Taking Someones Words And Presenting As Own English Language Essay

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Understanding what is and is not plagiarism can be confusing so it is important to ask your lecturer if you are not sure. Plagiarism is a very serious offence and the penalties for it can be severe.

It is not acceptable to copy something out of a book, journal, website or any other printed source without stating clearly where you got it from. It does not matter if it is only a sentence or a phrase. If it is not your words, either do not use it or put it in quotes (as I have done in the definition above) and reference it.

There are different methods for referencing work but what matters is that the reader can tell which words are yours and which are someone else's. Referencing will also show where you got your information from. When you state a fact, unless it is "general knowledge," (such as the statement that water boils at 100 degrees) you must always say where it comes from.

LSC Policy on Plagiarism

Any student that is found to have plagiarised someone else's work will automatically receive a 'Fail' grade for their work and a formal warning. Presenting someone else's work as your own is dishonest and is a very serious offence. LSC takes plagiarism very seriously and will take action against anyone found to have committed it in any of their work. Repeat offences of Plagiarism could result in a student being withdrawn from their studies.

What is referencing?

As a University student you are expected to refer to the work of other authors to support your ideas. When you do this, you must say whose work you are using by citing it (writing brief details in brackets) in the text of your assignment and also in a list at the end of your assignment.

If something is personal to you, such as talking about your work experience or is your personal view on a subject, then this is your own work and does not require referencing. However, if you are writing something that you have read about, even if you paraphrase (change some of the words) or summarise, then you must state from where you got that information.

References must be provided whenever you use someone else's opinions, theories, data or organisation of material. You need to reference information from books, articles, videos, web sites, images, computers and any other sources.

A reference is required if you:

paraphrase (use someone else's ideas in your own words)

summarise (use a brief account of someone else's ideas)

quote (use someone else's exact words)

copy (use someone else's figures, tables or structure)

Over-Referencing

When you submit an assignment you are graded on your original contributions so your answers and responses should be composed mainly of your own words. Being able to demonstrate that you can research relevant material and reference it in your work will earn you higher grades, but alone it is not enough to provide a proper response. Be careful not to include too much of someone else's work and not enough of your own as this will also earn you a 'Fail' grade. Your assignment should be made up of at least 50% of your own words. If you submit an assignment that is made up of material that has been copied, you are not showing that you understand the subject. All you are demonstrating is that you can repeat what the textbooks say.

The Harvard Referencing Guide

The Harvard Referencing Guide is the method of referencing you are required to use at LSC. It helps you to use citations and references in your work in a systematic way.

There are two parts to referencing when using the Harvard System:

1. Citing in the text of your work

2. Full bibliographic references at the end of your work

Citing in the text of your work

When you refer to another document you must acknowledge this within the text of your work, by citing the author's surname, date of publication, and page number.

For example:

When paraphrasing:

Artificial intelligence may be defined as the branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behaviour (Lugar, 2001, p.1).

When quoting:

Chang (2003, p.77) stated that "Korean companies have been traditionally characterized by long-term contracts and seniority-based management."

For Websites:

If you are citing a web page you should use the author and date of publication (as shown above), and where there is no author on the website you should cite by the title. If neither author nor title is available use the URL.

For example:

The Marketing Trends Survey (http://www.cim.co.uk, 2006) revealed that a company's sustainability practices will increasingly affect the customers buying decisions.

Full Bibliographic Reference List

Bibliographical references given at the end of the text should identify the publications referred to in your text citations. In your reference list, the first two parts, the authors surname and the date, provide the link to the citation you made in the text and should appear at the end of your work in alphabetical order.

Books and other printed works

If you are referencing a book or a report, you should include the following information, in this order:

Author(s) or editor(s)

The date of publication (in brackets)

The title and any subtitle, which should be in italics

Series title and number (if they appear)

The edition if it is not the first

Place of publication

Publisher

For example:

Lugar, G.F. (2001) Artificial intelligence: structures and strategies for complex problem solving. 4th ed. Boston: Addison Wesley.

Conference papers

Author of paper

Date of publication

Title of paper (in quotation marks)

Editor(s) (if they appear)

Title of conference: subtitle (including location and date of conference) (in italics)

Place of publication

Publisher

Pagination for the paper

For example:

Fedchak, E. & Duvall, L. (1996) 'An engineering approach to electronic publishing'. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Multimedia Software Development, 25-26 March, Berlin.

Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press, pp.80-88.

Electronic Books

Author

Year of publication of book (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Name of ebook supplier

Online (in square brackets)

Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

For example:

Shea, D. & Holzschlag, M.E. (2005) The zen of css design: visual enlightenment for the web, Safari Tech Books Online [Online]. Available at: http://proquestcombo.safaribooksonline.com/0321303474/ch01lev2sec4 (Accessed: 18 April 2007).

Journal articles (accessed in hard copy format)

The author(s) of the article

The month and year of publication (in brackets)

The title of the article (in quotation marks)

If you are referencing an editorial put [editorial]

The title of the journal, which must be in italics

The volume and part number

The first and last page numbers of the article

For example:

Chang, E. (2003) 'Composite effects of extrinsic motivation on work effort: case of Korean employees'. Journal of World Business, 38 (1), February, pp.70-79.

Note: Manuscripts that have been accepted for publication but are not yet published should be cited with "(In press)" following the journal title.

Electronic journal articles (accessed online)

A reference to an ejournal, including those that have come from an ejournal collection, such as ABI/INFORM Select, Emerald Fulltext, Science Direct, should include the following information in this order:

The author(s) of the article

Date of publication

The title of the article (in quotation marks)

The title of the journal, which must be in italics

Volume number and issue numbers

Name of ejournal collection if applicable (in italics) [Online]

State where the article is available online from

Accessed: followed by the date accessed (round brackets)

For example:

Al-Madhoun, M. & Analoui, F. (2004) 'Developing SME managers under fire: negotiating obstacles and weaknesses in Palestine', Journal of Management Development, 23 (5), pp.479-495, IngentaConnect [Online]. Available from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com (Accessed: 9 September 2007)

 

Documents Found on Web Pages

The author(s), editor(s) or corporate author(s) of the document (if they can be identified)

Date of publication

The title of the document, which must be in italics (or the first few words of the document if the title is not clear) [Online]

Place of publication

Publisher

Available from: followed by the URL

Accessed: followed by the date the document was accessed (in round brackets)

For example:

Pears, R. & Shields, G. (1995) Cite them right: referencing made easy. [Online] Northumbria: Northumbria University. Available from: http://www.unn.ac.uk/central/isd/cite/index.htm (Accessed: 21 May 2004).

URLs (internet addresses)

When citing from the internet:

Be consistent throughout. Fit with the Harvard style as this is the method that you have used for other sources of information.

Many Web documents do not give an author. If the information is not explicit you may find it in the header of the HTML encoded text (although that may reflect who "marked up" the document, rather than who actually wrote it.)  You can view the header by choosing the option to view document source. Otherwise use the title as the main reference point as you would with any anonymous work.

If a document on the web is a series of linked pages - what is the title of the document? You should cite the page you are quoting from but refer to the website tile.

You should cite the date the document was last updated if this is apparent, or the date when you accessed it.

For example:

Financial Services Authority (2005). What we do. [Online]. Available from: http://www.fsa.gov.uk/Pages/About/What/index.shtml (Accessed: 2 February 2007).

Emails

When citing emails it is important that you get the permission of the sender of the email before citing it.

Sender

Sender's email address ( in brackets)

Day, month and year the email was sent

Subject of message in italics

The words Email to followed by the recipient's name

Recipient's e-mail address (in brackets)

For example:

Jones, S. (SJones@world.ac.uk), 20 June 2007. Re: How to cite an email. Email to P. Smith (p.smith@world.ac.uk).

List Alphabetically

All your references should be included at the end of your work in alphabetical order by surname.

For example:

Al-Madhoun, M. & Analoui, F. (2004) 'Developing SME managers under fire: negotiating obstacles and weaknesses in Palestine', Journal of Management Development, 23 (5), pp.479-495, IngentaConnect [Online]. Available from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/ (Accessed: 9 September 2007)

Chang, E. (2003) 'Composite effects of extrinsic motivation on work effort: case of Korean employees'. Journal of World Business, 38 (1), February, pp.70-79.

Fedchak, E. & Duvall, L. (1996) 'An engineering approach to electronic publishing'. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Multimedia Software Development, 25-26 March, Berlin. Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press, pp.80-88.

Financial Services Authority (2005). What we do. [Online]. Available from: http://www.fsa.gov.uk/Pages/About/What/index.shtml (Accessed: 2 February 2007).

Jones, S. (SJones@world.ac.uk), 20 June 2007. Re:How to cite an email. Email to P. Smith (p.smith@world.ac.uk).

Lugar, G.F. (2001) Artificial intelligence: structures and strategies for complex problem solving. 4th ed. Boston: Addison Wesley.

Pears, R. & Shields, G. (1995) Cite them right: referencing made easy. [Online] Northumbria: Northumbria University. Available from: http://www.unn.ac.uk/central/isd/cite/index.htm (Accessed: 21 May 2007).

Shea, D. & Holzschlag, M.E. (2005) The zen of css design: visual enlightenment for the web, Safari Tech Books Online [Online]. Available at: http://proquestcombo.safaribooksonline.com/0321303474/ch01lev2sec4 (Accessed: 18 April 2007).

Further Information

If you have any doubts about how to cite and reference your work you should discus this with your lecturer. Students are expected to use this method of referencing for ALL of their work so it is important that you get this right. Further resources area available here:

LSC Library - ask the librarian for information about the Harvard Referencing Guide.

UWIC Website - http://www.uwic.ac.uk/Library/electronic/eref/referencinglitsearch.htm

Here you will find useful information for using Harvard as well as links to other sources.