As cited in Nonverbal communication (2007), Knapp (1990) discusses that it might be better to use symbols or signs in environments when vocal communication is impossible. This could be because of loud noises or for maintaining the traffic. sentence too long?. A common example of replacing spoken messages would be communication in a construction facility, when work is in progress people resort to gestures rather than words. Another function is sometimes the message you're trying to send is awkward. In such circumstance even though you know what you expressed, but it is quite often misinterpreted by the other party (Jandt, 2007). An example of sending uncomfortable messages would be, when you are trying to express your feelings to some one of the opposite sex. Rather than speaking aloud, you tend to communicate of your needs and feelings through your eyes as well as touch and hugs.
The functionality which comes to play when you are indirectly trying to manage an image you give to other people. This image can be utilized to guide communication (Jandt, 2007) - sentence too long!. For an example, the type of attire you would wear on a date is an effort to send a message to your date about who you are.
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Another role of communication substitutes verbal communication - doesn't make any sense?, through nonverbal communication, to effectively show what kind of relationship you have with the other person (Jandt, 2007). An example of making relationships clear would be how students stand up once a teacher enters into the class room as a sign of respect.
When you interact, in order not to come off looking rude or stupid, it is better to use non verbal communication - any better way of structuring the sentence? (Jandt, 2007). As cited in Nonverbal Communication (1972), Sheflen (1964,1965) indicates that " a communicator may use changes in posture, eye contact, to indicate that he is about to make a new point, he is assuming an attitude relative to several points being made by himself or his addressee or he wishes to temporarily remove himself from the communication process" (p.5) An example of regulating interaction is how people clear their throat to try and get the attention of someone nearby or if two people are having a conversation to interject.
Finally the last function is when you emphasise what you're trying to say through the usage of non verbal communication. This function can be used, either in a positive or negative manner - possible change the sentence structure? (Jandt, 2007). An example of this would be when you're describing the height of a person to use your hand as an indication of an approximate height, reinforcing the verbal messages used. While on the other hand when you're insulting a person you can use non verbal gestures to reinforce the message in a negative manner.
The first form of nonverbal communication is proxemics; as cited in Nonverbal communication (2007), Edward Hall states that "we exist inside an invisible 'bubble' or personal space" (p.104). This space is dependent upon our culture, family upbringing, situations and relationship we share with the people to whom we communicate with. As cited in Review of research in Education (1983), Sommer (1969) suggested that teachers make assumptions about students depending on where they sit in the classroom. The front rows containing the students whom are keen to learn while the back row filled with troublemakers.
Fred Jandt defines Kinesics as "gestures, body movements, facial expressions and eye contact" (p. 105). If we look at the usage in terms of eyes, it can at many times lead to a misunderstanding in an interpersonal encounter. If we take Pakeha children as an instance, they are taught to look straight into the eye of someone when they are communicating with that person, especially if it is their superior. It has been widely regarded by Pakehas that standing up is a sign of respect, it is quite common in both public and private people sitting down in a room stand up when someone well respected comes in (Metge and Kinloch, c1975).
Chronemics is the way in which we observe and utilize time (Jandt, 2007). As cited in Nonverbal Communication in Close Relationships (2006), Leathers (1997) noted that people may become irritated when their partner turns up late for a significant banquet congregation; the lateness is a theoretical concept as is the time itself. When thinking of an example this differs in different cultures as some think of time as linear flow from the past to the present to the future while others think of time to be cyclical. The nonverbal elements of voice are known as the paralanguage, which would include vocal characteristics like laughter and sobs (Jandt, 2007). According to Seligman, Tucker and Lambert's (1972) student's speech value, physical appearance and writing styles determined what kind of impression they had on teachers. If they were attractive and had a good voice they were judged to be quite intelligent, passionate and more successful academically in comparison to student's who had neither of the qualities. A great example of this would be whistling, which is considered offensive by some cultures.
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Silence is also regarded as another form of nonverbal communication. This type of communication can be regarded as a form of agreement, repressed hostility, and sometimes understood as respect which is commonly found in Eastern countries (Jandt, 2007). An example of this is when a teacher asks a student to stand up and answer a question on the board, the silence is a clear message to the teacher that the student does not know the answer. Haptics is the study of communication through the use of touch, which is quite different from one culture to the next. For example in Saudi Arabia, a greeting between two adult males is a hug and a kiss on each cheek which would be misinterpreted by Americans that they are both gay (Jandt, 2007).
A more obvious type of communication would be using the clothing and physical appearance, since what people wear is very different across the world and so does the meanings which they hold. This can show cultural heritage (Jandt, 2007). An example of clothing would be the burqa which women whom are Muslim where, symbolising in their own country, their faith in God, but in a country like America where it is less common, it could be misinterpreted as a woman covering her face to hide something. Territoriality is the way in which messages are conveyed through how space is used. (Jandt, 2007). An example of this is the. The final type of nonverbal communication is Olfactics, which is the way in which communication is made through the nose, by smelling. It would also be one of the least understood senses (Jandt, 2007). To Maoris, sniffing specifies a confession and apology for a blunder rather than scorn (Metge and Kinloch, c1975). As cited in Nonverbal Communication in Close Relationships (2006), Leathers (1997) identified that perfume might have an impact on people's impressions and communication even though it is invisible. For an example, inhaling with your nose deeply with your eyes closed, expresses that whatever you smell, is divine.
In conclusion, nonverbal communication is described as the person's actions and characteristics that aren't limited to just vocal messages. The functions of this can be divided into firstly replacing spoken language and using gestures to emphasise and modify verbal messages. Secondly of all to create an impression to guide communication and using nonverbal communication to express uncomfortable messages. Lastly, you can use nonverbal communication to regulate interaction as well as to indirectly indicate relationship status. Whilst the key forms include observation and usage of time, gestures, body movements, facial expressions and eye contact, nonverbal elements of voice Silence use of touch the clothing and physical appearance utilization of space communication made through the nose, by smelling. Different types of non verbal communication sends different messages to different cultures, some offend while others can complement people.