the carrot dangled in front as a promised reward, the sick hitting the worker from behind as goad and punishment. It is another high-control method, one that requires constant application. Once the reward is achieved or the punishment administered, it no longer motivates performance, and another reward must be devised or punishment threatened or applied. In effect, the boss is pushing and pulling workers through their jobs; they feel no motivation to perform well. At the same time, workers come to feel that they have a continuing right to the rewards, such as higher wages, fringe benefits, and so on. And these get built into the system without further motivating effect. Meanwhile, the punishments and threats of punishment breed resentment and resistance.

A third motivation theory maintains that money is the only thing that motivates people to work for. This classical view of job motivation was known as the Economic person theory. Money, there is no doubts that money has always been and still is one if the most important reasons that people work. For some people it may be the most important reason. That paycheck feeds and clothes and houses them; it can give them security, status, a feeling of personal worth. For people who have been at the property level, it can be the difference between being hungry and being well fed or between welfare and self-support with self-respect. For teenagers it can mean the difference between owning a car and being without transportation. For most people, on their new job, whether it is an hourly job or an entry-level management job, money is the primary motivator. There are certainly instances in which it works: the expectation of wage increases, bonuses, tips, and rewards is likely to have this outcome. But money doesn't motivate performance once it is paid; the incentive comes from the expectation of more to come. Furthermore, people don't work for money alone. In sum, money is only one of the resources you have for motivating people, and it does not necessarily have a direct relationship to productivity.

An influential answer to this question was the motivation theory of psychologist Abraham Maslow. Human beings, he pointed out, want animals and they being have in ways that will satisfy their needs and wants. Their needs and desires are inexhaustible; as soon as one need is satisfied, another appears to take its place. Maslow proposed a hierarchy of universal human needs representing the order in which these needs become motivators of human behavior. This is call as hierarchy of needs.

Need for self-fulfillment.

Challenging Job.

Job Title

Ego Needs

Friends at Work

Social Needs

Benefits and pension plan

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs


At the bottom of the pyramid are people's most basic needs, the physiological needs related to survival, such as food and water. When these needs are not being met, every effort is directed toward meeting them. People who are truly hungry cannot think of anything but food. For many hotel workers this equates to salary and wages. The next level is related to safety, they include protection, stability, anxiety, security, and so on. As these needs in turn are more or less satisfy, social needs become the predominant motivators. These included the need to be with others, to belong, to have friends, to love, and to be loved. For hospitality employees this means socializing at work. These are sometimes referred to as ego needs. Satisfaction of the need for self-esteem leads to feelings of self-confidence, strength, and worth. When these needs go unsatisfied, they produced feelings of inferiority, weakness, and helplessness. For hospitality employees thus equated the job title and perks.

Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory, the work of another psychologist, Fredrick Herzberg, explained why human relations methods failed to motivate performance and identified factors that truly motivate. Herzberg found that factors associated with the job environment pensation, supervision, working conditions, company policy, and so on. Its create dissatisfaction, and unhappiness on the job when they're inadequate, they become dissatisfies. Herzberg called these environmental factors hygiene factors. They are commonly called maintenance factors. Buy removing the causes of dissatisfaction (the human relations approach) does not create satisfaction, and it therefore does not motivate performance.


After done this question, students will gain more knowledge and familiarity about the motivation's theories while we had learned about the Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory, Theory Y and Motivation, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, and so on. It's very interesting for us.