The researcher would like to express her appreciation towards the following, for their valuable inputs which have played a key role in successful completion of this project.
Mr Shamsundar Nikkam, module leader, who provided me with the opportunity to undertake this research topic and help me maintain the focus of research topic and help me maintain the focus of research work herein.
Lastly the respondents for the spending their valuable time in answering the questionnaires.
Water has been used since antiquity as a symbol to express devotion and purity. Some cultures, like the ancient Greeks, went as far to worship the gods who are supposed to live in and control of water. Entire cities were built by considering the location and availability of drinking water. The meeting place was around the well, which is perhaps the next trend in digging wells in the second row of seats.
We are a blue planet, and the mark of life on Earth is water. But where this colourless, odourless liquid comes first?
Recent discoveries in astrophysics suggest that water is not native to Earth, but were imported from the edges of our solar system hit the ice in comets. Scientists believe that water was first made here, there are over four million years. During the meteor shower that gave the moon most of its craters, Earth has received more than five hundred times “hits” of their moon not because the planet has a critical mass larger than its satellite Earth has been able to take over much of the water ice.
Ice traps comets noble gases, and a cocktail of chemicals such as silicates, carbons, and interplanetary dust, so that these elements have probably always been present in ground water. (Comets may have also introduced amino acids, the components of the activity of bioengineering, earth.)
Finally, water is one of the largest sub-Earth, but for civilization to advance, must be controlled. This process began some ten thousand years ago with the development of agriculture, which requires the capture, storage and distribution of water.
Type of Water
Spring water: the ever popular “spring water” is defined as bottled water from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the surface of the earth. To qualify as spring water, which must be eliminated at source or through a hole tapping the underground formation feeding the source? If the collection process uses some sort of external force, water must be the same stratum in the spring and must retain the same quality and physical properties of water that flows naturally from one source to the surface.
Purified water: This is a type of drinking water has been treated with processes such as distillation, deionization or reverse osmosis. Basically, it just means that bacteria and dissolved solids were removed from the water by some process, making it “purified.” This type of bottled water is often labelled as purified water, but can also be labelled for the specific process used to produce, for example, reverse osmosis water or distilled water to drink. Many brands of bottled water is actually purified water. Mineral water: Mineral water contains not less than 250 parts per million total dissolved solids and is defined by its constant level and relative proportions of minerals and trace elements to the point source output. No minerals may be added to water.
Sparkling Bottled Water: This type of water contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that was when it left its source. Soda water can be labelled as bottled drinking sparkling water, mineral water, spring water, etc. Artesian water / artesian well water; the water comes from an artesian well, so it takes a confined aquifer groundwater aquifers or sand rock where the water level is above the top of the aquifer. Well water: Well water is exactly what it sounds like water from a hole in the ground that taps the water source. Municipal / Water: running water such right at home. While tap water is not regulated by the FDA. Tap water is generally of excellent quality, however, many people prefer the taste and enjoy the convenience of bottled water, which in most cases undergo additional processing and often retains the pleasant characteristics of its natural source.
Different brands of water from world
Bling H2O is sold as a high-end, fashionable bottled water, Bling H2O was created by Hollywood writer-producer Kevin G. Boyd. After spending time on studio lots observing celebrities treat their bottled water as a fashion accessory, Boyd decided to create the Cristal of bottled water. The brand features frosted bottles decorated with Swarovski crystals. The water contained in the bottle comes from a Tennessee spring and is purified in a nine-step process that includes ozone, ultraviolet treatment and micro-filtration. It retails at â‚¬45 (~$65-70) for just 750ml.
OGO - OXY WATER
OGO still water is a leading premium bottled oxygenated water and instantly recognisable by its minimalistic, futuristic bottle design.
OGO Still Oxygen water comes from a natural spring, complemented by a natural oxygenation process. The result is a smooth, delicate and refreshing taste. Tasting OGO oxygenated water is a sensory experience, the oxygen stimulating your taste buds making OGO the ideal companion for fine foods and wine.
Perrier is a brand of bottled mineral water made from a spring in Vergèze in the Gard département of France. The spring is naturally carbonated. Both the water and natural carbonic gas are captured independently and in the bottling process, the carbonic gas is added so that the level of carbonation in bottled Perrier is the same as the water of the Vergèze spring.
Perrier is available in Europe in one litre, 750 ml, and 500 ml bottles, and in 330 ml cans. All Perrier bottles are green and have a distinctive shape. It is one of the most common bottled waters in France
One of the finest mineral waters, Badoit is a light natural sparkling mineral water. The gourmet's mineral water, seen on the tables of most restaurants in France as an accompaniment to good food and wine.
As Badoit water pushes its way up from a deep water table through a 500-metre fissure in the local granite, it surfaces with a light natural sparkle and a measure of sodium bicarbonate and fluoride, having a lightening effect on even the richest meal.
Starting life at London's top hotels in 1989, Ty Nant rapidly gained recognition as a premium product and today it can be ordered in many of the world's leading hotels, clubs and fine restaurants. Ty nant is a completely natural mineral water abstracted directly from an aquifer consisting of metamorphic mudstones, siltstones and sandstones of Silurian age (approximately 450,000,000 years old.) The water's chemistry is monitored daily. The land has been managed to organic principals for the last 10 years. The quality of the water is maintained by protecting the integrity of the source and the production process, in a factory designed to have as low an environmental impact as possible.
Bisleri was originally an Italian company created by Felice Bisleri, who first brought the idea of selling bottled water in India. Bisleri then was introduced in Mumbai in glass bottles in two varieties - bubbly & still in 1965.
Bisleri is a brand of bottled water in India. Bisleri has 60% market share in packaged drinking water in India.
It is available in 8 pack sizes: 250ml cups, 250ml bottles, 500ml, 1 litre, 1.5 litre, 2 litre, 5 litre, and 20 litre. Its operations run throughout the subcontinent of India and are one of the leading bottled water supplying companies in India. As of 2007[update], Bisleri has 8 plants & 11 franchisees all over India. The brand name Bisleri is so popular in India that it is used as generic name for bottled water
Pairing water with food
Linking with bottled water, all food would be impossible and will certainly fun to experiment with different combinations. The rules listed below were taken when the water is only drink like a serving of food. The percentage indicates the maximum weight that factor should be given to your choice. The rules are as follows-:
- the 75 percent rule: This rule states that the feeling that the whole dish should be mashed with the water level of carbonation. The mouth feel generated by the bubbles of water should go hand in hand with the mouth feel of the dish. Strong, big, fat bubbles dishes of water should be more subtle. The water in combination with a meal can take a epicurean delight in carefully compare the mouth feel of a flat water with carbonation. Sushi with fizzy or sparkling water, even the light is a perfect example.
- The 20 percent rule: This rule states that the dominant food of the antenna must adapt to the mineral content of water. Low water TDS have a light, sometimes acute, while the perception of higher levels of TDS give the water a little weight and substance. High levels of sodium (salt), baking soda and silica may also have some impact on the perception of water. Using sodium-free water with caviar and water with high bicarbonate for cheese. Softer water (low calcium and magnesium) with higher rates of silica can combine well with desserts.
- The 5 percent rule: matching acidity or alkalinity of water can give a consumer experience. At neutral pH and works with anything. Sometimes a perception of sweetness is possible in a slightly alkaline water, while water with high pH may show a very subtle bitterness, but never unpleasant. Acidic water can be, along with fatty foods or seafood
- In Mexico, hot chocolate made with water, without milk.* Water is boiled and the hot chocolate is added. Mexicans are not the only ones that mix the water and chocolate. Maribel Lieberman, born in France, Marie-Belle of New York Chocolate and Michael Recchiuti San Francisco, two of the best chocolatiers in America direct customers to mix the hot chocolate mix expensive ($ 25.00 a can) with water, no milk.
Difference in spring water and mineral water
Spring water is similar to well water because they are both produced from the area of rock underneath the surface of earth which absorbs and holds water, this place is known as natural aquifers. Spring water, however, continues naturally to the surface. Spring water is considered to be very good water to drink. This water can de drunk during and after exercise or throughout the day. Spring water is naturally rich in trace minerals where as bottlers may use some natural processes such as reverse osmosis to improve water quality.
Some municipality's uses spring water as a source for their tap water but the water is processed with chemicals and more advanced filtration systems. Spring water is perhaps the best water for health benefits and rehydration. It has good taste but on the other hand it is fairly expensive at the stores in comparison to the mineral water.
Mineral water is most common type of water used in our daily life. Mineral water comes from a natural well or spring but it must contain a specified amount of trace minerals so that it can be drinkable. Mineral water contains minerals such as calcium and magnesium which both are essential for our body and for our good health.
There is no difference between sparkling and non sparkling mineral water except for the concentration of carbon dioxide while processing and bottling them. The amount of minerals to be added in water should be in specific amount so that it is drinkable. Most of the popular verities of mineral water are bottled in Europe and United Kingdom and is then exported to the other countries. Mineral water may be more of a treat than daily refreshment, but it does not offer some health benefits. Some may find the taste to be harsher than traditional water, but many bottlers offer flavoured verities that may be more palatable.
Role of water in food production
The role of water in food production cannot be over emphasised. All over the world food production is considered to be the most water consuming activity, accounting for more than 80% of fresh water withdrawal.
On global scenario the food production patterns are changing rapidly. Hence water plays an important role in food production. Water is a very important resource as 60% of worlds food production evolves on it. The entire meat production from grazing relies on drinking water.
Food production worldwide will depend on water
Food and water consumption
Food consumption can be defined as the amount of food available for human consumption. Sometimes, food consumption is less than the amount of food available for wastage and losses during food storage, cooking, etc.
With a population of about 6 billion, food consumption has become a growing concern. As World Bank statistics, the increase in world population by more than 200,000 people daily and has an impact on world food consumption.
Most of the water consumed by modern civilization is used to produce food. While there are systems for water reuse in agriculture and production, must be reviewed and updated to keep pace with the growth rate of world population.
The National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, notes that 1000 gallons of water to grow and process each kilo of food per person in the United States each year. According to the FDA, the average person consumes 1500 pounds of food each year. Therefore, approximately 1.5 million gallons of water are necessary to process food for one person each year.
Food and water are two basic human needs. However, global coverage figures for 2002 indicate that about 10 people:
- approximately 5 have a connection to piped water at home (in your home, land or patio);
- 3 using a different type of water, such as protected well or public standpipe.
- 2 of which lack them.
Interesting facts about water
- Drinking too much water causes the sodium levels in the bloodstream to dilute causing imbalance of water in your brain. This is called ‘water intoxication'.
- How much water is needed to process the most common of our foods and drinks? for a barrel of beer it is about 5700 litres; for one chicken it is 44 litres; a barrel of crude oil needs 7000 litres of water to refine it; and about 35 litres of water are used to process a can of vegetables or fruits.
- Water is the only substance on earth that is naturally found in all its three states: solid (ice), liquid (water) and gas (steam or vapour).
- 884 million people, lack access to safe water supplies, approximately one in eight people.
- Less than 1% of the world's fresh water (or about 0.007% of all water on earth) is readily accessible for direct human use.
- The daily requirement of water for sanitation, bathing, and cooking needs, as well as for assuring survival, is about 13.2 gallons per person.