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If we recalled at the history of language teaching throughout the twentieth century, there would be a lot of changes in teaching approaches in order to produce much more energetic and effective of variations of language teaching methods such as Grammar Translation Method (GTM), Direct Method, Structural Method, Reading Method, Audiolingual Method, Situational Method, and Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). All of these methods were superseded by the present-day emphasis on communicative language teaching (CLT). Due to the preference of the particular teaching methods in different settings of classroom environment, some teaching approaches are still alive and do well in some part of the world (Mackey, 1965, pp.151). Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), however, emphasizes the communicative competence as the language goal of learning and teaching in order to seek the meaningful language communication in all classroom activities. Ellis (1996) argued that there are several aspects of CLT that make it 'unsuitable for Asian learners and teachers' (p.214). Most of the ESL teachers still come up with different perspectives during conducting this approach in their classroom's setting in some part of the world.
In response, educators and other researchers have conducted many different series of studies investigating the particular various perspectives, beliefs, and decision-making processes from ESL teachers while they have employed communicative language teaching in their own countries. As argument from Ellis (1996) explained the deficiencies and ineffectiveness of CLT in different places, time, cultures, and educational perspectives in various countries. Similarly, as Li's (1998) interviews with Korean teachers on the difficulties involves in implementing CLT demonstrate tree sources of problems such as difficulties by the educational system itself, by the teacher, and by the students. For example, Li (1998) explained that the difficulties in implementing CLT in South Korea were the curricular innovations in the differences between the underlying educational theories of South Korea and curricular innovations of Western countries, large classes, grammar-based examinations, insufficient funding, and a lack of support for teacher education undermine the implementation of this approach. Moreover, Burnaby and Sun (1989) report that teachers in China found it difficult to use CLT. The constraints cited include the context of the wider curriculum, traditional teaching methods, class sizes and schedules, resources and equipment, the low status of teachers who teach communicative rather than analytical skills, and English teachers' deficiencies in oral English and sociolinguistic and strategic competence. These two statements from different researchers illustrate the ideas, and beliefs which have made this of study more precise with the same results.
Studies of the teachers' perspectives on implementation CLT tend to approach more challenges of teacher teaching methods in the classroom in different settings, culture, and social educational beliefs. A large group of studies examined ESL/EFL teachers' perspectives stated that despite the widespread adoption of CLT in ESL countries, research (Ellis, 1996; Li, 1998; and Shoenberg, 2000) reports that the adoption of CLT in EFL countries has generally been rife with difficulties. However, despite obstacles such as teachers' beliefs, inadequate CLT guidelines, and non-explicit grammar instruction, several countries have attempted to promote CLT in their foreign language classrooms (Sato and Kleinsasser, 1999). According to Li's interviews with Korean secondary school teachers, 1998; Bataineh and Thabet's (2008) questionnaires, and observation checklist revealed that the respondents perceive large classes, shortage of funding, lack of teachers' and supervisors' CLT training, and the discouraging cultural view of CLT to be the major obstacles which must be resolved prior to the implementation of communicative techniques. These various approaches have been used to examine the different perspectives from ESL/EFL teachers in some part of the world who feel more concerned about the effectiveness to employ CLT. Moreover, the perspectives outcomes are almost uniformly consistent in the ways of thinking in terms of class sized, grammar-based instruction, insufficient funding, lack of motivation for developing communication competence, and the lack of teachers' CLT training.
From Li's (1998) precisely research topic interviewing with Korean secondary school teachers claimed that "It's always more difficult than you plan and imagine" in introducing the communicative approach. Interestingly, there were numerous beliefs, ideas, and perspectives have been explored extensively on CLT by many researchers or educational (Ellis, 1996; Li, 1998; Sato and Kleinsasser, 1999; Shoenberg, 2000; Bataineh and Thabet, 2008). However, there are still remained loopholes from their research whether the variable research's results can be taken into as the general thought from ESL teachers or just only represent to the specific thought from Korean teachers. Meanwhile, in response to the possibilities of CLT teachers' perspectives, a proposed research topic will be administered in order to deeply explore the variable obstacles or different notions amongst ESL/EFL teachers like learning and teaching in Cambodia context.
Due to the scarcity of information and literatures related to communicative language teaching study in Cambodia, the proposed study will also constitute a stepping stone for other researchers to the literature on CLT. Its contribution to the Cambodian educational context is hoped to be significant for it deals with the obstacles and perspectives facing the adoption of CLT into the English classrooms. In addition, the findings are hoped to contribute the information and encourage Cambodian practitioners with CLT like in-service teacher/ supervisor, educational minister, school board, students who are getting involve with CLT or have the ideas of teaching method to better enable them to work with CLT in the qualification of new outcomes.
The main objective attempt to find out the different perspectives of EFL teachers on communicative language teaching in Cambodia educational context in the three main types: teacher factors, learner factor and educational factor which comprise the cornerstone in developing the quality of English communication competence inside and outside the classroom. More than that, the study aims to distinguish the outcomes from the previous studies in different countries especially in Asian with the outcomes appearing in Cambodia learning and teaching context, and to familiarize the findings to the involved audiences: researchers, teachers, school boards, supervisors, students, and educational minister.